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Encyclopedia > Meteorite

A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earth's surface without being destroyed. While in space it is called a meteoroid. When it enters the atmosphere, air resistance causes the body to heat up and emit light, thus forming a fireball, also known as a meteor or shooting star. The term bolide refers to either an extraterrestrial body that collides with the Earth, or to an exceptionally bright, fireball-like meteor regardless of whether it ultimately impacts the surface. The meteorite is the source of the light. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 2100 KB) If you want to use this file commercially, you have to do this under the terms of the GFDL. File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 2100 KB) If you want to use this file commercially, you have to do this under the terms of the GFDL. File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Willamette Meteorite The Willamette Meteorite was discovered in the American state of Oregon, and is the largest meteorite ever found in the United States, and the sixth largest in the world. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... “Meteor” redirects here. ... For a solid object moving through a fluid or gas, drag is the sum of all the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces in the direction of the external fluid flow. ... Look up fireball in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Photo of a burst of meteors with extended exposure time A meteor is the visible path of a meteoroid that enters the Earths (or another bodys) atmosphere, commonly called a shooting star or falling star. ...


More generally, a meteorite on the surface of any celestial body is an object that has come from elsewhere in space. Meteorites have been found on the Moon[1][2] and Mars.[3] This article is about Earths moon. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


Meteorites that are recovered after being observed as they transited the atmosphere or impacted the Earth are called falls. All other meteorites are known as finds. As of mid-2006, there are approximately 1,050 witnessed falls having specimens in the world's collections. In contrast, there are over 31,000 well-documented meteorite finds[4]. Meteorite falls are those meteorites that were witnessed by people or automated devices as they transitted the atmosphere or impacted the Earth, and were subsequently collected. ...


Meteorites are always named for the place where they were found,[5] usually a nearby town or geographic feature. In cases where many meteorites were found in one place, the name may be followed by a number or letter (e.g., Allan Hills 84001 or Dimmitt (b)).


Meteorites have traditionally been divided into three broad categories: stony meteorites are rocks, mainly composed of silicate minerals; iron meteorites are largely composed of metallic iron-nickel; and, stony-iron meteorites contain large amounts of both metallic and rocky material. Modern classification schemes divide meteorites into groups according to their structure, chemical and isotopic composition and mineralogy. See Meteorites classification. Iron meteorites consist overwhelmingly of nickel-iron alloys. ... Meteorites are classified according to their structure and mineral composition. ...

Contents

Fall phenomena

Meteorite which fell in Wisconsin in 1868 (Full image)


Most meteoroids disintegrate when entering the Earth's atmosphere. However an estimated 500 meteorites ranging in size from marbles to basketballs or larger do reach the surface each year; only 5 or 6 of these are typically recovered and made known to scientists. Few meteorites are large enough to create impact craters. Instead, they typically arrive at the surface at their terminal velocity (free-fall) and, at most, create a small pit. Even so, falling meteorites have reportedly caused damage to property, livestock and people. meteorite cropped from Image:Increase Lapham. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... Tycho crater on Earths moon. ... For other uses, see Terminal velocity (disambiguation). ...

Campo del Cielo iron meteorite with natural hole

Very large meteoroids may strike the ground with a significant fraction of their cosmic velocity, leaving behind a hypervelocity impact crater. The kind of crater will depend on the size, composition, degree of fragmentation, and incoming angle of the impactor. The force of such collisions has the potential to cause widespread destruction.[6][7] The most frequent hypervelocity cratering events on the Earth are caused by iron meteoroids, which are most easily able to transit the atmosphere intact. Examples of craters caused by iron meteoroids include Barringer Meteor Crater, Odessa Meteor Crater, Wabar craters, and Wolfe Creek crater; iron meteorites are found in association with all of these craters. In contrast, even relatively large stony or icy bodies like small comets or asteroids, up to millions of tons, are disrupted in the atmosphere, and do not make impact craters.[8] Although such disruption events are uncommon, they can cause a considerable concussion to occur; the famed Tunguska event probably resulted from such an incident. Very large stony objects, hundreds of meters in diameter or more, weighing tens-of-millions of tons or more, can reach the surface and cause large craters, but are very rare. Such events are generally so energetic that the impactor is completely destroyed, leaving no meteorites. (The very first example of a stony meteorite found in association with a large impact crater, the Morokweng crater in South Africa, was reported in May 2006.[9]) Image File history File links Campo-iron-meteorite. ... Image File history File links Campo-iron-meteorite. ... Hypervelocity is usually refered to a very high velocity, such as over 10,000 feet per second. ... For the crater on the Moon, see the Lunar Barringer crater The Barringer Crater, also known as the Meteor Crater, is a famous impact crater created by a meteorite, located about 55 kilometers east of Flagstaff in the northern USA). ... The Odessa Meteor Crater is a meteor crater near the city of Odessa, Texas,United States. ... The Wabar craters are meteorite craters found by accident by an explorer searching for the legendary city of Ubar The vast desert wasteland of southern Saudi Arabia known as the Empty Quarter, or Rub al Khali in Arabic, is one of the most desolate places on Earth. ... Wolfe Creek is a meteor crater (astrobleme) in Western Australia, Australia. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... Trees felled by the Tunguska blast. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Morokweng is a meteor crater in South Africa. ...


Several phenomena are well-documented during witnessed meteorite falls too small to produce hypervelocity craters. [10] The fireball that occurs as the meteoroid passes through the atmosphere can appear to be very bright, rivaling the sun in intensity, although most are far dimmer and may not even be noticed during daytime. Various colors have been reported, including yellow, green and red. Flashes and bursts of light can occur as the object breaks up. Explosions, detonations, and rumblings are often heard during meteorite falls, which can be caused by sonic booms as well as shock waves resulting from major fragmentation events. These sounds can be heard over wide areas, up to many thousands of square km. Whistling and hissing sounds are also sometimes heard, but are poorly understood. Following passage of the fireball, it is not unusual for a dust trail to linger in the atmosphere for some time. A sonic boom produced by an airplane moving at twice the speed of caramel cheese. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ...


As meteoroids are heated during passage through the atmosphere, their surfaces melt and experience ablation. They can be sculpted into various shapes during this process, sometimes resulting in deep "thumb-print" like indentations on their surfaces called regmaglypts. If the meteoroid maintains a fixed orientation for some time, without tumbling, it may develop a conical "nose cone" or "heat shield" shape. As it decelerates, eventually the molten surface layer solidifies into a thin fusion crust, which on most meteorites is black (on some achondrites, the fusion crust may be very light colored). On stony meteorites, the heat-affected zone is at most a few mm deep; in iron meteorites, which are more thermally conductive, the structure of the metal may be affected by heat up to 1 cm below the surface. Meteorites are sometimes reported to be warm to the touch when they land, but they are never hot. Reports, however, vary greatly, with some meteorites being reported as "burning hot to the touch" upon landing, and others forming a frost upon their surface. Ablation is defined as the removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes. ...


Meteoroids that experience disruption in the atmosphere may fall as meteorite showers, which can range from only a few up to thousands of separate individuals. The area over which a meteorite shower falls is known as its strewn field. Strewn fields are commonly elliptical in shape, with the major axis parallel to the direction of flight. In most cases, the largest meteorites in a shower are found farthest down-range in the strewn field. For other uses, see Ellipse (disambiguation). ...


Meteorite types

About 86% of the meteorites that fall on Earth are chondrites,[4][11][12] which are named for the small, round particles they contain. These particles, or chondrules, are composed mostly of silicate minerals that appear to have been melted while they were free-floating objects in space. Chondrites also contain small amounts of organic matter, including amino acids, and presolar grains. Chondrites are typically about 4.55 billion years old and are thought to represent material from the asteroid belt that never formed into large bodies. Like comets, chondritic asteroids are some of the oldest and most primitive materials in the solar system. Chondrites are often considered to be "the building blocks of the planets". A specimen of the NWA 869 chondrite (type L4-6), showing chondrules and metal flakes Chondrites are stony meteorites that have not been modified due to melting or differentiation of the parent body. ... Chondrules in the chondrite Grassland. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Presolar grains are tiny crystalline grains found in the fine-grained matrix of primitive meteorites, and are assumed to be older than the solar system. ... For details on the physical properties of bodies in the asteroid belt see Asteroid and Main-belt comet. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ...

Slice of meteorite on display at the Vanderbilt Museum, New York
Slice of meteorite on display at the Vanderbilt Museum, New York

About 8% of the meteorites that fall on Earth are achondrites, some of which appear to be similar to terrestrial mafic igneous rocks. Most achondrites are also ancient rocks, and are thought to represent crustal material of asteroids. One large family of achondrites (the HED meteorites) may have originated on the asteroid 4 Vesta. Others derive from different asteroids. Two small groups of achondrites are special, as they are younger and do not appear to come from the asteroid belt. One of these groups comes from the Moon, and includes rocks similar to those brought back to Earth by Apollo and Luna programs. The other group is almost certainly from Mars and are the only materials from other planets ever recovered by man. Image File history File links Prepared slice of a Nickel-Iron meteorite displaying characteristic crystalline structure known as Widmanstatten. ... Image File history File links Prepared slice of a Nickel-Iron meteorite displaying characteristic crystalline structure known as Widmanstatten. ... The Vanderbilt Museum is located in Centerport in Suffolk County, New York, USA. It is named for William K. Vanderbilt II and is located on the site of his 43-acre estate. ... “NY” redirects here. ... An Achondrite is a stony meteorite that is made of material similar to terrestrial basalts or plutonic rocks. ... Volcanic rock on North America Plutonic rock on North America Igneous rocks (etymology from latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... The Johnstown Diogenite. ... 4 Vesta (ves-ta) is the second most massive asteroid in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km and an estimated mass 12% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ... This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... The Luna programme (occasionally called Lunik) was a series of unmanned space missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


About 5% of meteorites that fall are iron meteorites with intergrowths of iron-nickel alloys, such as kamacite and taenite. Most iron meteorites are thought to come from the core of a number of asteroids that were once molten. As on Earth, the denser metal separated from silicate material and sank toward the center of the asteroid, forming a core. After the asteroid solidified, it broke up in a collision with another asteroid. Due to the near absence of irons from finds in collection areas such as Antarctica, where little, if any meteoric material that has fallen is not found, it is thought that, although irons constitute approximately 5% of recovered falls, they might actually be considerably less common than previously supposed. For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Kamacite is a mineral. ... Taenite is a mineral found naturally on Earth mostly in iron meteorites. ...


Stony-iron meteorites constitute the remaining 1%. They are a mixture of iron-nickel metal and silicate minerals. One type, called pallasites, is thought to have originated in the boundary zone above the core regions where iron meteorites originated. The other major type of stony-iron meteorites is the mesosiderites. In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... It has been suggested that Fukang Pallasite be merged into this article or section. ... Mesosidertes are a class of stony-iron meteorites consisting of about equal parts of metallic nickeliron and silicate. ...


Tektites (from Greek tektos, molten) are not themselves meteorites, but are rather natural glass objects up to a few centimeters in size which were formed--according to most scientists--by the impacts of large meteorites on Earth's surface. A few researchers have favored Tektites originating from the Moon as volcanic ejecta, but this theory has lost much of its support over the last few decades. Tektite Tektites (from Greek tektos, molten) are glass objects, up to a few centimeters in size, which may be formed by the impact of large meteorites on Earths surface. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


Meteorite recovery

Falls

Most meteorite falls are recovered on the basis of eye-witness accounts of the fireball or the actual impact of the object on the ground, or both. Therefore, despite the fact that meteorites actually fall with virtually equal probability everywhere on Earth, verified meteorite falls tend to be concentrated in areas with high human population densities such as Europe, Japan, and northern India. Meteorite falls are those meteorites that were witnessed by people or automated devices as they transitted the atmosphere or impacted the Earth, and were subsequently collected. ...


A small number of meteorite falls have been observed with automated cameras and recovered following calculation of the impact point. The first of these was the Pribram meteorite, which fell in Czechoslovakia (now the Czech Republic) in 1959.[13] In this case, two cameras used to photograph meteors captured images of the fireball. The images were used both to determine the location of the stones on the ground and, more significantly, to calculate for the first time an accurate orbit for a recovered meteorite. Location of Příbram within Czech Republic. ... Photo of a burst of meteors with extended exposure time A meteor is the visible path of a meteoroid that enters the Earths (or another bodys) atmosphere, commonly called a shooting star or falling star. ...


Following the Pribram fall, other nations established automated observing programs aimed at studying infalling meteorites. One of these was the Prairie Network, operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory from 1963 to 1975 in the midwestern US. This program also observed a meteorite fall, the Lost City chondrite, allowing its recovery and a calculation of its orbit.[14] Another program in Canada, the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project, ran from 1971 to 1985. It too recovered a single meteorite, Innisfree, in 1977.[15] Finally, observations by the European Fireball Network, a descendant of the original Czech program that recovered Pribram, led to the discovery and orbit calculations for the Neuschwanstein meteorite in 2002.[16] The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). ... Neuschwanstein seen from the Marienbrücke. ...


Finds

Until the 20th century, only a few hundred meteorite finds had ever been discovered. Over 80% of these were iron and stony-iron meteorites, which are easily distinguished from local rocks. To this day, few stony meteorites are reported each year that can be considered to be "accidental" finds. The reason there are now over 30,000 meteorite finds in the world's collections started with the discovery by Harvey H. Nininger that meteorites are much more common on the surface of the Earth than was previously thought. Harvey Harlow Nininger (1887-1986), American meteorite collector, self-taught meteoriticist and educator, revived interest in the scientific study of meteorites in the 1930s, and assembled the largest personal collection of meteorites up to that time. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


The Great Plains of the US

Nininger's strategy was to search for meteorites in the Great Plains of the United States, where the land was largely cultivated and the soil contained few rocks. Between the late 1920s and the 1950s, he traveled across the region, educating local people about what meteorites looked like and what to do if they thought they had found one, for example, in the course of clearing a field. The result was the discovery of over 200 new meteorites, mostly stony types.[17] The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ...


In the late 1960s, Roosevelt County, New Mexico in the Great Plains was found to be a particularly good place to find meteorites. After the discovery of a few meteorites in 1967, a public awareness campaign resulted in the finding of nearly 100 new specimens in the next few years, with many being found by a single person, Mr. Ivan Wilson. In total, nearly 140 meteorites were found in the region since 1967. In the area of the finds, the ground was originally covered by a shallow, loose soil sitting atop a hardpan layer. During the dustbowl era, the loose soil was blown off, leaving any rocks and meteorites that were present stranded on the exposed surface.[18] Roosevelt County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ... In soil science, agriculture and gardening, hardpan is a general term for a dense layer of soil, residing usually below the uppermost topsoil layer. ... Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas During the Great Depression, in portions of the North American Great Plains there was a years-long drought, leading to soil erosion and dust storms usually referred to as the Dust Bowl. ...


Antarctica

A few meteorites had been found by field parties in Antarctica between 1912 and 1964. Then in 1969, the 10th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition found nine meteorites on a blue ice field near the Yamato Mountains. With this discovery, came the realization that movement of ice sheets might act to concentrate meteorites in certain areas. After a dozen other specimens were found in the same place in 1973, a Japanese expedition was launched in 1974 dedicated to the search for meteorites. This team recovered nearly 700 meteorites. Shortly thereafter, the United States began its own program to search for Antarctic meteorites, operating along the Transantarctic Mountains on the other side of the continent: the ANtarctic Search for METeorites (ANSMET) program. European teams, starting with a consortium called "EUROMET" in the late 1980s, and continuing with a program by the Italian Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide have also conducted systematic searches for Antarctic meteorites. Most recently, a Chinese program, the Antarctic Scientific Exploration of China, has conducted highly successful meteorite searches since the year 2000. The combined efforts of all of these expeditions have produced over 23,000 classified meteorite specimens since 1974, with thousands more that have not yet been classified. For more information see the article by Harvey (2003).[19] Queen Fabiola Mountains () is a group of mountains on Antarctica, 30 miles long, consisting mainly of seven small massifs which trend north-south, forming a partial barrier to the flow of inland ice. ... The Blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers. ... Recovery of a meteorite in Antarctica ANSMET (ANtarctic Search for METeorites) is a program funded by the Office of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation that looks for meteorites in the Transantarctic Mountains. ...


Australia

At about the same time as meteorite concentrations were being discovered in the cold desert of Antarctica, collectors discovered that many meteorites could also be found in the hot desert of Australia. Several dozen meteorites had already been found in the Nullarbor region of Western and South Australia. Systematic searches between about 1971 and the present recovered over 500 more[20], ~300 of which are currently well characterized. The meteorites can be found in this region because the land presents a flat, featureless, plain covered by limestone. In the extremely arid climate, there has been relatively little weathering or sedimentation on the surface for tens of thousands of years, allowing meteorites to accumulate without being buried or destroyed. The dark colored meteorites can then be recognized among the very different looking limestone pebbles and rocks. NASA - Visible Earth, Nullarbor. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $100,900 (4th)  - Product per capita  $50,355/person... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Weathering is the decomposing of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the air. ... Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ...


The Sahara and rising commercialization

In 1986-87, a German team installing a network of seismic stations while prospecting for oil discovered about 65 meteorites on a flat, desert plain about 100 km southeast of Dirj (Daraj), Libya. These were the first hint that vast numbers of meteorites could be found in certain parts of the Sahara. A few years later, an anonymous engineer who was a desert enthusiast saw photographs of meteorites being recovered in Antarctica, and thought he had seen similar occurrences on Jeep adventure tours he had organized in north Africa. In 1989 he returned to Algeria and recovered about 100 meteorites from at least 5 locations. Over the next four years, he and others who followed found at least 400 more meteorites at the same locations, plus new areas in Algeria and Libya. The find locations were generally in regions known as regs or hamadas, flat, featureless areas covered only by small pebbles and minor amounts of sand.[21] Dark-colored meteorites can be easily spotted in these places, where they have been well-preserved due to the arid climate. For the act of abandoning or withdrawing support from an entity, see desertion. ... Cyclists crossing hamada, approaching Erg Chebbi sand dunes, Morocco A hamada (ara. ...


Although meteorites had been sold commercially and collected by hobbyists for many decades, up to the time of the Saharan finds of the late 1980s and early 1990s, most meteorites were deposited in or purchased by museums and similar institutions where they were exhibited and made available for scientific research. The sudden availability of large numbers of meteorites that could be found with relative ease in places that were readily accessible (especially compared to Antarctica), led to a rapid rise in commercial collection of meteorites. This process was accelerated when, in 1997, meteorites coming from both the Moon and Mars were found in Libya. By the late 1990s, private meteorite-collecting expeditions had been launched throughout the Sahara. Specimens of the meteorites recovered in this way are still deposited in research collections, but most of the material is sold to private collectors. These expeditions have now brought the total number of well-described meteorites found in Algeria and Libya to over 2000.


As word spread in Saharan countries about the growing profitibility of the meteorite trade, meteorite markets came into existence, especially in Morocco, fed by nomads and local people who combed the deserts looking for specimens to sell. Many thousands of meteorites have been distributed in this way, most of which lack any information about how, when, or where they were discovered. These are the so-called "Northwest Africa" meteorites.


Oman

In 1999, meteorite hunters discovered that the desert in southern and central Oman were also favorable for the collection of many specimens. The gravel plains in the Dhofar and Al Wusta regions of Oman, south of the sandy deserts of the Rub' al Khali, had yielded about 2,000 meteorites as of mid-2006. Included among these are a large number of lunar and martian meteorites, making Oman a particularly important area both for scientists and collectors. Early expeditions to Oman were mainly done by commercial meteorite dealers, however international teams of Omani and European scientists have also now collected specimens. The Dhofar (Arabic ظفار Ẓufār) region lies in Oman, east of Yemen. ... Blue Nile Blue Nile (An Nil al Azraq) is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Location of the empty quarter in Arabia Sand dunes in the Empty Quarter The Empty Quarter (Arabic: Rub al Khali الربع الخالي), is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula, including southern Saudi Arabia, and areas of Oman, the United Arab Emirates... Lunar Meteorite Allan Hills 81005 A Lunar meteorite is a meteorite that is known to have originated on the Moon. ... A Martian meteorite is a meteorite, that has landed on Earth but is believed to have originated from Mars. ...


The American Southwest

A stony meteorite (H5) found just north of Barstow, California in 2006
A stony meteorite (H5) found just north of Barstow, California in 2006

Beginning in the mid-1990s, amateur meteorite hunters began scouring the arid areas of the southwestern United States. To date, meteorites numbering possibly into the thousands have been recovered from the Mojave, Sonora, Tule, and Lechuguilla Deserts, with many being recovered on dry lake beds (playas). An important one of these finds is the martian meteorite Los Angeles [22][23]. Others include the Superior Valley 014 Acapulcoite, one of two of its type found within the United States[24][25], as well as a new Rumuruti-type chondrite found by Sonny Clary in an as-yet undisclosed location [26]. It, as well as numerous other finds from the American Southwest, has yet to be formally submitted to the nomenclature society, as many finders find it unwise to publicly state coordinates of finds for fear of 'poaching' by other less scrupulous hunters. Several of the meteorites found recently are currently on display in the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 408 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) self-taken, none, H5 meteorite in situ in mojave desert I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 408 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) self-taken, none, H5 meteorite in situ in mojave desert I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify... Barstow is a city located in San Bernardino County, California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... For the indigenous American tribe, see Mohave. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... Binomial name Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ... Known scientifically as Agave lecheguilla, it is found only in the Chihuahuan Desert, almost always on limestone. ... It has been suggested that Playa lake be merged into this article or section. ... A Martian meteorite is a meteorite, that has landed on Earth but is believed to have originated from Mars. ... Panorama of Los Angeles and Griffith Observatory viewed from the Hollywood Hills. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Meteorites in history

One of the leading theories for the cause of the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event that included the dinosaurs is a large meteorite impact. The Chicxulub Crater has been identified as the site of this impact. There has been a lively scientific debate as to whether other major extinctions, including the ones at the end of the Permian and Triassic periods might also have been the result of large impact events, but the evidence is much less compelling than for the end Cretaceous extinction. Tollmann's hypothetical bolide is one such meteorite that some speculate had a major impact on world wide geology, although there is no direct evidence that any such meteorite ever existed. The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Radar topography reveals the 180 kilometer (112 mile) wide ring of the crater (image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech) Chicxulub Crater (IPA: ) (cheek-shoo-LOOB) is an ancient impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula, with its center located approximately underneath the town of Chicxulub, Yucatán, Mexico. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... Comparison of the intensity of the T-J extinction event, labeled here End Tr to other extinction events in the last 500 million years. ... Alexander Tollmanns bolide, proposed by Kristen-Tollmann and Tollmann (1994), is a hypothesis presented by Austrian professor of geology Dr. Alexander Tollmann, suggesting that one or several bolides (asteroids or comets) struck the Earth at 7640 BCE (±200), with a much smaller one at 3150 BCE (±200). ...

The Willamette Meteorite, the largest ever to be found in the United States
The Willamette Meteorite, the largest ever to be found in the United States

A famous case is the alleged Chinguetti meteorite, a find reputed to come from a large unconfirmed 'iron mountain' in Africa. Willamette Meteorite From [1], US govt site. ... Willamette Meteorite From [1], US govt site. ... Willamette Meteorite The Willamette Meteorite was discovered in the American state of Oregon, and is the largest meteorite ever found in the United States, and the sixth largest in the world. ... The Chinguetti meteorite is a find reputed to come from a large unconfirmed iron mountain in Africa. ...


There are several reported instances of falling meteorites having killed both people and livestock, but a few of these appear more credible than others. The most infamous reported fatality from a meteorite impact is that of an Egyptian dog that was killed in 1911, although this report is highly disputed. This particular meteorite fall was identified in the 1980s as Martian in origin. However, there is substantial evidence that the meteorite known as Valera hit and killed a cow upon impact, nearly dividing the animal in two, and similar unsubstantiated reports of a horse being struck and killed by a stone of the New Concord fall also abound. Throughout history, many first and second-hand reports of meteorites falling on and killing both humans and other animals abound, but none have been well documented. Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


The first known modern case of a human hit by a space rock [1] occurred on 30 November 1954 in Sylacauga, Alabama. There a 4 kg stone chondrite [2] crashed through a roof and hit Ann Hodges in her living room after it bounced off her radio. She was badly bruised.
Other than the Sylacauga event, the most plausible of these claims was put forth by a young boy who stated that he had been hit by a small (~3 gram) stone of the Mbale meteorite fall from Uganda, and who stood to gain nothing from this assertion. The stone reportedly fell through a number of banana leaves before striking the boy on the head, causing little to no pain, as it was small enough to have been slowed by both friction with the atmosphere as well as that with banana leaves, before striking the boy. Although it is impossible to prove this claim either way, it seems as though he had little reason to lie about such an event occurring.
Several persons have since claimed [3] to have been struck by 'meteorites' but no verifiable meteorites have resulted. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sylacauga is a city located in Talladega County, Alabama. ... YAYAYAYAYAYAnn Elizabeth Hodges (1923 - 1972) of Sylacauga, Alabama is the only person of record to have been hit by a meteorite. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ...


Indigenous peoples often prized iron-nickel meteorites as an easy, if limited, source of iron metal. For example, the Inuit used chips of the Cape York meteorite to form cutting edges for tools and spear tips. The Cape York meteorite, which collided with Earth nearly 10,000 years ago, is named for Cape York, the location of its discovery in Greenland, and is one of the largest meteorites in the world. ...


Other Native Americans treated meteorites as ceremonial objects. In 1915, a 135-pound iron meteorite was found in a Sinagua (c.1100-1200 AD) burial cyst near Camp Verde, Arizona, respectfully wrapped in a feather cloth. [27] A small pallasite was found in a pottery jar in an old burial found at Pojoaque Pueble, New Mexico. Nininger reports several other such instances, in the Southwest US and elsewhere. The Sinagua were a pre-Columbian cultural group occupying an area in central Arizona between the Little Colorado River and the Salt River (between Flagstaff and Phoenix, Arizona) including the Verde Valley and significant portions of the Mogollon Rim country between approximately 500 AD and 1425 AD. Some archaeologists have... Camp Verde is a town located in Yavapai County, Arizona. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ...


Notable meteorites

Apart from meteorites fallen onto the Earth, "Heat Shield Rock" is a meteorite which was found on Mars, and two tiny fragments of asteroids were found among the samples collected on the Moon by Apollo 12 (1969) and Apollo 15 (1971) astronauts [4]. Meteorite fragment ALH84001 ALH 84001 (Allan Hills 84001) is a meteorite found in Allan Hills, Antarctica in December 1984 by a team of US meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project. ... A Martian meteorite is a meteorite, that has landed on Earth but is believed to have originated from Mars. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... The Canyon Diablo meteorite impacted at Barringer Crater, Arizona and is known from fragments collected around the crater and nearby Canyon Diablo which lies about 3 to 4 miles west of the crater. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... The Cape York meteorite, which collided with Earth nearly 10,000 years ago, is named for Cape York, the location of its discovery in Greenland, and is one of the largest meteorites in the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... The Hoba meteorite, also known as the Hoba West meteorite, is the largest known meteorite found on Earth, as well as the largest naturally-occurring mass of iron known to exist on the earth. ... The Kaidun meteorite is a meteorite that fell on March 12, 1980 on a Soviet military base in Yemen. ... The relative sizes of and distance between Mars, Phobos, and Deimos, to scale. ... Phobos (IPA: or [ˈfoʊ.bəs]) (systematic designation: ) is the larger and closer of Mars two moons (the other being Deimos). ... On May 14, 1864 the carbonaceous chondrite Orgueil meteorite landed near Orgueil in southern France. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Sayh al Uhaymir 169 (SaU 169) is a 206g lunar meteorite found in the Sultanate of Oman in January 2002. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... A 1. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Willamette Meteorite The Willamette Meteorite was discovered in the American state of Oregon, and is the largest meteorite ever found in the United States, and the sixth largest in the world. ... The Black Stone, surrounded by its silver frame and the black cloth kiswa on the Kaaba in Mecca The Black Stone (called الحجر الأسود al-Hajar-ul-Aswad in Arabic) is a Muslim object of reverence, said by some to date back to the time of Adam and Eve. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Heat shield, with Heat Shield Rock just above and to the left in the background (click to enlarge) Heat Shield Rock is a basketball-sized iron-nickel meteorite found on Mars by the Mars rover Opportunity in January 2005. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... The crash site. ... Arsenic poisoning kills by allosteric inhibition of essential metabolic enzymes, leading to death from multi-system organ failure. ... Heat shield, with Heat Shield Rock just above and to the left in the background (click to enlarge) Heat Shield Rock is a basketball-sized iron-nickel meteorite found on Mars by the Mars rover Opportunity in January 2005. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Apollo 12 was the sixth manned mission in the Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ...


Notable meteorite impacts craters

Vredefort crater is the largest verified impact crater on Earth. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Radar topography reveals the 180 kilometer (112 mile) wide ring of the crater (image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech) Chicxulub Crater (IPA: ) (cheek-shoo-LOOB) is an ancient impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula, with its center located approximately underneath the town of Chicxulub, Yucatán, Mexico. ... Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... The Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) extinction event, also known as the KT boundary (from German: Kreide-Tertiär-Grenzschicht), was a period of massive extinction of species, about 65. ... The Mesozoic is one of four (sometimes more) geologic eras. ... Orders Saurischia    Sauropodomorpha    Theropoda Ornithischia Dinosaurs are giant reptiles that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for most of their 165-million year existence. ... Manic-cinq dam, primary dam on the Manicouagan Reservoir Manicouagan Reservoir (also Lake Manicouagan) is an annular lake in northern Quebec, Canada, the remnant of an impact crater or astrobleme made approximately 212 million years ago, towards the end of the Triassic period. ... Popigai crater The Popigai crater in Siberia, Russia is tied with Manicouagan Reservoir as the 4th largest impact crater on Earth. ... Acraman is a meteor crater in South Australia, Australia. ... The Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater was formed by the impact of an extraterrestrial bolide that hit about 35. ... Mjølnir Impact Crater is a 40 km wide impact crater in the Barents Sea. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... The Manson impact crater is near the site of Manson, Iowa where an asteroid or comet nucleus struck the Earth during the Cretaceous Period, 74 million years ago. ... The Barringer Crater, also known as the Meteor Crater, is a famous impact crater created by a meteorite, located about 55 kilometers east of Flagstaff in the northern Arizona desert (USA). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ...

Notable disintegrating meteoroids

Trees felled by the Tunguska blast. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... The Vitim event or Bodaybo event is believed to be an impact by a bolide or comet nucleus in the Vitim River basin. ...

Meteorite-related news

Wikinews has related news:
Category:Peru meteor blamed for mass illness
  • At approximately 12 pm local time on 15 September 2007 a meteorite left a 30m-wide crater near Desaguadero, Peru, emitting fumes that reportedly made witnesses ill.[5] But a team of doctors sent to the site said they found no evidence the meteorite had sickened people, the Lima newspaper El Comercio reported Semptemeber 19, 2007. [6]
  • Soon after 2 am local time (00:00 GMT) on 7 June 2006: on a mountainside in Reisadalen in North Troms in Norway, a bolide was observed by several residents, possibly followed by an impact. There is a question as to how large it was, but an associated explosion was heard throughout the region. [7]
  • On 12 June 2006, NASA reported that two rocks dubbed "Allan Hills," and "Zhong Shan," found by the Spirit rover on Mars, might be iron meteorites. Unlike in the case of "Heat Shield Rock," there are not yet any supporting compositional data for these objects, so their identities as meteorites are less certain [8].

http://meteorite-identification.com/mwnews/05112007.html [9] [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16491697/ :the Freehold Township meteorite] Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Desaguadero is the name of Desaguadero (Bolivia) - a town on the Peruvian-Bolivian border on the southern shore of Lago Titicaca Río Desaguadero - a river that connects Lago Titicaca and Lago Poopó in the Bolivian Altiplano Desaguadero (Argentina) - a river in Argentina, also called Río Salado This is... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... County NO-19 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Tromsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 4 25,877 km² 8. ... The term bolide (from the Greek βολις, bolis, missile) can refer to either an extraterrestrial body that collides with the Earth, or to an exceptionally bright, fireball-like meteor regardless of whether it ultimately impacts the surface. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Heat shield, with Heat Shield Rock just above and to the left in the background (click to enlarge) Heat Shield Rock is a basketball-sized iron-nickel meteorite found on Mars by the Mars rover Opportunity in January 2005. ...


See also

Photo of a burst of meteors with extended exposure time A meteor is the visible path of a meteoroid that enters the Earths (or another bodys) atmosphere, commonly called a shooting star or falling star. ... A meteor shower, some of which are known as a meteor storm or meteor outburst, is a celestial event where a group of meteors are observed to radiate from one point in the sky. ... The Meteoritical Society is a non-profit scholarly organization founded in 1933 to promote research and education in planetary science with emphasis on studies of meteorites and other extraterrestrial materials that further our understanding of the origin and history of the solar system. ... Baetylus or Bethel is a semitic word denoting a sacred stone, which was supposed to be endowed with life. ... Some carbonaceous chondrites. ... Siljan, in Dalecarlia in central Sweden, is Swedens sixth largest lake. ... The most famous depiction of the 1833 meteor storm actually produced in 1889 for the Adventist book Bible Readings for the Home Circle based on a first-person account of the 1833 storm by a minister, Joseph Harvey Waggoner on his way from Florida to New Orleans. ... The Geminids are a meteor shower caused by an object named 3200 Phaethon, which is thought to be an extinct comet. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... The physicist Sir Isaac Newton first developed this idea to get rough approximations for the impact depth for projectiles travelling at high velocities. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... Center for Meteorite Studies,With specimens representing over 1555 separate meteorite falls, houses the worlds largest university-based meteorite collection. ... The Vatican Observatory (Specola Vaticana) is the astronomical research and educational institution of the Holy See. ...

References

  1. ^ McSween, H.Y. Jr. (1976) A new type of chondritic meteorite found in lunar soil. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 31, 193-199
  2. ^ Rubin, A. E. (1997) The Hadley Rille enstatite chondrite and its agglutinate-like rim: Impact melting during accretion to the Moon. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 32, 135-141 NASA ADS
  3. ^ "Opportunity Rover Finds an Iron Meteorite on Mars", JPL, January 19, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. 
  4. ^ a b Meteoritical Bulletin Database
  5. ^ Meteoritical Society Guidelines for Meteorite Nomenclature
  6. ^ Chapman et al. (2001)
  7. ^ Make your own impact at the University of Arizona
  8. ^ Bland P.A. and Artemieva, N A. (2006) The rate of small impacts on Earth. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 41, 607-631.
  9. ^ Maier, W.D. et al. (2006) Discovery of a 25-cm asteroid clast in the giant Morokweng impact crater, South Africa. Nature 441, 203-206
  10. ^ Sears, D. W. (1978) The Nature and Origin of Meteorites, Oxford Univ. Press, New York
  11. ^ The NHM Catalogue of Meteorites
  12. ^ MetBase
  13. ^ Ceplecha, Z, (1961) Multiple fall of Pribram meteorites photographed. Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechoslovakia, 12, 21-46 NASA ADS
  14. ^ McCrosky, R.E. et al. (1971) J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4090-4108
  15. ^ Campbell-Brown, M. D. and Hildebrand, A. (2005) A new analysis of fireball data from the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP). Earth, Moon, and Planets 95, 489 - 499
  16. ^ Oberst, J. et al. (2004) The multiple meteorite fall of Neuschwanstein: Circumstances of the event and meteorite search campaigns. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, 1627-1641 PS...39.1627O NASA ADS
  17. ^ Website by A. Mitterling
  18. ^ Huss, G.I. and Wilson, I.E. (1973) A census of the meteorites of Roosevelt County, New Mexico. Meteoritics 8, 287-290 NASA ADS
  19. ^ Harvey, Ralph (2003) The origin and significance of Antarctic meteorites Chemie der Erde 63, 93-147
  20. ^ Bevan, A.W.R. and Binns, R.A. (1989) Meteorites from the Nullarbor region, Western Australia: I. A review of past recoveries and a procedure for naming new finds. Meteorites 24, 127-133 NASA ADS
  21. ^ Bischoff A. and Geiger T. (1995) Meteorites from the Sahara: find locations, shock classification, degree of weathering and pairing. Meteoritics 30, 113-122. ADS
  22. ^ Los Angeles meteorite website
  23. ^ NASA-JSC article on Los Angeles meteorite
  24. ^ Meteoritical Bulletin entry for Superior Valley 014
  25. ^ Paper on Superior Valley 014 and associated meteorites
  26. ^ Sonny's website - page referring to particular find
  27. ^ H.H. Nininger, 1972, Catch a Falling Star (autobiography), New York, Paul S. Erikson

is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up meteorite in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Brother Guy J. Consolmagno, SJ (born September 19, 1952 in Detroit, Michigan), is an astronomer at the Vatican Observatory. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Planets Zone, Rose Center for Earth and Space | American Museum of Natural History (400 words)
The Willamette Meteorite is a rare and important scientific specimen that is preserved as part of the collections of the Museum's Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences.
In structure it is a metallic iron meteorite, weighing over 15.5 tons, the largest meteorite ever found in the United States, and the sixth largest meteorite in the world.
The microscopic structure of the meteorite is unusually complicated and suggests a unique set of events subsequent to its original formation, yet to be fully analyzed.
Meteorite Stamps and Coins (8148 words)
One of the minerals, identified as "fer natif" (native iron) appears to be an etched slice of an iron meteorite displaying its Widmanstatten pattern.
The first sheet (left) depicts a Martian meteorite from India (presumably Shergotty), a Martian meteorite from Nigeria (presumably Zagami), a Howardite from the United States (five are known), the iron meteorite Mundrabilla from Australia, and a mesosiderite from Poland (presumably Lowicz).
The Pallas meteorite is sometimes called the "foundation stone" of meteoritics since analysis of its chemical composition afforded a basis for those claiming meteorites had an extraterrestrial origin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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