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Encyclopedia > Metathesis

Metathesis is a sound change that alters the order of phonemes in a word. The most common instance of metathesis is the reversal of the order of two adjacent phonemes. Many languages have words that show this phenomenon, and some use it as a regular part of their grammar (eg Fur). The process of metathesis has altered the shape of many familiar words in the English language, too. In chemistry, metathesis refers to a reaction where parts of two reactants "switch places". In oral language, a phoneme is the theoretical basic unit of sound that can be used to distinguish words or morphemes; in sign language, it is a similarly basic unit of hand shape, motion, position, or facial expression. ... Look up word in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Word may mean: Word (linguistics), a unit of language that symbolizes or communicates a meaning Microsoft Word, a word processor Word (computer science), a small group of bits Word may also be: In hip hop slang, an exclamation indicating deep and complete... The Fur language (Fur bèle fòòr or fòòraŋ bèle, Arabic فوراوي Fûrâwî; sometimes called Konjara by linguists, after a former ruling clan) is the language of the Fur of Darfur in western Sudan. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Chemistry (in Greek: χημεία) is the science of matter that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of substances and with the transformations that they undergo. ... A chemical reaction is a process involving one, two or more substances (called reactants), characterized by a chemical change and yielding one or more product(s) which are different from the reactants. ...

Contents


Metathesis in English

The use of ax for ask goes back to Old English days, when ascian and axian/acsian were both in use. Some other frequently heard pronunciations in English that display metathesis are: Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...

The process has shaped many English words historically. Bird in English was once bryd, run was once irnan, horse was hros, wasp is also recorded as wæps and hasp, hæps. The discrepancy between the spelling of iron and the usual pronunciation is the result of metathesis. A shrewd, cunning little warrior; all perilous missions are immediately entrusted to him. ... An asterisk (*) is a typographical symbol or glyph. ... In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... In calculus, the integral of a function is a generalization of area, mass, volume, sum, and total. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Nucular is an intentional misspelling of the word nuclear which is usually intended to express contempt or amusement towards the commonplace NEW-kyuh-luhr ( in IPA) pronunciation of that word. ... The word nuclear means of or belonging to the nucleus of something. ...


Metathesis in Spanish

Old Spanish showed occasional metathesis when phonemes not conforming to the usual euphonic constraints were joined. This happened, for example, when a clitic pronoun was attached to a verb ending: it is attested that forms like dejadle "leave him" were often metathesized to dejalde (the phoneme cluster /dl/ is not allowed anywhere else in Spanish). Milagro "miracle" is a metathesized derivation from Latin miraculum, which also shows typical intervocalic voicing and syncope. In linguistics, a clitic is a word that syntactically functions as a free morpheme, but phonetically appears as a bound morpheme; it is always pronounced with a following or preceding word. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Syncope has two distinct and apparantly unrelated meanings, one in linguistics and another in medicne. ...


Lunfardo, an argot of Spanish from Buenos Aires, is fond of vesre, a form of intentional metathesis that involves changes in the order of whole syllables as well as individual phonemes (vesre is the inverted form of revés "back, backwards"). Lunfardo was a colorful, slangy argot of the Spanish language which developed at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century in the lower classes in and around Buenos Aires. ... Buenos Aires (Good Airs in Spanish, originally meaning Fair Winds) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as one of the largest cities in South America. ... Vesre (reversing the order of syllables) is one of the features of the Buenos Aires argot of Spanish known as lunfardo. ...


Metathesis in Navajo

In Navajo, verbs have (often multiple) morphemes prefixes onto the verb stem. These prefixes are added to the verb stem in a set order in a prefix positional template. Although prefixes are generally found in a specific position, some prefixes change order by the process of metathesis. Navajo (Diné bizaad) (occasionally spelled Navaho) is a Southern Athabaskan or Apachean language of the Athabaskan language family, belonging to the Na-Dené phylum. ...


For example, prefix 'a- (3i object pronoun) usually occurs before di-, as in

adisbąąs 'I'm starting to drive some kind of wheeled vehicle along' [ < 'a- + di- + sh- + ł + -bąąs].


However, when 'a- occurs with the prefixes di- and ni-, the 'a- metathesizes with di-, leading to an order of di- + 'a- + ni-, as in

di'nisbąąs 'I'm in the act of driving some vehicle (into something) & getting stuck' [ < di-'a-ni-sh-ł-bąąs < 'a- + di- + ni- + sh- + ł + -bąąs]


instead of the expected adinisbąąs ('a-di-ni-sh-ł-bąąs) (note also that 'a- is reduced to '-).


Metathesis in Straits Saanich

In Straits Saanich metathesis is used as a grammatical devise to indicate "actual" aspect. The actual aspect is most often translated into English as a be ... -ing progressive. The actual aspect is derived from the "nonactual" verb form by a CV → VC metathesis process (i.e. consonant metathesizes with vowel). The District of Saanich is a municipality on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. ... In linguistics, grammatical aspect is a property of a verb that defines the nature of temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ...

     T̵X̱ÉT 'shove' (nonactual) T̵ÉX̱T 'shoving' (actual)
     ṮPÉX̱ 'scatter' (nonactual) ṮÉPX̱ 'scattering' (actual)
     T̸L̵ÉQ 'pinch' (nonactual) T̸ÉL̵Q 'pinching' (actual)

See Montler (1986), Thompson & Thompson (1969) for more information.


Metathesis in chemistry

In general, a chemical reaction is referred to as metathesis if it is of the type: A chemical reaction is a process involving one, two or more substances (called reactants), characterized by a chemical change and yielding one or more product(s) which are different from the reactants. ...


A-B + C-D → A-D + C-B


where parts of two reacting structures swap places. This type of process can occur between two inorganic salts when one product is insoluble in water, driving the reaction forward, as in In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ...


AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) Silver nitrate is a chemical compound with chemical formula AgNO3. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... Silver chloride (also called silver(I) chloride) is a chemical compound with chemical formula AgCl. ... A solid is a phase of matter, characterized by resistance to deformation and changes of volume. ... Sodium nitrate is a type of salt which has long been used as an ingredient in explosives, and has been mined extensively for that purpose. ...


This type of reaction is also called double decomposition. One of the most important new reactions in organic chemistry is olefin metathesis (often called simply metathesis), and the related alkyne metathesis. In olefin metathesis, a metal catalyst causes the two halves of an olefin to switch places, for example: Organic chemistry is the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and synthesis of organic compounds that by definition contain carbon. ... Olefin metathesis or transalkylidenation (in some literature a disproportionation) is a organic reaction which involves redistribution of olefinic bonds. ... The Mortreux system consists of molybdenum hexacarbonyl resorcinol catalyst system. ... A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης, catalytēs) is a substance that accelerates the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction without itself being transformed or consumed by the reaction (see also catalysis). ... An alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond. ...


R1CH=CH2 + R2CH=CH2 → R1CH=CHR2 + H2C=CH2 An Alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Ethylene or ethene is the simplest alkene hydrocarbon, consisting of two carbon atoms and four hydrogens. ...


See also

A Spoonerism is a play on words in which corresponding consonants or vowels are switched (see metathesis), named after the Reverend William Archibald Spooner (1844–1930), Warden of New College, Oxford, who was notoriously prone to this tendency. ...

External links

  • Ohio State University Dept. of Linguistics Metathesis Page

Bibliography

  • Montler, Timothy. (1986). An outline of the morphology and phonology of Saanich, North Straits Salish. Occasional Papers in Linguistics (No. 4). Missoula, MT: University of Montana Linguistics Laboratory. (Revised version of the author's PhD dissertation, University of Hawaii).
  • Thompson, Laurence C.; & Thompson, M. Terry. (1969). Metathesis as a grammatical device. International Journal of American Linguistics, 35, 213-219.
  • Young, Robert W., & Morgan, William, Sr. (1987). The Navajo language: A grammar and colloquial dictionary, (rev. ed.). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-1014-1


  Results from FactBites:
 
Metathesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (521 words)
Metathesis is a sound change that alters the order of phonemes in a word.
In Straits Saanich metathesis is used as a grammatical devise to indicate "actual" aspect.
Metathesis is used in chemistry as a synonym for olefin metathesis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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