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Encyclopedia > Metamorphosis (biology)
A Pieris rapae larva
A Pieris rapae larva
An older Pieris rapae larva
An older Pieris rapae larva
A Pieris rapae pupa
A Pieris rapae pupa
A Pieris rapae adult
A Pieris rapae adult

Metamorphosis is a process in biology by which an individual physically develops after birth or hatching, and involves significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation. It usually accompanies a change of habitat or of habits, but may occur without such change. It was once thought that, in those cases where the animal's habitat remains unchanged, metamorphosis followed a series of forms representing evolutionary ancestors of the species in question (see ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny), but this is no longer thought to be true. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 115 KB) Photo by Christian Bauer source File links The following pages link to this file: Metamorphosis (biology) ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 115 KB) Photo by Christian Bauer source File links The following pages link to this file: Metamorphosis (biology) ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 121 KB) Photo by Christian Bauer source File links The following pages link to this file: Metamorphosis (biology) ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 121 KB) Photo by Christian Bauer source File links The following pages link to this file: Metamorphosis (biology) ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 114 KB) Photo by Christian Bauer source File links The following pages link to this file: Metamorphosis (biology) ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 114 KB) Photo by Christian Bauer source File links The following pages link to this file: Metamorphosis (biology) ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 94 KB) Photo by Christian Bauer source File links The following pages link to this file: Metamorphosis (biology) ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 94 KB) Photo by Christian Bauer source File links The following pages link to this file: Metamorphosis (biology) ... Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. ... Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, also called the biogenetic law or the theory of recapitulation, is a now discredited hypothesis in biology first espoused in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel. ...


The first type of metamorphosis is illustrated by many insects and by amphibians. Immature dragonflies are aquatic, though the adults are flying insects, and frogs undergo a metamorphosis from an aquatic tadpole to an amphibious adult form. Change of habits is illustrated by the transformation of the free-swimming young of many aquatic invertebrates into sessile adults (eg sea squirts), and the development of butterflies and moths from caterpillars with chewing mouthparts into flying insects with sucking mouthparts. Classes & Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrate animals of the Class Insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely-distributed taxon within the phylum Arthropoda. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Families Aeshnidae Austropetaliidae Cordulegastridae Corduliidae Gomphidae Libellulidae Macromiidae Neopetaliidae Petaluridae A dragonfly is any insect belonging to the order Odonata, the suborder Epiprocta or, in the strict sense, the infraorder Anisoptera. ... In cryptography, FROG is a block cipher authored by Georgoudis, Leroux and Chaves. ... Ten-day-old tadpoles Embryos (and one tadpole) of the wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) A tadpole (also known as a pollywog) is a larval frog, toad, salamander, newt, or caecilian. ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck to describe any animal without a spinal column. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Classes Ascidiacea Thaliacea Appendicularia Sorberacea Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates, sea squirts or cunji) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with input and output siphons. ... Families Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the Order Lepidoptera, and belongs to one of the superfamilies Hesperioidea (the skippers) or Papilionoidea (all other butterflies). ... A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly. ... The striking caterpillar of the Emperor Gum Moth This article is about insect larva. ...


The second type is illustrated by many crustacean species, whose young undergo significant physical metamorphosis without changing habits or habitat significantly. Classes & Subclasses Branchiopoda Phyllopoda Sarsostraca Remipedia Cephalocarida Maxillopoda Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Ostracoda Myodocopa Podocopa Malacostraca Phyllocarida Hoplocarida Eumalacostraca The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods (55,000 species), usually treated as a subphylum [1]. They include various familiar animals, such as lobsters, crabs, shrimp and...


The immature stages of a species that undergoes metamorphosis are designated by the term larva. In the complex metamorphosis of many insect species, however, only the first stage is called a larva and sometimes even that bears a different name; the distinction depends upon the nature of the metamorphosis. A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ...


Some insects hatch from the egg, already having the general form of the adult, and the metamorphosis to adult form is usually marked mainly by the development of wings. This type of metamorphosis is called simple, gradual, or incomplete metamorphosis (hemimetabolism), and the young are called nymphs, or naiads when aquatic. It is often found in the order Mantodea or genus Stagomantis, which is commonly known as the praying mantis. They do not undergo stages like a caterpillar to a butterfly. Instead, they undergo several stages where the nymph of, e.g., a praying mantis looks like a smaller-sized, wingless adult and ends the metamorphosis with fully developed wings. An average Whooping Crane egg is 102 mm long, and weighs 208 grams In some animals, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... A Laughing Gull on the beach in Atlantic City. ... Hemimetabolism, also called incomplete metamorphism, is a term used to describe insects with a specific type of life cycle, including three distinct stages: the embryo, nymph, and the adult stage, or the imago. ... In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some insect species (e. ... In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some insect species (e. ... Families Chaeteessidae Metallyticidae Mantoididae Amorphoscelidae Eremiaphilidae Hymenopodidae Mantidae Empusidae The order Mantodea (or Praying mantis) consists of between 1,800 and 2,000 species, of which a majority are in Mantidae. ... A praying mantis, or praying mantid, is an insect of the family Mantidae (order Mantodea), named for their prayer-like stance. ... A praying mantis, or praying mantid, is an insect of the order Mantodea, named for their prayer-like stance. ...


Insects with complete metamorphosis pass through a larval stage and then enter an inactive state known as a pupa (or chrysalis), finally emerging as the adult form. A number of beetle species and Strepsiptera undergo hypermetamorphosis, with a sequence of different larval forms preceding pupation. Chrysalis of Gulf Fritillary in Georgetown, South Carolina Pupation of Inachis io A pupa (plural: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are one of the most diverse groups of insects. ... Families Mengenillidae Mengeidae Stylopidae Bohartillidae Corioxenidae Halictophagidae Callipharixenidae Elenchidae Myrmecolacidae Species in the nine families of this small (~600 species) order of insects are parasites in other insects; their hosts include bees, wasps, leafhoppers, silverfish, and cockroaches. ... Hypermetamorphosis is the form of metamorphosis done by certain beetles, notably Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae, and the Strepsiptera. ...


Whether the insect spends more time in its adult stage or in its juvenile form depends on the individual species; notable examples of the latter are the mayfly, whose non-eating adult stage lives as little as a single day, and the cicada, whose juvenile stage lives underground for as much as seventeen years. However, these species have incomplete metamorphosis; typically (though not exclusively), species in which the adult form outlives the juvenile form undergo complex metamorphosis. Suborders Suborder Schistonota  Superfamily Baetoidea    Siphlonuridae    Baetidae    Oniscigastridae    Ameletopsidae    Ametropodidae  Superfamily Heptagenioidea    Coloburiscidae    Oligoneuriidae    Isonychiidae    Heptageniidae  Superfamily Leptophlebioidea    Leptophlebiidae  Superfamily Ephemeroidea    Behningiidae    Potamanthidae    Euthyplociidae    Polymitarcydae    Ephemeridae    Palingeniidae Suborder Pannota  Superfamily Ephemerelloidea    Ephemerellidae    Leptohyphidae    Tricorythidae  Superfamily Caenoidea    Neoephemeridae    Baetiscidae    Caenidae    Prosopistomatidae The mayflies are an order (Ephemeroptera meaning but for a... Genera Many. ...


Many observations have indicated that cell death plays a considerable role during physiological processes of multicellular organisms, particularly during embryogenesis and metamorphosis.

Comparative Lengths of Metamorphosis
Species Egg Larva/Nymph Pupa Adult
Housefly 1 day 2 weeks 1 week 2 weeks
Ladybug 4 days 2 weeks 2 weeks 3-9 months
Monarch Butterfly 4 days 2 weeks 10 days 2-6 weeks
Periodical Cicada 1 month 13/17 years no such stage 2 months
Mayfly 1 month 3 years 1 day
Cockroach 1 month 3 months 9 months

Binomial name Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 The housefly (also house-fly or house fly) (Musca domestica) is the most common fly occurring in homes and indeed one of the most widely distributed animals and the most familiar of all flies; it is a pest that can facilitate serious diseases. ... Subfamilies Chilocorinae Coccidulinae Coccinellinae Epilachninae Scymininae Sticholotidinae etc. ... Binomial name Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a well-known North American butterfly. ... Species See text Magicicada is the genus of the 13- and 17- year periodical cicadas of eastern North America. ... Suborders Suborder Schistonota  Superfamily Baetoidea    Siphlonuridae    Baetidae    Oniscigastridae    Ameletopsidae    Ametropodidae  Superfamily Heptagenioidea    Coloburiscidae    Oligoneuriidae    Isonychiidae    Heptageniidae  Superfamily Leptophlebioidea    Leptophlebiidae  Superfamily Ephemeroidea    Behningiidae    Potamanthidae    Euthyplociidae    Polymitarcydae    Ephemeridae    Palingeniidae Suborder Pannota  Superfamily Ephemerelloidea    Ephemerellidae    Leptohyphidae    Tricorythidae  Superfamily Caenoidea    Neoephemeridae    Baetiscidae    Caenidae    Prosopistomatidae The mayflies are an order (Ephemeroptera meaning but for a... Families Blaberidae Blattellidae Blattidae Cryptocercidae Polyphagidae Nocticolidae Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea (the name Blattaria is sometimes used). ...

Insect metamorphosis

All Apterygota and most Exopterygota insects are Hemimetabolic, while all Endopterygota are Holometabolic. Orders Archaeognatha Thysanura Apterygota is a subclass of insects that are small agile insects, distinguised from other insects by their lack of wings now and in their evolutionary history. ... Orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Grylloblattodea Plecoptera (stoneflies) Zoraptera Isoptera (termites) Dermaptera (earwigs) Embioptera Dictyoptera (cockroaches, mantids) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, locusts, and katydids) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Psocoptera (booklice) Phthiraptera (lice) Mallophaga (Chewing lice) Anoplura (Sucking lice) Hemiptera (true bugs) Homoptera (cicadas, hoppers, aphids, scale insects) Thysanoptera (Thrips, Thunderflies or... Classes & Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrate animals of the Class Insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely-distributed taxon within the phylum Arthropoda. ... Hemimetabolism, also called incomplete metamorphism, is a term used to describe insects with a specific type of life cycle, including three distinct stages: the embryo, nymph, and the adult stage, or the imago. ... Orders Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (flies and relatives) Hymenoptera (wasps and relatives) Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Mecoptera Megaloptera Miomoptera (extinct) Neuroptera Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Siphonaptera (fleas) Strepsiptera Trichoptera (caddisflies) The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages. ... Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a term applied to insect groups to describe the specific kind of insect development which includes four life stages - as an embryo, a larva, a pupa and an imago. ...


It must be noted, however, that a few Exopterygota - e.g. Thysanoptera, Aleyrodidae and male Coccoidea - are subject to a metamorphosis more similar to the Hemimetabolic one. Orders Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Grylloblattodea Plecoptera (stoneflies) Zoraptera Isoptera (termites) Dermaptera (earwigs) Embioptera Dictyoptera (cockroaches, mantids) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, locusts, and katydids) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Psocoptera (booklice) Phthiraptera (lice) Mallophaga (Chewing lice) Anoplura (Sucking lice) Hemiptera (true bugs) Homoptera (cicadas, hoppers, aphids, scale insects) Thysanoptera (Thrips, Thunderflies or... Families Suborder Terebrantia    Merothripidae    Uzelothripidae    Aeolothripidae    Adeheterothripidae    Heterothripidae    Thripidae    Fauriellidae Suborder Tubulifera    Phlaeothripidae Thrips (Thysanoptera) are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings (thus the scientific name, from the Greek thysanos (fringe) + pteron (wing)). Other common names include Thunderflies or Thunder bugs. ... The whiteflies, comprising the family Aleyrodidae, are small homopterans which feed on the underside of plant leaves. ... Families Aclerdidae Asterolecaniidae Beesoniidae Carayonemidae Cerococcidae Coccidae Conchaspididae Dactylopiidae Diaspididae Electrococcidae Eriococcidae Grimaldiellidae Halimococcidae Inkaidae Jersicoccidae Kermesidae Kerriidae Kukaspididae Labiococcidae Lecanodiaspididae Margarodidae Micrococcidae Ortheziidae Phenacoleachiidae Phoenicococcidae Pseudococcidae Putoidae Stictococcidae The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, notable for their habit of secreting a waxy covering that covers... Hemimetabolism, also called incomplete metamorphism, is a term used to describe insects with a specific type of life cycle, including three distinct stages: the embryo, nymph, and the adult stage, or the imago. ...


Hormonal control of metamorphosis in insects

Insect growth and metamorphosis are controlled by hormones syntesized by endocrine glands near the front of the body. Some cells of insect brain secrete a hormone that activates thoracic glands. Classes & Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrate animals of the Class Insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely-distributed taxon within the phylum Arthropoda. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). ...


Once they are activated, these glands secrete a second hormone, usually Ecdysone (a steroid), that induces metamorphosis. A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). ... Ecdysone is a prohormone of the major insect moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is secreted from the prothoracic glands. ... A steroid is a lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. ...


Moreover, the corpora allata produce the juvenile hormone, whose effect is to prevent the development of adult characteristics while allowing ecdysis. In insects, juvenile hormone (also neotenin) refers to a group of hormones which ensure growth of the larva, while preventing metamorphosis. ... Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ...


Therefore, the insect is subject to a series of moult, controlled by Ecdysone, until the production of juvenile hormone ceases and metamorphosis occurs. Ecdysone is a prohormone of the major insect moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is secreted from the prothoracic glands. ... In insects, juvenile hormone (also neotenin) refers to a group of hormones which ensure growth of the larva, while preventing metamorphosis. ...


See also

Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a term applied to insect groups to describe the specific kind of insect development which includes four life stages - as an embryo, a larva, a pupa and an imago. ... Hemimetabolism, also called incomplete metamorphism, is a term used to describe insects with a specific type of life cycle, including three distinct stages: the embryo, nymph, and the adult stage, or the imago. ... Metabolism whereby there is slight or no metamorphosis ... Hypermetamorphosis is the form of metamorphosis done by certain beetles, notably Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae, and the Strepsiptera. ...

References

  • Davies, R.G., Outlines of Entomology, Chapman and Hall: chapter 3

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Metamorphosis biology - Academic Kids (0 words)
Metamorphosis in biology is physical development of the individual after birth or hatching involving significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation.
It was once thought that in those cases where the animal's habitat remains unchanged metamorphosis followed a series of forms representing evolutionary ancestors of the species in question (see ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny), but this is no longer thought to be the case.
Immature dragonflies are aquatic though the adults are flying insects, and frogs undergo a metamorphosis from an aquatic tadpole to an amphibious adult form.
ScienceDaily: Biology (0 words)
Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life.
At the organism level, biology has partially explained phenomena such as birth, growth, aging, death and decay of living organisms, similarities between offspring and their parents (heredity) and flowering of plants which have puzzled humanity throughout history.
Biology -- Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life.
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