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Encyclopedia > Metalworking measurement

Metrology is variously described as the science of measurement; the science of accuracy and precision; the history of measures; the history of measurement and other definitions. It is a field of study which has been highly politicized and nationalized with sharp even severe rhetoric as the field progressed. Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_browser. ... Various meters In classical physics and engineering, measurement generally refers to the process of estimating or determining the ratio of a magnitude of a quantitative property or relation to a unit of the same type of quantitative property or relation. ... Accuracy, in science, engineering, industry and statistics, is the degree of conformity of a measured/calculated quantity to its actual (true) value. ... Rhetoric from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is the art or technique of persuasion, usually through the use of language. ...

Contents


Introduction

Metrology, as defined by the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML) in its 2000 publication International Vocabulary of Terms in Legal Metrology [1], is the "Science of Measurement." Legal metrology is further defined in this same international standard as: "part of metrology relating to activities which result from statutory requirements and concern measurement, units of measurement, measuring instruments and methods of measurement and which are performed by competent bodies." [ibid] The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) further defines metrology as "...the science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of Science and Technology." [2] The International Organization of Legal Metrology or Organization Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML) is an intergovernmental treaty organization. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... // Introduction The definition, agreement and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to this day. ... Captain Nemo and Professor Aronnax contemplating measuring instruments in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea In physics and engineering, measurement is the activity of comparing physical quantities of real-world objects and events. ... The International Bureau of Weights and Measures is the English name of the Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM, often written in English Bureau International des Poids et Mesures), a standards organization, one of the three organizations established to maintain the International System of Units (SI) under the terms... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... // Relation between uncertainty, probability and risk In his seminal work Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit, Frank Knight (1921) established the important distinction between risk and uncertainty: … Uncertainty must be taken in a sense radically distinct from the familiar notion of Risk, from which it has never been properly separated. ...


Historical development

Metrology was originally a study of historical measurement examining ancient, beginning of history documents from Assyria, Egypt, Greece and Roman origin. Early metrologists asserted that early cultures used a system of measurement in commerce that created a foundation for the study of scientific measurement. The studies by John Greaves (1602-1652) and Eduard Bernard (1638-1697) assert that a basic unit of measurement was used between cultures of the time based on the foot or cubit and that the basic measure of length cubed and filled with rainwater gives the basic measure of weight as a standard. Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th c. ... Roman or Romans may refer to: History Ancient Rome Roman Kingdom (753 BC to 509 BC) Roman Republic (509 BC to 44 BC) Roman Empire (44 BC to AD 476) Roman citizen Byzantine Empire (330 to 1453), also known as the Eastern Roman Empire or the Empire of the Greeks... Commerce is the trading of something of value between two entities. ... John Greaves (1602 - October 8, 1652), English mathematician and antiquary, was the eldest son of John Greaves, rector of Colemore, near Alresford in Hampshire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cubit is the name for any one of many units of measure used by various ancient peoples. ... In the physical sciences, weight by Definition VIII, per Newtons Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy or Principia, is an upward force exerted on matter to deny the body from entering freefall as a result of gravity, a centripetal accleration field. ...


There seems to have been a great deal of politicization of the study of metrology, especially at the beginning of the 20th century which became nationalistic in nature. The battle lines were drawn between English, French, Italian and German interests and schools of thought. Many schools of thought proclaimed themselves as 'new' and 'improved' versions of metrology and clashed severely with the other schools. // Nationalism is an ideology that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each nation... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my [birth]right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked...


La metrologia non é scienza, é un incubo. (Metrology is not a science; it’s a nightmare). -G. De Sanctis


Historically, measures of space are defined as discrete units of length, area, and volume. Measures of time are defined as a length of time for which a phenomena may be observed. Time is thought of both as an ongoing and continuing process and as having a period or duration for an event and so may be additionally described as cyclical, sequential, periodic or a singularity. Measures of other physical properties such as weight are defined first as physical properties of the space time continuum and then given additional descriptors such as mass and energy. In general English usage, length (symbols: l, L) is but one particular instance of distance – an objects length is how long the object is – but in the physical sciences and engineering, the word length is in some contexts used synonymously with distance. Height is vertical distance; width (or breadth... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Volume, also called capacity, is a quantification of how much space an object occupies. ... A pocket watch. ... 1) A physical property is an aspect of an object that can be experienced using one of the five human senses without changing its chemical composition: touch, taste, smell, sight or sound, or, in an extended sense, detected through any measuring device. ... In the physical sciences, weight by Definition VIII, per Newtons Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy or Principia, is an upward force exerted on matter to deny the body from entering freefall as a result of gravity, a centripetal accleration field. ... Mass is a property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter it contains. ...


Mechanisms of metrology

One small subset of this study has to do with standards of measure. A small subset of that area of study is the definition of standards and the scientific methodology of ensuring that standards of measure meet specified degrees of accuracy and precision. In the United States, the master reference standards are maintained through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). By convention, a standard is ten times more accurate and precise than the measurement being tested. In science, engineering, industry and statistics, accuracy is the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual, nominal, or some other reference, value. ... In Wikipedia, precision has the following meanings: In engineering, science, industry and statistics, precision characterises the degree of mutual agreement among a series of individual measurements, values, or results - see accuracy and precision. ... The National Institute of Standards and Technology (or NIST) formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards is a non regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ...

Accuracy dispute The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed.

The dispute is about Role of standards and measurement. Image File history File links Stop_hand. ...

Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

The process of comparison against a standard, and making any necessary adjustments, is commonly called calibration. Detailed records are maintained for each item that is calibrated to ensure "traceability", and that the item met clearly identified specifications for both accuracy and precision in all its operating parameters. Calibration refers to the process of setting the magnitude of the output (or response) of a measuring instrument to the magnitude of the input property or attribute within specified accuracy and precision. ...


Collaboration between NIST and its counterparts in other countries and with the BIPM ensures the highest achievable standards.


References

  • Organisation Internationale de Metrologie Legale. (2000), International Vocabulary of Terms in Legal Metrology, [Online] http://www.oiml.org/publications/V/V001-ef00.pdf.
  • Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. (2005), "What is metrology", Copyright BIPM 2004, [Online] http://www.bipm.org/en/bipm/metrology/.
  • Sarle, W. (1995), Measurement theory: Frequently asked questions, Copyright 1995 by Warren S. Sarle, Cary, NC, USA [Online] SAS Institute web pages: ftp://ftp.sas.com/pub/neural/measurement.faq
  • Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. (2000), The International System of Units (SI), [Online] BIPM web pages: http://www.bipm.fr/enus/3_SI/
  • Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. (2000), The Convention of the meter, [Online] BIPM web pages: http://www.bipm.fr/enus/1_Convention/
  • Melville, D.J. (2001). Sumerian metrological numeration systems, Mesopotamian Mathematics, [Online] St. Lawrence University web pages, http://it.stlawu.edu/%7Edmelvill/mesomath/sumerian.html
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology. (1999), The NIST Reference of Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, [Online] NIST web pages: http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/index.html
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology / Sematech. (n.d.). Engineering Statistics Handbook. [Online] NIST web pages: http://www.nist.gov/itl/div898/handbook/
  • National Physical Laboratory - National Measurement Laboratory - Metrology related resources including many free PDF downloads including Good Practice Guides: [Online] http://www.npl.co.uk/

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