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Encyclopedia > Metallurgy
Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction
Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction

Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. It is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to their practical use. Metallurgy is commonly used in the craft of metalworking. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Intermetallics are chemical compounds formed by two metallic chemical elements. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ...

Contents

History

See also: Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent
An illustration of furnace bellows operated by waterwheels, from the Nong Shu, by Wang Zhen, 1313 AD, during the Chinese Yuan Dynasty.
An illustration of furnace bellows operated by waterwheels, from the Nong Shu, by Wang Zhen, 1313 AD, during the Chinese Yuan Dynasty.

The earliest recorded metal employed by humans appears to be gold which can be found free or "native". Small amounts of natural gold have been found in Spanish caves used during the late Paleolithic period, c. 40,000 BC.[1] The history of ferrous metallurgy began far back in prehistory, most likely with the use of iron from meteors. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The emergence of metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica occurred relatively late in the regions history, with distinctive works of metal apparent in West Mexico by roughly AD 800, and perhaps as early as AD 600 (Hosler, 1988, 1995). ... Ayas. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 607 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) This medieval printed illustration depicts waterwheels powering the bellows of a blast furnace in creating cast iron. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixelsFull resolution (820 × 607 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) This medieval printed illustration depicts waterwheels powering the bellows of a blast furnace in creating cast iron. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ...

Gold headband from Thebes 750-700 BC
Gold headband from Thebes 750-700 BC

Silver, copper, tin and meteoric iron can also be found native, allowing a limited amount of metalworking in early cultures. Egyptian weapons made from meteoric iron in about 3000 B.C. were highly prized as "Daggers from Heaven"[2]. However, by learning to get copper and tin by heating rocks and combining copper and tin to make an alloy called bronze, the technology of metallurgy began about 3500 B.C. with the Bronze Age. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (1326 × 573 pixel, file size: 652 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 346 pixelsFull resolution (1326 × 573 pixel, file size: 652 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


The extraction of iron from its ore into a workable metal is much more difficult. It appears to have been invented by the Hittites in about 1200 B.C., beginning the Iron Age. The secret of extracting and working iron was a key factor in the success of the Philistines[3][4] General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


Historical developments in ferrous metallurgy can be found in a wide variety of past cultures and civilizations. This includes the ancient and medieval kingdoms and empires of the Middle East and Near East, ancient Egypt and Anatolia (Turkey), Carthage, the Greeks and Romans of ancient Europe, medieval Europe, ancient and medieval China, ancient and medieval India, ancient and medieval Japan, etc. Of interest to note is that many applications, practices, and devices associated or involved in metallurgy were possibly established in ancient China before Europeans mastered these crafts (such as the innovation of the blast furnace, cast iron, steel, hydraulic-powered trip hammers, etc.)[5]. However, modern research suggests that Roman technology was far more sophisticated than hitherto supposed, especially in mining methods, metal extraction and forging. They were for example expert in hydraulic mining methods well before the Chinese, or any other civilization of the time[citation needed]. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... A triphammer is a massive power hammer, usually raised by a cam and then released to fall under the force of gravity. ... The Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in ca. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... This article is about smithing. ... Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of mining that employs water under pressure to dislodge rock material or move sediment. ...


A 16th century book by Georg Agricola called De re metallica describes the highly developed and complex processes of mining metal ores, metal extraction and metallurgy of the time. Agricola has been described as the "father of metallurgy"[6] Georg Agricola Georgius Agricola (March 24, 1494 – November 21, 1555) was a German scholar and man of science. ... Georg Agricola the father of mineralogy De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals (Minerals)) is a book cataloging the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published in 1556. ...


Extractive metallurgy

Extractive metallurgy is the practice of removing valuable metals from an ore and refining the extracted raw metals into a purer form. In order to convert a metal oxide or sulfide to a purer metal, the ore must be reduced either physically, chemically, or electrolytically. Extractive metallurgy is the practice of extracting metal from ore, purifying it, and recycling it. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ...


Extractive metallurgists are interested in three primary streams: feed, concentrate (valuable metal oxide/sulfide), and tailings (waste). After mining, large pieces of the ore feed are broken through crushing and/or grinding in order to obtain particles small enough where each particle is either mostly valuable or mostly waste. Concentrating the particles of a value in a form supporting separation enables the desired metal to be removed from waste products. Tailings (also known as slickens[1]) are the waste left over[2] after removing the gangue from ore. ...


Mining may not be necessary if the ore body and physical environment are conducive to leaching. Leaching dissolves minerals in an ore body and results in an enriched solution. The solution is collected and processed to extract valuable metals. In-situ leaching (ISL), also called in-situ recovery (ISR) or solution mining, is a process of recovering minerals such as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into the deposit. ...


Ore bodies often contain more than one valuable metal. Tailings of a previous process may be used as a feed in another process to extract a secondary product from the original ore. Additionally, a concentrate may contain more than one valuable metal. That concentrate would then be processed to separate the valuable metals into individual constituents.


Important common alloy systems

Common engineering metals include aluminium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, nickel, titanium and zinc. These are most often used as alloys. Much effort has been placed on understanding the iron-carbon alloy system, which includes steels and cast irons. Plain carbon steels are used in low cost, high strength applications where weight and corrosion are not a problem. Cast irons, including ductile iron are also part of the iron-carbon system. This article is about metallic materials. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... -1...


Stainless steel or galvanized steel are used where resistance to corrosion is important. Aluminium alloys and magnesium alloys are used for applications where strength and lightness are required. The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... Hot-dip galvanizing is the process of coating iron or steel with a thin zinc layer by passing the steel through a molten bath of zinc at a temperature of around 460°C. Zinc rusts to form zinc oxide, a fairly strong material that stops further rusting, protecting the steel...


Cupro-nickel alloys such as Monel are used in highly corrosive environments and for non-magnetic applications. Nickel-based superalloys like Inconel are used in high temperature applications such as turbochargers, pressure vessels, and heat exchangers. For extremely high temperatures, single crystal alloys are used to minimize creep. Monel is a trademark comprising a series of rustless (stainless) metal alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper, with some iron and other trace elements. ... A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy able to withstand extreme temperatures that would destroy conventional metals like steel and aluminum. ... Inconel® is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation referring to a family of austenitic nickel-based superalloys. ...


Production engineering of metals

In production engineering, metallurgy is concerned with the production of metallic components for use in consumer or engineering products. This involves the production of alloys, the shaping, the heat treatment and the surface treatment of the product. The task of the metallurgist is to achieve balance between material properties such as cost, weight, strength, toughness, hardness, corrosion and fatigue resistance, and performance in temperature extremes. To achieve this goal, the operating environment must be carefully considered. In a saltwater environment, ferrous metals and some aluminium alloys corrode quickly. Metals exposed to cold or cryogenic conditions may endure a ductile to brittle transition and lose their toughness, becoming more brittle and prone to cracking. Metals under continual cyclic loading can suffer from metal fatigue. Metals under constant stress at elevated temperatures can creep. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... For other uses, see Weight (disambiguation). ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. ... In materials science, hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... In materials science, fatigue is the progressive, localised, and permanent structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic or fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum values less than (often much less than) the static yield strength of the material. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ... Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ... Creep is the term used to describe the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or deform permanently under the influence of stresses. ...


Metal working processes

Metals are shaped by processes such as casting, forging, flow forming, rolling, extrusion, sintering, metalworking, machining and fabrication. With casting, molten metal is poured into a shaped mould. With forging, a red-hot billet is hammered into shape. With rolling, a billet is passed through successively narrower rollers to create a sheet. With extrusion, a hot and malleable metal is forced under pressure through a die, which shapes it before it cools. With sintering, a powdered metal is compressed into a die at high temperature. With machining, lathes, milling machines, and drills cut the cold metal to shape. With fabrication, sheets of metal are cut with guillotines or gas cutters and bent into shape. This article is about the manufacturing process. ... This article is about smithing. ... Flow Forming is a metal production procedure that turns the metal over a special mandrel and hydraulic rollers using tremendous pressure. ... profile rolling (to manufacture a cone) Rolling is a fabricating process in which the metal, plastic, paper, glass, etc. ... For the process that creates volcanic rock, see extrusive (geology). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... A typical steel fabrication shop Fabrication, when used as an industrial term, applies to the building of machines , structures, process equipment for chemical, fertilizer sector by cutting, shaping and assembling components made from raw materials. ... One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. There are no known parallels for this mold. ... Billet is a term used in manufacturing to refer to a cast product. ... Look up die in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Powder metallurgy is a forming and fabrication technique consisting of three major processing stages. ... Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis... Endmills for a milling machine. ... For other uses, see Drill (disambiguation). ... This article is about the decapitation device. ... Oxy-Fuel Welding is a welding process commonly called Oxy-Acetylene Welding, since acetylene is the predominant choice for a fuel, or often simply Gas welding. ...


"Cold working" processes, where the product’s shape is altered by rolling, fabrication or other processes while the product is cold, can increase the strength of the product by a process called work hardening. Work hardening creates microscopic defects in the metal, which resist further changes of shape. Cold Work is a quality imparted on a material as a result of plastic deformation. ... Work hardening, or strain hardening, is an increase in mechanical strength due to plastic deformation. ... In materials science, a dislocation is a crystallographic defect, or irregularity, within a crystal structure. ...


Various forms of casting exist in industry and academia. These include sand casting, investment casting (also called the “lost wax process”), die casting and continuous casting. This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Casting is the process of production of objects by pouring molten material into a cavity called a mould which is the negative of the object, and allowing it to cool and solidify. ... The lost wax process is a method that requires the metallurgist to build a wax replica of the item that is desired to be replicated, followed by the coating of the wax sculpted article in a heat resistant yet durable exterior, typically a ceramic, which is then fired to permit... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Continuous casting is a refinement of the casting process for the continuous, high-volume production of metal sections with a constant cross-section. ...


Joining

Main article: Welding

Welding is a technique for joining metal components by melting the base material. A filler material of similar composition may also be melted into the joint. Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...

Main article: Brazing

Brazing is a technique for joining metals at a temperature below their melting point. A filler with a melting point below that of the base metal is used, and is drawn into the joint by capillary action. Brazing results in a mechanical and metallurgical bond between work pieces. This article is about the metal joining process. ... This article is about the metal joining process. ...

Main article: Soldering

Soldering is a method of joining metals below their melting points using a filler metal. Soldering results in a mechanical joint and occurs at lower temperatures than brazing. (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ...


Heat treatment

Main article: Heat treatment

Metals can be heat treated to alter the properties of strength, ductility, toughness, hardness or resistance to corrosion. Common heat treatment processes include annealing, precipitation strengthening, quenching, and tempering. The annealing process softens the metal by allowing recovery of cold work and grain growth. Quenching can be used to harden alloy steels, or in precipitation hardenable alloys, to trap dissolved solute atoms in solution. Tempering will cause the dissolved alloying elements to precipitate, or in the case of quenched steels, improve impact strength and ductile properties. Heat treatment is a method used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. ... Heat treatment is a method used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. ... For other uses, see Annealing. ... Precipitation hardening, also called age hardening or dispersion hardening, are heat treatment techniques used to strengthen malleable materials, especially non-ferrous alloys including most structural alloys of aluminium, magnesium and titanium. ... Quenching is a general term for non-radiative de-excitation. ... Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals and alloys. ...


Surface treatment

Main article: Plating

Electroplating is a common surface-treatment technique. It involves bonding a thin layer of another metal such as gold, silver, chromium or zinc to the surface of the product. It is used to reduce corrosion as well as to improve the product's aesthetic appearance. Plating is the general name surface-covering techniques in which a metal is deposited onto a conductive surface. ... Electroplating is the process of using Davd lloyd current to coat an electrically conductive object with a relatively thin layer of metal. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...

Main article: Thermal spray

Thermal spraying techniques are another popular finishing option, and often have better high temperature properties than electroplated coatings. Thermal Spray techniques are coating processes which involve spraying melted (or heated) materials onto a surface. ...

Main article: Case hardening

Case hardening is a process in which an alloying element, most commonly carbon or nitrogen, diffuses into the surface of a monolithic metal. The resulting interstitial solid solution is harder than the base material, which improves wear resistance without sacrificing toughness. A replica Colt 1873 revolver, showing case hardening colors on the frame Case hardening or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal, often a low carbon steel, by infusing elements into the materials surface, forming a thin layer of a harder alloy. ...


Electrical and electronic engineering

Metallurgy is also applied to electrical and electronic materials where metals such as aluminium, copper, tin, silver, and gold are used in power lines, wires, printed circuit boards and integrated circuits. Aluminum redirects here. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...


Metallurgical techniques

Metallography allows the metallurgist to study the microstructure of metals.
Metallography allows the metallurgist to study the microstructure of metals.

Metallurgists study the microscopic and macroscopic properties using metallography, a technique invented by Henry Clifton Sorby. In metallography, an alloy of interest is ground flat and polished to a mirror finish. The sample can then be etched to reveal the microstructure and macrostructure of the metal. A metallurgist can then examine the sample with an optical or electron microscope and learn a great deal about the sample's composition, mechanical properties, and processing history. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 768 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 768 pixel, file size: 1. ... A micrograph of bronze revealing a cast dendiritic structure Metallography is the science and art of preparing a metal surface for analysis by grinding, polishing, and etching to reveal microstructual constituents. ... Henry Clifton Sorby (May 10, 1826 - March 9, 1908), English microscopist and geologist, was born at Woodbourne near Sheffield. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ...


Crystallography, often using diffraction of x-rays or electrons, is another valuable tool available to the modern metallurgist. Crystallography allow the identification of unknown materials and reveals the crystal structure of the sample. Quantitative crystallography can be used to calculate the amount of phases present as well as the degree of strain to which a sample has been subjected. Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ...


The physical properties of metals can be quantified by mechanical testing. Typical tests include tensile strength, compressive strength, hardness, impact toughness, fatigue and creep life. Strength of materials is materials science applied to the study of engineering materials and their mechanical behavior in general (such as stress, deformation, strain and stress-strain relations). ...


References

  1. ^ History of Gold. Gold Digest. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  2. ^ W. Keller (1963) The Bible as History page 156 ISBN 0 340 00312 X
  3. ^ W. Keller (1963) The Bible as History page 177 ISBN 0 340 00312 X
  4. ^ B. W. Anderson (1975) The Living World of the Old Testament page 154 ISBN 0-582-48598-3
  5. ^ R. F. Tylecote (1992) A History of Metallurgy ISBN 0-901462-88-8
  6. ^ Karl Alfred von Zittel (1901) History of Geology and Palaeontology page 15

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dylan Byrne(September 25, 1839 - January 5, 1904), German palaeontologist, was born at Bahlingen in Baden. ...

See also

  • Wikiversity:Topic:Metallurgical engineering

Archaeometallurgy is the study of the history and prehistory of metals and their use through humans. ... A typical steel fabrication shop Fabrication, when used as an industrial term, applies to the building of machines , structures, process equipment for chemical, fertilizer sector by cutting, shaping and assembling components made from raw materials. ... Georg Agricola Georgius Agricola (March 24, 1494 – November 21, 1555) was a German scholar and man of science. ... Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. ... National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology (NIFFT) is a fully residential public co-educational institute located in the mineral-rich belt of India in the town of Ranchi. ... Pyrometallurgy is a branch of extractive metallurgy. ... Timeline of materials technology // 29,000–25,000 BCE - First ceramic appears 3rd millennium BC - Copper metallurgy is invented and copper is used for ornamentation 2nd millennium BC - Bronze is used for weapons and armour 1st millennium BC - Pewter beginning to be used in China and Egypt 16th century BC...

Additional Information

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To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Zoography, also known as descriptive zoology, is the applied science of describing animals and their habitats. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... The know-how that goes into a given medium. ... Graphic redirects here. ... Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of technology involved with the musical arts, particularly the use of electronic devices and computer software to facilitate playback, recording, composition, storage, and performance. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as voice recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words in the form of digital data, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Visual technology is the engineering discipline dealing with visual representation. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Computational finance (also known as financial engineering) is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining information technology (IT) – or informatics – with management concepts. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... This article is about the use of technology in education delivery. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. ... The food technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Audio engineering is a part of audio science dealing with the recording and reproduction of sound through mechanical and electronic means. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... Biological engineering (a. ... Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent radio and television broadcasting. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Computer engineering (or Computer Systems Engineering) encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science[1]Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... In physics or engineering, cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Metallurgical engineering- Designing, creating, or producing metals by various methods, for various applications, from metallic elements described on the Chemical Periodic Table of the Elements. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Steamer New York in c. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Fire protection engineering (also known as fire engineering or fire safety engineering) is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
metallurgy – FREE metallurgy Information | Encyclopedia.com: Facts, Pictures, Information! (1644 words)
Modern metallurgical research is concerned with the preparation of radioactive metals, with obtaining metals economically from low-grade ores, with obtaining and refining rare metals hitherto not used, and with the formulation of alloys.
Extractive metallurgy is the study and practice of separating metals from their ores and refining them to produce a pure metal.
EBA metallurgy in context and at KHI The earliest metal...
Metallurgy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (884 words)
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Extractive metallurgy is the practice of separating metals from their ore, and refining them into a pure metal.
Metallurgy is also applied to electrical and electronic materials where as metals such as aluminium, copper, tin and gold are used in power lines, wires, printed circuit boards and integrated circuits.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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