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Encyclopedia > Messerschmitt Me 262
Me 262

Messerschmitt Me 262A Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1202 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) DAYTON, Ohio -- Messerschmitt Me 262A at the National Museum of the United States Air Force. ...

Type Fighter
Manufacturer Messerschmitt
Designed by Willy Messerschmitt
Maiden flight 18 April 1941 with piston engines
18 July 1942 with jet engines [1]
Introduction April 1944[2]
Retired 1945, Luftwaffe
1957, Czechoslovakia
Primary users Germany
Czechoslovakia
Number built 1,430

The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (German: "Swallow") was the world's first operational turbojet fighter aircraft. It was produced in World War II and saw action starting in 1944 as a multi-role fighter/bomber/reconnaissance/interceptor warplane for the Luftwaffe. German pilots nicknamed it the "Sturmvogel," (Stormbird) while the Allies called it the "Turbo." The Me 262 had a negligible impact on the course of the war due to its late introduction, with 509 claimed Allied kills[3] (although higher claims are sometimes made[4]), against more than 100 Me 262 losses. An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... Messerschmitt is a famous German aircraft manufacturer, known primarily for their World War II fighter aircraft, notably the Bf 109 and Me 262. ... Wilhelm Emil Messerschmitt (June 26, 1898 – September 15, 1978) (known as Willi or Willy) was a German aircraft designer and manufacturer. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Messerschmitt is a famous German aircraft manufacturer, known primarily for their World War II fighter aircraft, notably the Bf 109 and Me 262. ... For other uses, see Swallow (disambiguation). ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Design and development

Hans Guido Mutke's Me 262A on display at the Deutsches Museum.
Hans Guido Mutke's Me 262A on display at the Deutsches Museum.

The Me 262 was already being developed as Projekt P.1065 before the start of World War II. Plans were first drawn up in April 1939, and the original design was very similar to the plane that eventually entered service. The progression of the original design into service was delayed greatly by technical issues involving the new jet engines. Funding for the jet program was also initially lacking as many high-ranking officials thought the war could easily be won with conventional aircraft. Adolf Hitler had envisioned the Me 262 not as a defensive interceptor, but in an offensive ground attack/bomber role. His edict resulted in the Sturmvogel (Stormbird) variant. Although debatable, it is generally agreed Hitler's interference was not a major reason for delay in bringing the Swallow into operation.[5][6] Image File history File links Messerschmitt_Me_262. ... Image File history File links Messerschmitt_Me_262. ... Dr. Hans Guido Mutke (March 25, 1921 in Neiße – April 8, 2004 in Munich, Germany) was a fighter pilot for the German Luftwaffe during World War II. He claimed to be the first person to break the sound barrier and to achieve supersonic flight, although this claim is... Deutsches Museum The Deutsches Museum (German Museum) in Munich, Germany, is the worlds largest museum of technology and science, with approximately 1. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Close air support (often abbreviated CAS) is the use of military aircraft in a ground attack role against targets in close proximity to friendly troops, in support of ground combat operations. ...


The aircraft was originally designed with a tail wheel undercarriage and the first four prototypes (Me 262 V1-V4) were built with this configuration, but it was discovered on an early test run that the engines and wings "blanked" the stabilizers, giving almost no control on the ground. Changing to a tricycle undercarriage arrangement, initially a fixed undercarriage on the fifth prototype, then fully retractable on the sixth and succeeding aircraft, corrected this problem. The Piper Super Cub is a popular taildragger aircraft. ... A Mooney M20J with a tricycle landing gear Polish 3Xtrim 3X55 Trener with a tricycle landing gear taxiing. ...


Although it is often stated the Me 262 is a "swept wing" design, the production Me 262 had a leading edge sweep of only 18.5°. This was done primarily to properly position the center of lift relative to the centre of mass and not for the aerodynamic benefit of increasing the critical Mach number of the wing. The sweep was too slight to achieve any significant advantage.[7] This happened after the initial design of the aircraft, when the engines proved to be heavier than originally expected. On 1 March 1940, instead of moving the wing forward on its mount, the outer wing was positioned slightly backwards to the same end. The middle section of the wing remained unswept.[8]. Based on data from the AVA Göttingen and windtunnel results, the middle section was later swept.[9] The swept wing of an airliner: British Midland Airbus A320-200 A swept-wing is a wing planform used on high-speed aircraft that spend a considerable portion of their flight time in the transonic. ... The Critical Mach number (Mcr) is the maximum Mach number (airspeed in relation to the speed of sound - Mach 1. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


The first test flights began on 18 April 1941, but since the BMW 003 turbojets were not ready for fitting, a conventional Junkers Jumo 210 engine was mounted in the nose, driving a propeller, to test the Me 262 V1 airframe. When the BMW 003 engines were finally installed the Jumo was retained for safety, which proved wise as both 003s failed during the first flight and the pilot had to land using the nose mounted engine alone.[1] is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The BMW 003 was an early turbojet engine produced in Germany during World War II. Work on its design began earlier than the contemporary Junkers Jumo 004 engine, but prolonged developmental problems meant that the BMW 003 entered production much later, and the aircraft projects that had been designed with... Jumo 210 The Jumo 210 was Junkers Motorens first production gasoline aircraft engine, produced just before the start of World War II. It produced about 650hp in common versions, and can be considered a counterpart of the Rolls-Royce Kestrel in many ways. ...

Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, the world's first jet fighter.
Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, the world's first jet fighter.

The V3 third prototype airframe became a true "jet" when it flew on 18 July 1942 in Leipheim near Günzburg, Germany, piloted by Fritz Wendel. This was almost nine months ahead of the British Gloster Meteor's first flight on 5 March 1943. The 003 engines, which were proving unreliable, were replaced by the newly available Junkers Jumo 004. Test flights continued over the next year but the engines continued to be unreliable. Airframe modifications were complete by 1942, but hampered by the lack of engines, serial production did not begin until 1944. This delay in engine availability was in part due to the shortage of strategic materials, especially metals and alloys able to handle the extreme temperatures produced by the jet engine. Even when the engines were completed they had an expected operational lifetime of approximately 50 hours; in fact, most 004s lasted just 12 hours. A pilot familiar with the Me 262 and its engines could expect approximately 20 to 25 hours of life from the 004s. Changing a 004 engine was intended to be done in three hours, but typically took eight to nine due to poorly made parts and inadequate training of ground crews. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1172 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, the worlds first jet fighter. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1172 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, the worlds first jet fighter. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Leipheim is a town in the district of Günzburg, in Bavaria, Germany. ... Günzburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies first operational jet. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Jumo 004 was the worlds first turbojet engine in production and operational use. ...


Turbojet engines have less thrust at low speed than propellers and as a result, low-speed acceleration is relatively poor. It was more noticeable for the Me 262 as early jet engines (before the invention of afterburners) responded slowly to throttle changes. The introduction of a primitive autothrottle late in the war only helped slightly. Conversely, the higher power of jet engines at higher speeds meant the Me 262 enjoyed a much higher climb speed. Used tactically, this gave the jet fighter an even greater speed advantage in climb rate than level flight at top speed. For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... An autothrottle (automatic throttle) allows a pilot to control the power setting of an aircrafts engines by specifying a desired flight characteristic, rather than directly controlling fuel flow. ...


With one engine out, the Me 262 still flew well, with speeds of 450 to 500 km/h (280 to 310 mph), but pilots were warned never to fly slower than 300 km/h (186 mph) on one engine, as the asymmetical thrust would cause serious problems below that speed.


Operationally, the Me 262 had an endurance of 60 to 90 minutes. Look up Endurance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Operational history

Me 262 A-1a
Me 262 A-1a

In April 1944, Erprobungskommando 262 was formed at Lechfeld in Bavaria as a test unit to introduce the 262 into service and train a core of pilots to fly it. Major Walter Nowotny was assigned as commander in July 1944, and the unit redesignated Kommando Nowotny. Essentially a trials and development unit, it holds the distinction of having mounted the world's first jet fighter operations. Trials continued slowly with initial operational missions against the Allies in August 1944, allegedly downing 19 Allied aircraft for six Me 262s lost, although these claims have never been verified by cross-checking with USAAF records. The RAF Museum holds no intelligence reports of RAF aircraft engaging in combat with an Me 262 in August 1944, although there is a report of an unarmed encounter between an Me 262 and a Mosquito.[10] Despite orders to stay grounded Nowotny chose to fly a mission against an enemy formation. After an engine failure he was shot down and killed on 8 November 1944 by 1st Lt Edward “Buddy” Haydon of the 357th Fighter Group, USAAF and Capt Ernest “Feeb” Fiebelkorn of the 20th Fighter Group, USAAF. The "Kommando" was then withdrawn for further training and a revision of combat tactics to optimise the 262's strengths. Download high resolution version (2160x1440, 489 KB)Messerschmidt Me 262, RAF Cosford, 2002, taken & submitted by Paul Maritz (paulmaz) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2160x1440, 489 KB)Messerschmidt Me 262, RAF Cosford, 2002, taken & submitted by Paul Maritz (paulmaz) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire Magyars Commanders Otto the Great harka Bulcsú; chieftains Lél and Súr Strength 10,000 heavy cavalry 50,000 light cavalry Casualties about 3,500 about 30,000 fell in the battle about 5,000 killed by local farmers maybe 5,000 fleeing Magyars killed... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Walter Nowi Nowotny (December 7, 1920 - November 8, 1944) was a Sudeten German fighter ace of World War II with 258 confirmed victories in 442 missions, 255 victories over Russian pilots. ... Kommando Nowotny was a Luftwaffe fighter Gruppe formed during the last months of World War 2. ... The de Havilland Mosquito[1] was a British combat aircraft that excelled in a number of roles during the Second World War. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 357th Fighter Group was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War. ...


By January 1945, Jagdgeschwader 7 (JG 7) had been formed as a pure jet fighter unit, although it would be several weeks before it was operational. In the meantime a bomber unit—I Gruppe, Kampfgeschwader 54 (KG 54)—had re-equipped with the Me 262 A-2a fighter-bomber for use in a ground attack role. However, the unit lost 12 jets in action in two weeks for minimal returns. Jagdgeschwader 7 (JG 7) Nowotny was a Luftwaffe fighter-wing of World War II. It was created late in 1944 and served until the end of the war in 1945. ...


Jagdverband 44 (JV 44) was another Me 262 fighter unit formed in February, by Lieutenant General Adolf Galland, who had recently been dismissed as Inspector of Day Fighters. Galland was able to draw into the unit many of the most experienced and decorated Luftwaffe fighter pilots from other units grounded by lack of fuel. JV 44 was the shorthand name for Jagdverband 44, a special fighter squadron of top fighter ace pilots in the Luftwaffe during the last weeks of World War II, equipped with Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighters. ... Adolf Dolfo Joseph Ferdinand Galland[1] (19 March 1912-9 February 1996) was a World War II German fighter pilot and commander of Germanys fighter force (General der Jagdflieger) from 1941 to 1945. ...


During March, Me 262 fighter units were thus able, for the first time, to deliver large scale attacks on Allied bomber formations. On 18 March 1945, 37 Me 262s of JG 7 intercepted a force of 1,221 bombers and 632 escorting fighters. They shot down 12 bombers and one fighter for the loss of three Me 262s. Although a four-to-one ratio was exactly what the Luftwaffe would have needed to make an impact on the war, the absolute scale of their success was minor as it represented only one per cent of the attacking force. In 1943 and early 1944, the USAAF had been able to keep up offensive operations though enduring loss ratios of 5% and more, and the few available Me 262s could not inflict sufficient losses to hamper their operations. is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Side view of a Me 262 night fighter, note the radar antenna on the nose and second seat for a radar operator.
Side view of a Me 262 night fighter, note the radar antenna on the nose and second seat for a radar operator.

Several two-seat trainer variants of the Me 262, the Me 262 B-1a, had been adapted as night fighters, complete with on-board FuG 218 Neptun radar and "stag's antlers" (Hirschgeweih) antenna, as the B-1a/U1 version. Serving with 10 Staffel, Nachtjagdgeschwader 11, Night Fighter wing, near Berlin, these few aircraft (alongside several single seat examples) accounted for most of the 13 Mosquitoes lost over Berlin in the first three months of 1945. However, actual intercepts were generally or entirely made using Wilde Sau methods, rather than AI radar-controlled interception. As the two-seat trainer was largely unavailable many pilots had to do their first flight in a jet in a single seater without an instructor. Image File history File links ME_262_2. ... Image File history File links ME_262_2. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night, or in other times of bad visibility. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


Despite its deficiencies, the Me 262 was clearly signalling the beginning of the end of piston-engined aircraft as efficient fighting machines. Once airborne, it accelerated to speeds well over 800 km/h (500 mph), over 150 km/h (93 mph) faster than any Allied fighter operational in the European Theater of Operations.


The Me 262's top ace[11] was probably Hauptmann Franz Schall with 17 kills which included six four-engine bombers and ten P-51 fighters, although night fighter ace Oberleutnant Kurt Welter claimed 25 Mosquitos and two four-engined bombers shot down by night and two further Mosquitos by day flying the Me 262. Most of Welter's claimed night kills were achieved in standard radar-less aircraft, even though Welter had tested a prototype Me 262 fitted with Neptun radar. Another candidate for top ace on the aircraft was Heinrich Bär, who claimed 16 enemy aircraft while flying the Me 262. Franz Schall (born 1 June 1918 in Graz, Austria, killed in action 10 April 1945 in Parchim) was a German World War II fighter ace and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross. ... Kurt Welter (25 February 1916 - 7 March 1949) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace and the most successful Jet Expert of World War II.[1] He had a total of 63 victories achieved in only 93 combat missions. ... Heinz Pritzl Bär (21 March 1913 - 28 April 1957) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace who served through the whole of World War II. He had a total of 221 victories,[1] fighting in all the major German theaters of war, including ETO, MTO and the Eastern Front. ...


Anti-bomber tactics

The standard approach against bomber formations, which were travelling at cruise speed, called for the Me 262 to approach the bombers from the rear at a higher altitude, diving in below the bomber's flight level to get additional speed before gaining altitude again and, on reaching the bomber's level, opening fire with its four 30 mm cannon at 600 m (656 yard) range. M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ...


Allied bomber gunners found that their electric gun turrets had problems tracking the jets. Target acquisition was difficult because the jets closed into firing range quickly and had to remain in firing position only briefly using their standard attack profile.


Eventually new combat tactics were developed to counter the Allied bombers' defences. Me 262s equipped with R4M rockets would approach from the side of a bomber formation where their silhouettes were widest and, while still out of range of the .50 caliber guns, fire a salvo of these explosive rockets. The explosive power of only one or two of these rockets was capable of downing even the famously rugged B-17- a strike on an enemy aircraft meant its total annihilation.[12] While this tactic came too late to have a real effect on the war it was nonetheless effective. This method of combating bombers became the standard until the invention and mass deployment of guided missiles. Some nicknamed this tactic the "Luftwaffe's Wolf Pack", as the fighters would often make runs in groups of two or three, fire their rockets, then return to base. R4M rockets, on an Me 262s starboard launcher. ... The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ...


On 1 September 1944, USAAF General Carl Spaatz expressed the fear that if greater numbers of German jets appeared, they could inflict losses to the USAAF bombers heavy enough to cause cancellation of the Allied daylight bombing offensive. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Tooey Spaatz (June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974) was an American general in World War II. Carl Andrew Spatz (Spaatz added the second a in 1937 at the request of his wife and daughters to clarify the pronunciation of the name) was born on June 28, 1891, in Boyertown... USAAF recruitment poster. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ...


Counter-jet tactics

Tactics against the Me 262 developed quickly to find ways of defeating it despite its great speed advantage. Allied bomber escort fighters would fly high above the bombers — diving from this height gave them extra speed thus reducing the speed advantage of the Me 262. The Me 262 was less maneuverable than the P-51 and trained Allied pilots could catch up to a turning Me 262 though the only reliable way of dealing with the jets, as with the even faster Komet rocket fighters, was to attack them on the ground and during take off and landing. Luftwaffe airfields that were recognized as jet bases were frequently bombed by medium bombers, and Allied fighters patrolled over the fields to attack jets trying to land on their bases. The Luftwaffe countered by installing flak alleys along the approach lines in order to protect the Me 262s from the ground and providing top cover with conventional fighters during takeoff and landing. Nevertheless in March and April 1945 Allied fighter patrol patterns over Me 262 airfields resulted in numerous losses of the jets and serious attrition of the force. The Me 163 Komet, designed by Alexander Martin Lippisch, was the only operational rocket-powered fighter aircraft during the Second World War. ... “Flak” redirects here. ...


Another experimental tactic was installing nitrous oxide injection, much like the Germans' own GM-1 system, into Mustangs. When chasing an Me 262, the pilot could press a button injecting the nitrous oxide into the engine, producing a quick burst of speed. For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... GM-1 was a system for injecting nitrous oxide into aircraft engines that was used by the Luftwaffe in World War II to boost the high-altitude performance of their aircraft. ...


Other Allied fighters that encountered the Me 262 included the British Supermarine Spitfire, Hawker Tempest and the Soviet Lavochkin La-7. The first recorded Allied destruction of a Me 262, belonging to the unit known as Kommando Schenk, was on 28 August 1944, claimed as destroyed by 78th FG pilots Major Joseph Myers and 2nd Lt. Manford O. Croy flying P-47s. Oberfeldwebel Hieronymus "Ronny" Lauer of I KG(J) 51, on a landing pattern crash landed his 262 to get away from the Allied fighters, which then destroyed the Me 262 in strafing attacks.[13] [14] The first Me 262 shot down in combat, belonging to 3. Staffel/Kampfgeschwader 51, with unit code letters "9K+BL", was on 5 October 1944 by Spitfire IXs of 401 RCAF. The 262 pilot was H.C. Butmann in WNr 170093 of 3./KG51. The Lavochkin was the only Soviet fighter to shoot down a German jet, with La-7 ace Ivan Nikitovich Kozhedub, downing an Me 262 on 15 February 1945 over eastern Germany. Kozhedub apparently later said that his success was mainly due to the Me 262 pilot attempting to out-turn his more maneuverable plane. The Supermarine Spitfire was a British single-seat fighter, which was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, and into the 1950s. ... Hawker Tempest II, RAF Museum, Hendon The Hawker Tempest was a Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter aircraft of World War II, an improved derivative of the Hawker Typhoon, and one of the most powerful fighters used in the war. ... Lavochkin La-7 This article is about the WW2 Soviet airplane. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, or Jug as it was known, was one of the main US Army Air Force (USAAF) fighters of World War II. The P-47 was a big, rugged, overbuilt aircraft that was effective in air combat but proved particularly useful as a fighter-bomber. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (Marshal) Ivan Nikitovich Kozhedub ((Ukrainian: , Russian: , June 8, 1920 - August 12, 1991) was a Soviet hero military aviator of Ukrainian descent. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


High speed research

Me 262 interior
Me 262 interior

Willy Messerschmitt regarded the Me 262 as it went into production only as an interim type. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (510x650, 237 KB) Messerschmitt Me 262 cockpit - during the post war trials in US (US Army Signal Corps) A larger version of this image is available at [1], where it obviously was scanned in from some book or journal (note the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (510x650, 237 KB) Messerschmitt Me 262 cockpit - during the post war trials in US (US Army Signal Corps) A larger version of this image is available at [1], where it obviously was scanned in from some book or journal (note the...


Swept wings had been proposed as early as 1935 by Adolf Busemann, and Messerschmitt had researched the topic from 1940. In April 1941, he proposed fitting a 35° swept wing (Pfeilflügel II, literally arrow wing II) to the Me 262.[15] Though this was not implemented, he continued with the projected HG II and HG III (Hochgeschwindigkeit, high speed) derivatives in 1944, which were designed with a 35° and 45° wing sweep, respectively.[16] Adolf Busemann at Langley Adolph Busemann (* 20 April 1901 in Lübeck, † 3 November 1986 in Boulder, Colorado) was an influential early pioneer in aerodynamics, specialising in supersonic airflows. ...


Interest in high-speed flight, which led him to initiate work on swept wings starting in 1940, is evident from the advanced developments Messerschmitt had on his drawing board in 1944. While the Me-262 HG I actually flight tested in 1944 had only small changes compared to combat aircraft, most notably a low-profile canopy (tried as the Rennkabine (literally racing cabin) on the Me 262 V9 prototype for a short time) to reduce drag, the HG II and HG III designs were far more radical. The projected HG II combined the low-drag canopy with a 35° wing sweep and a butterfly tail. The HG III had a conventional tail, but a 45° wing sweep and turbines embedded in the wingroot.[17]


Messerschmitt also conducted a series of flight tests with the series production Me 262. In these dive tests, it was established that the Me 262 was out of control in a dive at Mach 0.86, and that higher Mach numbers would lead to a nose-down trim that could not be countered by the pilot. The resulting steepening of the dive would lead to even higher speeds and disintegration of the airframe due to excessive negative g loads. Mach may refer to: Ernst Mach Mach number, as a measure of speed inertial mass GNU Mach The microkernel on which GNU Hurd is based Mach kernel, an operating systems kernel technology used in Mac OS X Mach band, an optical illusion Mach Five, the name of the car in... This article is about a measure of force or acceleration. ...


The HG series of Me 262 derivatives was estimated to be capable of reaching transonic Mach numbers in level flight, with the top speed of the HG III being projected as Mach 0.96 at 6 km altitude. Despite the necessity to gain experience in high-speed flight for the HG II and III designs, Messerschmitt undertook no attempts to exceed the Mach 0.86 limit for the Me 262.


After the war, the Royal Aircraft Establishment, at that time one of the leading institutions in high-speed research, re-tested the Me 262 to help with the British attempts at exceeding Mach 1. The RAE achieved speeds of up to Mach 0.84 and confirmed the results from the Messerschmitt dive tests as accurate. Similar tests were run by the Soviets. No attempts were made to exceed the Mach limit established by Messerschmitt. This article needs cleanup. ...


After Willy Messerschmitt's death, the former Me 262 pilot Hans Guido Mutke claimed to be the first person to exceede Mach 1, on 9 April 1945 in a Me 262, in a "straight-down" 90° dive. This claim is disputed because it is only based on Mutke's memory of the incident, which recalls effects other Me 262 pilots observed below the speed of sound at high indicated airspeed, but with no altitude reading, which would be required to determine the actual speed. Furthermore, the pitot tube used to measure airspeed in aircraft can give falsely elevated readings as the pressure builds up inside the tube at high speeds. Finally, the Me 262 wing had only a slight sweep incorporated for trim (center of gravity) reasons and likely would have suffered structural failure due to divergence at high transonic speeds.[citation needed] Dr. Hans Guido Mutke (March 25, 1921 in Neiße – April 8, 2004 in Munich, Germany) was a fighter pilot for the German Luftwaffe during World War II. He claimed to be the first person to break the sound barrier and to achieve supersonic flight, although this claim is... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A Pitot tube is a measuring instrument used to measure fluid flow. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Production

As the Me 262 was widely-regarded as the Luftwaffe's top priority, all expendable materials were put into 262 production. While Germany was bombed repeatedly, production of the Me 262 was dispersed into low-profile production facilities, sometimes little more than clearings in the forests of Germany and occupied nations. Large, heavily protected underground factories were constructed to take up production of the Me 262, safe from bomb attacks, but the war ended before they could be completed. Several components of the Me 262 were built in forced labour camps. In the end, slightly over 1,400 Me 262s of all versions were produced. As few as 200 Me 262s made it to combat units due to fuel shortages, pilot shortages, and the lack of many airfields that could support the Me 262 (concrete runways were recommended as the jet engines would melt tar runways).[citation needed]


Postwar history

Reproduction of a Messerschmitt Me 262 at the Berlin Air Show 2006.
Reproduction of a Messerschmitt Me 262 at the Berlin Air Show 2006.

After the end of the war the Me 262 as well as other advanced German technology was quickly swept up by the Americans (as part of the USAAF's Operation Lusty), British and Soviets. Many Me 262s were found in readily-repairable condition and were confiscated. The Me 262 was found during testing to have advantages over the early models of Gloster Meteor. It was faster, had better cockpit visibility to the sides and rear (mostly due to the canopy frame and the discoloration caused by the plastics used in the Meteor's construction), and was a superior gun platform as the early Meteors had a tendency to snake at high speed and exhibited "weak" aileron response.[18] The Me 262 did have a shorter combat range than the Meteor. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 2695 KB) Summary Nachbau der Messerschmidt 262, des ersten in Serie gebautem strahlgetriebenen Jagdflugzeuges. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 2695 KB) Summary Nachbau der Messerschmidt 262, des ersten in Serie gebautem strahlgetriebenen Jagdflugzeuges. ... ILA2004 display area The Berlin Air Show ILA2006 belongs to the most important aerospace trade-fairs in the world and takes place in Berlin, Germany. ... Shortly after World War II, Operation Lusty was the evaluation of German Air Force experimental aircraft by the United States. ...


The USAAF compared the P-80 Shooting Star and Me 262 concluding: "Despite a difference in gross weight of nearly 2,000 lb (907 kg), the Me 262 was superior to the P-80 in acceleration, speed and approximately the same in climb performance. The Me 262 apparently has a higher critical Mach number, from a drag standpoint, than any current Army Air Force fighter."[19] The Army Air Force also tested an example of the Me 262A-1a/U3 (US flight evaluation serial FE-4012), an unarmed photoreconnaissance version, which was fitted with a fighter nose and given an overall smooth finish. It was used for performance comparisons against the P-80. During testing in May-August 1946, the aircraft completed eight flights spanning four hours and 40 minutes. Testing was discontinued after four engine changes were required during the course of the tests, culminating in two single-engine landings.[20] The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star was the first operational jet fighter used by the United States Army Air Forces and, as the F-80, saw extensive combat in Korea with the United States Air Force. ...


These aircraft were extensively studied, aiding development of early U.S. and Soviet jet fighters. The F-86 Sabre, designed by the engineer Edgar Schmued, used the Me-262 airfoil (Messerschmitt Wing A) and a slat design similar to that of the Me 262.[21] The North American F-86 Sabre (sometimes called the Sabrejet) was a transonic combat aircraft developed for the US Air Force. ... Edgar Schmued, aircraft designer (1899 - 1985) was famed for his design of the iconic P-51 Mustang and, later, the F-86 Sabre. ...


The Czechoslovak aircraft industry continued to produce single-seater (designated Avia S-92) and two-seater (designated Avia CS-92) variants of the Me 262 after World War II. From August 1946 a total of nine single-seater S-92 and three two-seater CS-92 planes were completed and test flown. They were introduced in 1947 and in 1950 they were supplied to the 5th fighter squadron. These were kept flying as late as 1957. They were the first jet fighters to serve in the Czechoslovak Air Force. Both versions are on display at the Prague Aero museum in Kbely. The Czech Air Force, ICAO code CEF, is the air force branch of the Czech Republic Army. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...


In January 2003, the American Me 262 Project completed flight testing to allow for delivery of near-exact reproductions of several versions of the Me 262 including at least two B-1c two-seater variants, one A-1c single seater and two "convertibles" that could be converted between the A-1c and B-1c configurations. All are powered by General Electric J85 engines and feature additional safety features such as upgraded brakes and strengthened landing gear. The "c" suffix refers to the new J-85 powerplant and has been informally assigned with the approval of the Messerschmitt Foundation in Germany. Flight testing of the first newly-manufactured Me 262 A-1c (single seat) variant was completed in August 2005. The first of these machines went to a private owner in the southwestern United States, while the second was delivered to the Messerschmitt Foundation at Manching, Germany. This aircraft conducted a private test flight in late April 2006, and made its public debut in May at the Berlin Air Show (ILA 2006). The new Me 262 flew during the public flight demonstrations.[22] Me 262 Werk Number 501241 was delivered to the Collings Foundation as White 1 of JG 7. This aircraft will be offering ride-along flights starting in 2008 [23] Reproduction of a Messerschmitt Me 262 produced by the project at the Berlin Air Show 2006 Several new build Me 262 fighter jets are under construction in the United States. ... The General Electric J85 was a small single-shaft turbojet engine, capable of generating up to 4000 lbf (18 kN) of dry thrust. ... For the type of ferns known as brakes, see brake (fern). ... Main and nosewheel undercarriage of a Qatar Airways Airbus A330 The undercarriage or landing gear is equipment which supports an aircraft when it is not flying. ... ILA2004 display area The Berlin Air Show ILA2006 belongs to the most important aerospace trade-fairs in the world and takes place in Berlin, Germany. ...


Variants

Me 262 A-1a/U4, postwar image
Me 262 A-1a/U4, postwar image
A-0
Pre-production aircraft fitted with two Juno 004B turbojet engines.
A-1a "Schwalbe"
Production version, fighter and fighter bomber.
A-1a/R-1
Equipped with provisions for R4M air-to-air rockets
A-1a/U1
Single prototype with a total of six nose mounted guns, two 20 mm MG 151 cannon, two 30 mm MK 103, and two 30 mm MK 108 cannon.
A-1a/U2
Single prototype with FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 radar array and Hirschgeweih antenna array in order to test the Me 262 as a night-fighter.
A-1a/U3
Reconnaissance version modified in small numbers, fitted RB 20/30 cameras mounted in the nose (sometimes one RB 20/20 and one RB 75/30). Some retained one 30 mm cannon as armament, but most were unarmed.
A-1a/U4
Bomber destroyer version, two prototypes with an adapted 50 mm MK 214 (or Bordkanone BK 5) anti-tank gun in nose.
A-1a/U5
Heavy jet fighter with six MK 108 guns in the nose
A-1b
As A-1a but powered with BMW 003 engines. Few built, two are known to have existed at experimental establishments; maximum speed of 497 mph (800 km/h).
A-2a "Sturmvogel"
Definitive bomber version retaining only two MK 108 guns.
A-2a/U1
Single prototype with advanced bombsight.
A-2a/U2
Two prototypes with glazed nose for accommodating a bombardier.
A-3a
Proposed ground attack version.
A-4a
Reconnaissance version.
A-5a
Definitive reconnaissance version used in small numbers at end of the war.
B-1a
Two-seat trainer.
B-1a/U1
B-1a trainers converted into provisional night fighters, FuG 218 Neptun radar
B-2
Proposed night fighter version with stretched fuselage.
C-1a
Single prototype [made from Me 262A Werknummer 130 186] of rocket-boosted interceptor (Heimatschützer I) with Walter 109-509 rocket in tail, first flown with combined jet/rocket power on 27 February 1945.
C-2b
Single prototype [made from Me 262A Werknummer 170 074] of rocket-boosted interceptor (Heimatschützer II) with two BMW 003R "combined" powerplants (BMW 003 jet, with one BMW 718 rocket engine mounted atop the rear of each jet exhaust) for boosted thrust, only flown once with combined jet/rocket power on 26 March 1945.
C-3a
Single prototype of rocket-boosted interceptor with Walter rockets in belly pack.
D-1
Proposed variant to carry Jagdfaust mortars.
E-1
Proposed cannon-armed variant based on A-1a/U4.
E-2
Proposed rocket-armed variant carrying up to 48 R4M rockets.
S
Zero-series model for Me 262 A-1a
V
Test model for Me 262
W
Provisional designation for Me262 with pulse-jet engines

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 416 pixelsFull resolution (849 × 441 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Me 262 A-1a/U4 with 50 mm cannon (experimental version) with American markings Captured by the Americans at Lechfeld in April 1945 Postwar image File... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 416 pixelsFull resolution (849 × 441 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Me 262 A-1a/U4 with 50 mm cannon (experimental version) with American markings Captured by the Americans at Lechfeld in April 1945 Postwar image File... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The SG 500 Jagdfaust was an experimental airborne rocket designed for use by the German Luftwaffe during World War II. It was mounted parallel to the vertical axis of a dozen of the volatile, rocket-powered Me-163. ...

Postwar variants

Avia S-92 (Czechoslovak-made Me 262A)
Avia S-92 (Czechoslovak-made Me 262A)
Avia S-92
Czech built Me 262 A-1a.
Avia CS-92
Czech built Me 262 B-1a.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 165 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 165 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Avia was a Czech aircraft company notable for producing biplane fighters, especially the B-534. ...

Reproductions

These reproductions are constructed by Legend Flyers, WA. The original Jumo-004 engines are here replaced by more reliable General Electric J85 engines. The first ME-262 reproduction (a two-seater) took off for the first time in December 2002 and the second one in August 2005. This one was delivered to the Messerschmitt Foundation and was presented at the ILA airshow in 2006 [1]. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

A-1c
American privately built, based on A-1a configuration.
B-1c
American privately built, based on B-1a configuration.
A/B-1c
American privately built, convertible between A-1a and B-1a configuration.

Operators

Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia
Flag of Germany Germany

Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... The Czech Air Force, ICAO code CEF, is the air force branch of the Czech Republic Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...

Survivors

Me 262B-1a/U1 (Red8)
Me 262B-1a/U1 (Red8)
Me 262 B-1a (White 35)
Me 262 B-1a (White 35)
Me 262A and its Junkers Jumo 004 turbojet engine (Yellow 5)
Me 262A and its Junkers Jumo 004 turbojet engine (Yellow 5)
Me 262A, W.Nr.500071 "White 3", III./JG 7
Deutsches Museum Flugwerft, Oberschleißheim near Munich, Germany. This aircraft, flown by Hans Guido Mutke while a pilot of 9. Staffel/JG 7, was confiscated by Swiss authorities on April 25, 1945 after Mutke made an emergency landing in Switzerland due to lack of fuel (80 litres were remaining, 35 litres were usually burnt in one minute).
Me 262 A-1a
Reconstructed from parts of crashed and uncompleted Me 262. Luftwaffe Museum, Germany.
Me 262 A-1a W.Nr.501232 "Yellow 5", 3./KG(J)6
National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, USA.
Me 262 A-1a/U3 W.Nr.500453
Flying Heritage Collection, Arlington, Washington, USA, scheduled reopen in Everett, Washington in Summer 2008
Me 262 A-1b W.Nr.500491 "Yellow 7", II./JG 7
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.
Me 262 A-2a W.Nr.112372
RAF Museum Hendon, United Kingdom.
Me 262 A-2a W.Nr.500200 "Black X 9K+XK", II./KG 51
Australian War Memorial, Canberra, Australia.
Me 262 B-1a/U1, W.Nr.110305 "Red 8"
South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Me 262 B-1a, W.Nr.110639 "White 35"
NAS Willow Grove, Pennsylvania, USA.
Avia S-92
Aviation Museum Kbely, Prague, Czech Republic.
Avia CS-92
Aviation Museum Kbely, Prague, Czech Republic.
Me 262A W.Nr.500453
Flying Heritage Collection, Arlington, Washington, USA, scheduled reopen in Everett, Washington in Summer 2008, (under restoration in England)

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 759 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Messerschmitt Me 262B-1a at the Wings of Freedom Aviation Museum at NAS JRB Willow Grove I, the creator of this work, hereby... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 759 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Messerschmitt Me 262B-1a at the Wings of Freedom Aviation Museum at NAS JRB Willow Grove I, the creator of this work, hereby... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Deutsches Museum The Deutsches Museum (German Museum) in Munich, Germany, is the worlds largest museum of technology and science, with approximately 1. ... Oberschleißheim is a municipality in the district of Munich, in Bavaria, Germany. ... Dr. Hans Guido Mutke (March 25, 1921 in Neiße – April 8, 2004 in Munich, Germany) was a fighter pilot for the German Luftwaffe during World War II. He claimed to be the first person to break the sound barrier and to achieve supersonic flight, although this claim is... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Messerschmitt Me 163 at the Luftwaffenmuseum in Berlin-Gatow Canadair Sabre at the Luftwaffenmuseum in Berlin-Gatow The Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr (German for Airforce Museum of the Bundeswehr), together with the Militärhistorische Museum der Bundeswehr, is one of the major military history museums in Germany. ... The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official national museum of the United States Air Force and is located on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in Riverside, Ohio, just east of Dayton. ... The Flying Heritage Collection is Paul Allens private collection of 20th century military aviation. ... Arlington is a city located in northern Snohomish County, Washington, USA, bordered by the city of Marysville to the south. ... County Snohomish Government  - Mayor Ray Stephanson Area  - City 123. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... An Avro Lancaster in the main hangar of the RAF Museum London The Royal Air Force Museum (RAF Museum) is a museum dedicated to the history of aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular. ... The Australian War Memorial is Australias national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Willow Grove began in 1926 when Harold Frederick Pitcairn constructed a hangar and a grass airstrip in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. ... Willow Grove is a census-designated place located in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, about 10 miles north of Philadelphia. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... The Flying Heritage Collection is Paul Allens private collection of 20th century military aviation. ... Arlington is a city located in northern Snohomish County, Washington, USA, bordered by the city of Marysville to the south. ... County Snohomish Government  - Mayor Ray Stephanson Area  - City 123. ...

Specifications (Messerschmitt Me 262 A-1a)

Data from Quest for Performance[7] Image File history File links Messerschmitt_Me_262_Schwalbe_3d_drawing. ...


General characteristics

  • Crew: One
  • Length: 10.60 m (34 ft 9 in)
  • Wingspan: 12.51 m (41 ft 0 in)
  • Height: 3.50 m (11 ft 6 in)
  • Wing area: 21.7 m² (234 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 3,800 kg (8,400 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 7,130 kg (15,720 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 6,400 kg (14,100 lb)
  • Powerplant:Junkers Jumo 004B-1 turbojets, 8.8 kN (1,980 lbf) each
  • Aspect ratio: 7.23

The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft can achieve flight. ... Junkers Jumo may refer to anyone of a number of aircraft engines Junkers Jumo 205 Junkers Jumo 210 Junkers Jumo 211 Junkers Jumo 213 Junkers Jumo 222 Junkers Jumo 223 Junkers Jumo 004 Category: ... For the transportation company in southern China, see TurboJET. Turbojets are the oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... The low aspect ratio wing of a Piper PA-28 Cherokee In aerodynamics, the aspect ratio is an airplanes wings span divided by its standard mean chord (SMC). ...

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 870 km/h (541 mph)
  • Range: 1,050 km (652 mi)
  • Service ceiling 11,450 m (37,565 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 1,200 m/min (3,900 ft/min)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.28

V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... In aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditons The service ceiling attempts to capture the maximum usable altitude of an aircraft. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Thrust-to-weight ratio (where weight means weight at the Earths surface) is a dimensionless parameter characteristic of rocket and jet engines, and of vehicles propelled by such engines (typically space launch vehicles and jet aircraft). ...

Armament

  • 4x 30 mm MK 108 cannons (A-2a: two cannons)
  • 2x 250 kg (550 lb) bombs (A-2a only)
  • 24x 55 mm (2.2 in) R4M rockets

The MK 108 (German: Maschinenkanone - Machine Cannon) was an autocannon (30mm calibre) manufactured in Germany during World War II by Rheinmetall-Borsig for use in aircraft. ... R4M rockets, on an Me 262s starboard launcher. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b Radinger and Schick 1996, p. 23.
  2. ^ Price 2007, pp. 36–37.
  3. ^ Green, William: Warplanes of the Third Reich. New York: Galahad Books, 1970. ISBN 0-88365-666-3.
  4. ^ Morgan and Weal 1998, pp. 78, Appendix. This source estimates that jet fighters of all types produced 745 victories.
  5. ^ Stormbirds history
  6. ^ Price 1993, p. 176.
  7. ^ a b Loftin, L.K. Jr. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft. NASA SP-468. Retrieved: 22 April 2006.
  8. ^ Radinger and Schick 1996, p. 18.
  9. ^ Radinger and Schick 1996, pp. 12–13.
  10. ^ Smith 1971, p. 103.
  11. ^ For a list of Luftwaffe jet aces see List of German World War II Jet aces
  12. ^ Wings on My Sleeve- Eric "Winkle" brown pg.101
  13. ^ Foreman and Harvey 1990
  14. ^ Ethell and Price 1979
  15. ^ Radinger and Schick 1996, p. 75.
  16. ^ Radinger and Schick 1996, pp. 75, 79. Note: Willy Messerschmitt July 1943.
  17. ^ Radinger and Schick 1996, p. 79.
  18. ^ Ethell and Price 1994, pp. 97–99.
  19. ^ Ethell and Price 1994, p. 180.
  20. ^ Butler 1994
  21. ^ Willy Radinger/Walter Schick Messerschmitt Geheimprojekte p.15, German
  22. ^ Me 262 Flies again
  23. ^ Messerschmitt ME-262 Flight Program

is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... On 26 July 1944 Leutnant Alfred Schreiber shoots down a No 540 Sqn Mosquito PR XVI, a reconnaissance aircraft, while flying Me 262 A-1a WNr. ...

Bibliography

  • Butler, Phil. War prizes: An Illustrated Survey of German, Italian and Japanese Aircraft brought to Allied countries During and After the Second World War. Leicestershire, UK: Midland, 1994. ISBN 0-90459-786-5.
  • Ethell, Jeffrey and Price, Alfred. The German Jets in Combat. London: Jane's Publishing Company, 1979. ISBN 0-35401-252-5.
  • Ethell, Jeffrey and Price, Alfred. World War II Fighting Jets. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1994. ISBN 1-55750-940-9.
  • Foreman, John and Harvey, S.E. The Messerschmitt Me 262 Combat Diary. Surrey, UK: Air Research Publications; England, 1990. ISBN 1-871187-30-3.
  • Morgan, Hugh and Weal, John. German Jet Aces of World War 2 (Osprey Aircraft of the Aces No 17). London: Osprey, 1998. ISBN 1-85532-634-5.
  • O'Connell, Dan. Messerschmitt Me 262: The Production Log 1941-1945. Leicestershire, UK: Classic Publications, 2006. ISBN 1-903223-59-8.
  • Price, Alfred. "Sleek and Deadly: The Messerschmitt Me 262." Flight Journal, February 2007.
  • Price, Alfred. The Last Year of the Luftwaffe: May 1944 to May 1945. London: Greenhill Books, 1993. ISBN 1-85367-440-0.
  • Radinger, Will and Schick Walter. Me262 (in German). Berlin: Avantic Verlag GmbH, 1996. ISBN 3-925505-21-0.
  • Smith, J. Richard. Messerschmitt: An Aircraft Album. New York: Arco Publishing, 1971. ISBN 0-668-02505-5.
  • Smith, J. Richard and Creek, Edward J. Jet Planes of the Third Reich. Boylston, Massachusetts: Monogram Aviation Publications, 1982. ISBN 0-914144-27-8.

External links

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:


Comparable aircraft

  • Gloster Meteor
  • P-59 Airacomet
  • P-80 Shooting Star
  • Nakajima J9Y
  • Nakajima Ki-201
  • Sukhoi Su-9 (1946)

Related lists The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies first operational jet. ... The Bell P-59A was a fighter aircraft built in the United States during World War II. The prototype XP-59A became the first jet-powered aircraft to fly in the US on 1 October 1942. ... The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star was the first operational jet fighter used by the United States Army Air Forces and, as the F-80, saw extensive combat in Korea with the United States Air Force. ... The Nakajima Kikka (Japanese: 中島 橘花, Orange Blossom) was Japans first jet-powered aircraft. ... This aircraft article has not been updated to WikiProject Aircrafts current standards. ... Su-9 This article describes the first aircraft to carry the Su-9 designation. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Messerschmitt Me-262 (1809 words)
It was a superb day and night bomber interceptor, with a speed advantage so great, and armament so powerful, that it could easily intercept and destroy allied heavy bombers, while practically ignoring their swarms of piston-engined escort fighters, and the bombers' own gun turrets.
Allied bombardments of the Messerschmitt factories and of the German fuel industry, and later of Me-262 air bases, also greatly contributed to delay and minimize its operational activity.
When it did fly to air combat, the Me-262 was unstoppable at high speed, but it was vulnerable at low speed, after takeoff and before landing, because of its very sensitive and immature jet engines, and that's where allied fighters ambushed it, in addition to attacking it on the ground.
Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe / Sturmvogel (1444 words)
Contrary to Hitler's orders, the Me 262 was exclusively produced as a fighter but when this was discovered by the Führer, an immediate conversion of all planes was ordered, thus ending all hopes of repelling the punishing Allied bombing raids for the sake of dropping one or two bombs.
The Me 262 was argued to be an excellent opportunity to inflict serious damage to the Allied bomber formations as it had already produced superb results against Allied aircraft and it used diesel fuel which was in less demand compared with the high-octane fuel used by propeller driven aircraft.
The production Me 262 had a leading edge sweep of 18.5° primarily to properly position the center of lift relative to the center of mass and not for the aerodynamic benefit of increasing the critical Mach number of the wing (the sweep was too slight to achieve any significant advantage).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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