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Encyclopedia > Messenger RNA
 The "life cycle" of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. RNA is transcribed in the nucleus; once completely processed, it is transported to the cytoplasm and translated by the ribosome. At the end of its life, the mRNA is degraded.
The "life cycle" of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. RNA is transcribed in the nucleus; once completely processed, it is transported to the cytoplasm and translated by the ribosome. At the end of its life, the mRNA is degraded.

Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) is RNA that encodes and carries information from DNA during transcription to sites of protein synthesis to undergo translation in order to yield a gene product. Description: The interaction of mRNA in a cell. ... Description: The interaction of mRNA in a cell. ... Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Or, in other words, the transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA. In the case of protein-encoding DNA, transcription is the beginning of the process that ultimately... The eukaryotic cell nucleus. ... Cytoplasm is a water-like cell wall that fills cells. ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix. ... Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Or, in other words, the transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA. In the case of protein-encoding DNA, transcription is the beginning of the process that ultimately... Biological and artificial methods for creation of proteins differ significantly. ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... A gene product is the biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene. ...

Contents

mRNA "life cycle"

The brief life of a mRNA molecule begins with transcription and ultimately ends in degradation. During its life, an mRNA molecule may also be processed, edited, and transported prior to translation. Eukaryotic mRNA molecules often require extensive processing and transport, while prokaryotic molecules do not. Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Prokaryotes (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. ...


Transcription

During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene from the DNA to mRNA as needed. This process is similar in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One notable difference, however, is that eukaryotic RNA polymerase associates with mRNA processing enzymes during transcription so that processing can proceed quickly after the start of transcription. The short-lived, unprocessed or partially processed, product is termed pre-mRNA; once completely processed, it is termed mature mRNA. Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Or, in other words, the transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA. In the case of protein-encoding DNA, transcription is the beginning of the process that ultimately... RNAP from pictured during elongation. ... Pre-mRNA (preliminary mRNA) is a single strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA), synthesized from the DNA in the nucleus of a cell by the process transcription. ... Mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation. ...


Eukaryotic pre-mRNA processing

Processing of mRNA differs greatly between eukaryotes, bacteria and archea. non-eukaryotic mRNA is essentially mature upon transcription and requires no processing, except in rare cases. Eukaryotic pre-mRNA, however, requires extensive processing. Post transcriptional modification refers to the process by which, in eukaryotic cells pre-mRNA is converted into messenger RNA (mRNA). ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (IPA: ) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota The Archaea are a major group of prokaryotes. ...


Splicing

Main article: Splicing (genetics)

Splicing is the process by which pre-mRNA is modified to remove certain stretches of non-coding sequences called introns; the stretches that remain include protein-coding sequences and are called exons. Sometimes pre-mRNA messages may be spliced in several different ways, allowing a single gene to encode multiple proteins. This process is called alternative splicing. Splicing is usually performed by an RNA-protein complex called the spliceosome, but some RNA molecules are also capable of catalyzing their own splicing (see ribozymes). In genetics, splicing is a modification of genetic information after transcription, in which introns are removed and exons are joined. ... Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ... An exon is any region of DNA within a gene, that is transcribed to the final messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, rather than being spliced out from the transcribed RNA molecule. ... Various modes of alternative splicing Alternative splicing is the process that occurs in eukaryotes in which the splicing process of a pre-mRNA transcribed from one gene can lead to different mature mRNA molecules and therefore to different proteins. ... A spliceosome is a complex of RNA and many protein subunits called snRNPs, that removes the non-coding introns from unprocessed mRNA. Spliceosomes are unique to eukaryotic mRNA as the mRNA of prokaryotes lack introns. ... A ribozyme (from ribonucleic acid enzyme, also called RNA enzyme or catalytic RNA) is an RNA molecule that catalyzes a chemical reaction. ...


5' cap addition

Main article: 5' cap

The 5' cap is modified guanine nucleotide is added to the "front" (5' end) of the pre-mRNA using a 5',5-Triphosphate linkage. This modification is critical for recognition and proper attachment of mRNA to the ribosome, as well as protection from 5' exonucleases. It may also be important for other essential processes, such as splicing and transport. The 5 cap is a specially altered dinucleotide end to the 5 end of preliminary messenger RNA as found in eukaryotes. ... In molecular biology, the 5 end and the 3 end (pronounced 5-prime and 3-prime) are respectively the leading and tail ends of a strand of nucleic acid. ...


Editing

In some instances, an mRNA will be edited, changing the nucleotide composition of that mRNA. An example in humans is the apolipoprotein B mRNA, which is edited in some tissues, but not others. The editing creates an early stop codon, which upon translation, produces a shorter protein. // Introduction The term RNA editing describes those molecular processes in which the information content is altered in a RNA molecule through a chemical change in the base makeup. ... Apolipoprotein B (APOB) is the primary apolipoprotein of low density lipoproteins (LDL or bad cholesterol), and is responsible for carrying cholesterol to tissues. ...


Polyadenylation

Main article: Polyadenylation

Polyadenylation is the covalent linkage of a polyadenylyl moiety to a messenger RNA molecule. In eukaryotic organisms, most messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules are polyadenylated at the 3' end. The poly(A) tail and the protein bound to it aid in protecting mRNA from degradation by exonucleases. Polyadenylation is also important for transcription termination, export of the mRNA from the nucleus, and translation. mRNA can also be polyadenylated in prokaryotic organisms, where poly(A) tails act to facilitate, rather than impede, exonucleolytic degradation. Polyadenylation is the covalent linkage of a polyadenylyl moiety to a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. ... The life cycle of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. ...


Polyadenylation occurs during and immediately after transcription of DNA into RNA. After transcription has been terminated, the mRNA chain is cleaved through the action of an endonuclease complex associated with RNA polymerase. The cleavage site is characterized by the presence of the base sequence AAUAAA near the cleavage site. After the mRNA has been cleaved, 80 to 250 adenosine residues are added to the free 3' end at the cleavage site. This reaction is catalyzed by polyadenylate polymerase.l


Transport

Another difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is mRNA transport. Because eukaryotic transcription and translation is compartmentally separated, eukaryotic mRNAs must be exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Mature mRNAs are recognized by their processed modifications and then exported through the nuclear pore. The eukaryotic cell nucleus. ... Cytoplasm is a water-like cell wall that fills cells. ... Nuclear pore. ...


Translation

Because prokaryotic mRNA does not need to be processed or transported, translation by the ribosome can begin immediately after the start of transcription. Therefore, it can be said that prokaryotic translation is coupled to transcription and occurs co-transcriptionally. Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ...


Eukaryotic mRNA that has been processed and transported to the cytoplasm (i.e. mature mRNA) can then be translated by the ribosome. Translation may occur at ribosomes free-floating in the cytoplasm, or directed to the endoplasmic reticulum by the signal recognition particle. Therefore, unlike prokaryotes, eukaryotic translation is not directly coupled to transcription. l Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... The endoplasmic reticulum (endoplasmic meaning within the cytoplasm, reticulum meaning little net in Latin) or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins (e. ... The signal recognition particle (SRP) is a protein-RNA complex that recognizes and transports specific proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane in prokaryotes. ...


Degradation

After a certain amount of time, the message is degraded into its component nucleotides, usually with the assistance of RNases. The limited longevity of mRNA enables a cell to alter protein synthesis rapidly in response to its changing needs. Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ...


Different mRNAs within the same cell have distinct lifetimes. In bacterial cells, individual mRNAs can survive from seconds to more than an hour; in mammalian cells, mRNA lifetimes range from several minutes to days. The greater the stability of an mRNA, the more protein may be produced from that transcript. The presence of AUUUA motifs in some species of mRNA tends to destabilize the transcript through the actions of intracellular binding proteins. The rapid degradation via AUUUA motifs of mRNA transcripts encoding potent cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a critical mechanism for preventing the over production of these potent factors in mammals.


mRNA structure

The structure of a mature eukaryotic mRNA. A fully processed mRNA includes a 5' cap, 5' UTR, coding region, 3' UTR, and poly(A) tail.
The structure of a mature eukaryotic mRNA. A fully processed mRNA includes a 5' cap, 5' UTR, coding region, 3' UTR, and poly(A) tail.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1466x504, 14 KB)The structure of a mature eukaryotic mRNA. A fully processed mRNA includes the 5 cap, 5 UTR, coding region, 3 UTR, and poly(A) tail. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1466x504, 14 KB)The structure of a mature eukaryotic mRNA. A fully processed mRNA includes the 5 cap, 5 UTR, coding region, 3 UTR, and poly(A) tail. ...

5' cap

Main article: 5' cap

A 5' cap, also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap or an RNA m7G cap, is a modified guanine nucleotide that has been added to the "front" or 5' end of a eukaryotic messenger RNA shortly after the start of transcription. The 5' cap consists of a terminal 7-methylguanosine residue which is linked through a 5'-5'-triphosphate bond to the first transcribed nucleotide. Its presence is critical for recognition by the ribosome and protection from RNases. The 5 cap is a specially altered dinucleotide end to the 5 end of preliminary messenger RNA as found in eukaryotes. ... In molecular biology, the 5 end and the 3 end (pronounced 5-prime and 3-prime) are respectively the leading and tail ends of a strand of nucleic acid. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ...


Cap addition is coupled to transcription, and occurs co-transcriptionally, such that each influences the other. Shortly after the start of transcription, the 5' end of the mRNA being synthesized is bound by a cap-synthesizing complex associated with RNA polymerase. This enzymatic complex catalyzes the chemical reactions that are required for mRNA capping. Synthesis proceeds as a multi-step biochemical reaction. RNAP from pictured during elongation. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis (in Greek meaning to annul) is the acceleration of the rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ...


First, the triphosphate at the 5' end of the newly synthesized RNA is cleaved. The enzyme phosphohydrolase cleaves the gamma phosphodiester bonds while leaving the alpha and beta phosphates. Second, the enzyme guanylyltransferase transfers a guanine and its alpha phosphate onto the beta phosphate of the 5' end of the mRNA producing a 5'-5'-triphosphate linkage. Third, the nitrogen-7 (N-7) position of the newly added guanine is methylated (guaninemethylation) by the enzyme guanine-7-methyltransferase. Finally, 2'-O-methyltransferase methylates the 2' position of the ribose sugar. This methyl group provides extra stability to the RNA due to the protection from phosphoester cleavage by nucleophilic attack of the neighbor hydrogen. After the 5' end has been capped, it is released from the cap-synthesizing complex and is subsequently bound by a cap-binding complex associated with RNA polymerase. In molecular biology, the 5 end and the 3 end (pronounced 5-prime and 3-prime) are respectively the leading and tail ends of a strand of nucleic acid. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ...


Coding regions

Coding regions are composed of codons, which are decoded and translated into protein by the ribosome. Coding regions begin with the start codon and end with the one of three possible stop codons. In addition to protein-coding, portions of coding regions may also serve as regulatory sequences as exonic splicing enhancers or exonic splicing silencers. Dicistronic is the term used to describe an mRNA that encodes for two proteins, usually with a non-coding region in the middle called the intergenic region. It is most common in viral genomes. RNA codons. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Genome is also a popular science book by Matt Ridley. ...


Monocistronic versus Polycistronic mRNA

For more details on this topic, see monocistronic mRNA.
For more details on this topic, see polycistronic mRNA.

An mRNA molecule is said to be monocistronic when it contains the genetic information to translate only a single protein. This is the case for most of the eukaryotic mRNAs[1]. On the other hand, polycistronic mRNA carries the information of several proteins, which are translated into single proteins. Most of the mRNA found in bacteria and archea are polycistronic[1]. Monocistronic is an adjective used in genetics which usually refers to messenger RNA (mRNA) and means that a single polypeptide chain will result from its translation. ... Messenger RNA (mRNA) is said to be polycistronic or polygenic when it contains the genetic information to translate more than one protein. ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista A eukaryote (IPA: ) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota The Archaea are a major group of prokaryotes. ...


Untranslated regions

Main articles: 5' UTR and 3' UTR

Untranslated regions (UTRs) are sections of the RNA before the start codon and after the stop codon that are not translated, termed the five prime untranslated region (5' UTR) and three prime untranslated region (3' UTR), respectively. These regions are transcribed as part of the same transcript as the coding region. Several roles in gene expression have been attributed to the untranslated regions, including mRNA stability, mRNA localization, and translational efficiency. The ability of a UTR to perform these functions depends on the sequence of the UTR and can differ between mRNAs. In eukaryotic genetics, the 5 UTR (read as 5 prime UnTranslated Region) is a particular section of messenger RNA (mRNA). ... In genetics, the 3 UTR (read as 3 prime untranslated region) is a particular section of messenger RNA (mRNA). ... In eukaryotic genetics, the five prime untranslated region (5 UTR) is a particular section of messenger RNA (mRNA). ... In genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3 UTR) is a particular section of messenger RNA (mRNA). ...


The stability of mRNAs may be controlled by the 5' UTR and/or 3' UTR due to varying affinity for RNA degrading enzymes called ribonucleases and for ancillary proteins that can promote or inhibit RNA degradation. Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ...


Cytoplasmic localization of mRNA is thought to be a function of the 3' UTR. Proteins that are needed in a particular region of the cell can actually be translated there; in such a case, the 3' UTR may contain sequences that allow the transcript to be localized to this region for translation.


Translational efficiency, and even inhibition of translation altogether, can be mediated by UTRs. Proteins that bind to either the 3' or 5' UTR may affect translation by interfering with the ribosome's ability to bind to the mRNA.


Some of the elements contained in untranslated regions form a characteristic secondary structure when transcribed into RNA. These structural mRNA elements are involved in regulating the mRNA. Some, such as the SECIS element, are targets for proteins to bind. One class of mRNA element, the riboswitches, directly bind small molecules, changing their fold to modify levels of transcription or translation. In these cases, the mRNA regulates itself. A representation of the 3D structure of the Myoglobin protein. ... In biology, the SECIS element (SECIS: selenocysteine insertion sequence) is a structural motif (pattern of nucleotides) that directs the cell to translate UGA codons as selenocysteines. ... In molecular biology, a riboswitch is a part of an mRNA molecule that can directly bind a small target molecule, and whose binding of the target affects the genes activity. ...


3' poly(A) tail

Main article: Polyadenylation

The 3' poly(A) tail is a long sequence of adenine nucleotides (often several hundred) added to the "tail" or 3' end of the pre-mRNA through the action of an enzyme, polyadenylate polymerase. In higher eukaryotes, the poly(A) tail is added onto transcripts that contain a specific sequence, the AAUAAA signal. The importance of the AAUAAA signal is demonstrated by a mutation in the human alpha 2-globin gene that changes the original sequence AATAAA into AATAAG, which can lead to hemoglobin deficiencies.[2] Polyadenylation is the covalent linkage of a polyadenylyl moiety to a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. ... Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. ... In molecular biology, the 5 end and the 3 end (pronounced 5-prime and 3-prime) are respectively the leading and tail ends of a strand of nucleic acid. ...


Anti-sense mRNA

During transcription, double stranded DNA produces mRNA from the sense strand; the other, complementary, strand of DNA is termed anti-sense. Anti-sense mRNA is an RNA complementary in sequence to one or more mRNAs. In some organisms, the presence of an anti-sense mRNA can inhibit gene expression by base-pairing with the specific mRNAs. In biochemical research, this effect has been used to study gene function, by simply shutting down the studied gene by adding its anti-sense mRNA transcript. Such studies have been done on the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the bacterium Escherichia coli. This plays a part in RNA interference and RNA transcription. Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which a genes DNA sequence is converted into the structures and functions of a cell. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... For other uses, see Worm (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Caenorhabditis elegans Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... ... RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism in the cell biology of many eukaryotes in which fragments of double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) interfere with the expression of a particular gene whose sequence is complementary to the dsRNA. RNAi is mediated by the same cellular machinery that processes microRNA, small RNA...


See also

Hubert Chantrenne (1918), a Belgian scientist, and one of the pioneers of molecular biology at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Kozak, M. (March 1983). "Comparison of initiation of protein synthesis in procaryotes, eucaryotes, and organelles." (PDF). Microbiological Reviews 47 (1): 1-45. PubMed. Retrieved on 2006-08-12.
  2. ^ Higgs DR, Goodbourn SE, Lamb J, Clegg JB, Weatherall DJ, Proudfoot NJ. (1983). "α-thalassaemia caused by a polyadenylation signal mutation". Nature 306 (5941): 398–400. PMID 6646217 DOI:10.1038/306398a0.

3. Shaw, G. and Kamen, R. "A conserved AU sequence from the 3' untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation." Cell. 1986 Aug 29;46(5):659-67. PMID: 3488815 CELL 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...


External links


Major Families of Biochemicals
Peptides | Amino acids | Nucleic acids | Carbohydrates | Lipids | Terpenoids | Carotenoids | Tetrapyrroles | Enzyme cofactors | Steroids | Flavonoids | Alkaloids | Polyketides
Analogues of nucleic acids:   Analogues of nucleic acids:
Nucleobases: Adenine | Thymine | Uracil | Guanine | Cytosine | Purine | Pyrimidine
Nucleosides: Adenosine | Uridine | Guanosine | Cytidine | Deoxyadenosine | Thymidine | Deoxyguanosine | Deoxycytidine
Nucleotides: AMP | UMP | GMP | CMP | ADP | UDP | GDP | CDP | ATP | UTP | GTP | CTP | cAMP | cADPR | cGMP
Deoxynucleotides: dAMP | TMP | dGMP | dCMP | dADP | TDP | dGDP | dCDP | dATP | TTP | dGTP | dCTP
Ribonucleic acids: RNA | mRNA | tRNA | rRNA | ncRNA | sgRNA | shRNA | siRNA | snRNA | miRNA | snoRNA | LNA
Deoxyribonucleic acids: DNA | mtDNA | cDNA | plasmid | Cosmid | BAC | YAC | HAC
Analogues of nucleic acids: GNA | PNA | TNA| LNA | morpholino

  Results from FactBites:
 
RNA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1263 words)
RNA serves as the template for translation of genes into proteins, transferring amino acids to the ribosome to form proteins, and also translating the transcript into proteins.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a component of the ribosomes, the protein synthetic factories in the cell.
RNA genes (sometimes referred to as non-coding RNA or small RNA) are genes that encode RNA that is not translated into a protein.
Messenger RNA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1663 words)
RNA is transcribed in the nucleus; once completely processed, it is transported to the cytoplasm and translated by the ribosome.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is RNA that encodes and carries information from DNA during transcription to sites of protein synthesis to undergo translation in order to yield a gene product.
Polyadenylation is the covalent linkage of a polyadenylyl moiety to a messenger RNA molecule.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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