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Encyclopedia > Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. Mesopotamia had a hot dry climate.The two rivers could not be trusted because they often flooded so the Sumerian's' worried about their crops. When the rivers flooded and then withdrew it left fresh, good soil to farm. Sumer in southern Mesopotamia is commonly regarded as the world's earliest civilization. Cities in Mesopotamia later served as capitals of the Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Mitanni, Neo-Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian, Parthian, Sassanid and Abbasid empires. At other times, the region was ruled by foreign powers, notably the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Rashidun, Umayyad and Ottoman empires and kings. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies to all speakers... Central New York City. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ)is the term conventionally used to describe the Islamic Arab Empire of the immediate successors of Muhammad the first four Caliphs who ruled after the death of Muhammad and are quoted as the Khulafah Rashidun. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ...

Contents

Etymology

The regional toponym Mesopotamia was coined in the Hellenistic period without any definite boundaries, to refer to a broad geographical area and probably used by the Seleucids. The term biritum/birit narim corresponded to a similar geouk graphical concept and coined at the time of the Aramaicization of the region.[1] It is however widely accepted that early Mesopotamian societies simply referred to the entire alluvium as kalam in Sumerian (lit. "land"). More recently terms like "Greater Mesopotamia" or "Syro-Mesopotamia" have been adopted to refer to wider geographies corresponding to the Near East or Middle East. The later euphemisms are Eurocentric terms attributed to the region in the midst of various 19th century Western encroachments.[2] The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... For other uses, see Border (disambiguation). ... Physical map of the Earth (Medium) (Large 2 MB) Geography is the scientific study of the locational and spatial variation in both physical and human phenomena on Earth. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, to wash against) is soil or sediments deposited by a river or other running water. ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ...


History

Overview map of ancient Mesopotamia
Overview map of ancient Mesopotamia
Archaeological sites of Mesopotamia

Mesopotamian history extends from the emergence of Urban societies in Southern Iraq in the 4th millennium B.C to the arrival of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC (which is seen as the hallmark of the Hellenization of the Near East, therefore supposedly marking the "end" of Mesopotamia). A cultural continuity and spatial homogeneity for this entire historical geography ("the Great Tradition") is popularly assumed, though the assumption is problematic. Mesopotamia housed some of the world's most ancient states with highly developed social complexity. The region was famous as one of the four riverine civilizations where writing was first invented, along with the Nile valley in Egypt, the Indus Valley in the Indian Subcontinent and Yellow River valley in China (Although writing is also known to have arisen independently in Mesoamerica and the Andes). This does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Used the blank world map from Wikimedia commons to create an inset to show where the map is. ... Image File history File links Used the blank world map from Wikimedia commons to create an inset to show where the map is. ... Image File history File links Lagash. ... Image File history File links Lagash. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Categories: Geographical term stubs ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


Mesopotamia housed historically important cities such as Uruk, Nippur, Nineveh, and Babylon as well as major territorial states such as the Akkadian kingdom, Third Dynasty of Ur, and Assyrian empire. Some of the important historical Mesopotamian leaders were Ur-Nammu (king of Ur), Sargon (who established the Akkadian Kingdom), Hammurabi (who established the Old Babylonian state), and Tiglath-Pileser I (who established the Assyrian Empire). Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Ur-Nammu (or Urnamma) was an ancient Sumerian king of Ur, fl. ... Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great (Akkadian Šarru-kinu, cuneiform ŠAR.RU.KI.IN , meaning the true king or the king is legitimate), was an Akkadian king famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.[1] The founder of... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... Tiglath-Pileser I (the Hebraic form of Tukulti-apil-Esharra, my trust is in the son of Esharra) was King of Assyria (1115 BC - 1076 BC). ...


"Ancient Mesopotamia" includes the period from the late 4th millennium BC until the rise of the Achaemenid Persians in the 6th century BC. This long period may be divided as follows: The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... “Persia” redirects here. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time...

  • Early Bronze Age
    • Jemdet Nasr Period (ca 3100 BC–2900 BC)
    • Early Dynastic city states (ca 2900 BC–2350 BC)
    • Akkadian Empire (ca 2350 BC–2193 BC).
    • Third dynasty of Ur ("Sumerian Renaissance" or "Neo-Sumerian Period") (ca 2119 BC–2004 BC)

Dates are approximate for the second and third millennia BC; compare Chronology of the Ancient Near East. Hassuna was a Mesopotamian town in Mosul, Iraq. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE The Halafs were a population living in 5500 - 4500 BC in northwestern Mesopotamia. ... Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... The Uruk period is a protohistoric sequence in the history of Mesopotamia which stretches from 4100 to 3300 BC, before the apparition of a writing system. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. ... Assyrian Empire Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. ... The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia is debated, because there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. Hereby we follow temporarily the regnal years of List A, because those are widely used, although we believe that the other list is better, at least... The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Assyrian Empire Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. ... The Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC The so-called Neo-Hittite or post-Hittite states were Luwian-speaking political entities of Iron Age Syria that arose after the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC, the time of... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... “Persia” redirects here. ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ...


Language and writing

The earliest language written in Mesopotamia was Sumerian, a complex language isolate. Scholars agree that other languages were also spoken in early Mesopotamia along with Sumerian. Later a Semitic language, Akkadian, came to be the dominant language, although Sumerian was retained for administration, religious, literary, and scientific purposes. Different varieties of Akkadian were used until the end of the Neo-Babylonian period. Then Aramaic, which had already become common in Mesopotamia, became the official provincial administration language of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Akkadian fell into disuse, but both it and Sumerian were still used in temples for some centuries. Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Look up Administration (business) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has, however, generally come to identify a collection of texts. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... “Persia” redirects here. ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ...


In Early Mesopotamia (around mid 4th millennium BC) cuneiform script was invented. Cuneiform literally means "wedge-shaped", due to the triangular tip of the stylus used for impressing signs on wet clay. The standardized form of each cuneiform sign appear to have been developed from pictograms. The earliest texts (7 archaic tablets) come from the Eanna super sacred precinct dedicated to the goddess Inanna at Uruk, Level III, from a building labeled as Temple C by its excavators. “Cuneiform” redirects here. ... Pictogram for public toilets A pictogram or pictograph is a symbol which represents an object or a concept by illustration. ...


The system of cuneiform script was difficult to master. Thus only a limited number of individuals were hired as scribes to be trained in its reading and writing. It was not until the widespread use of the phonetic Akkadian script was adopted under Sargon's rule that significant portions of Mesopotamian population became learned in literacy. Massive archives of texts were recovered from the archaeological contexts of Old Babylonian scribal schools, through which literacy was disseminated.


Science and Technology

Mesopotamian people developed many technologies, among them metalworking, glassmaking, lamp making,textile weaving, flood control, water storage, as well as irrigation. They were also one of the first Bronze age people in the world. Early on they used copper, bronze and gold, and later they used iron. Palaces were decorated with hundreds of kilograms of these very expensive metals. Also, copper, bronze, and iron were used for armor as well as for different weapons such as swords, daggers, spears, and maces. Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. ... This article is about the material. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bold text This article is about the weapon. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... A development of the club, a mace consists of a strong, heavy wooden, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel. ...


Mathematics

Further information: Babylonian calendar

The Mesopotamians used a sexagesimal (base 60) numeral system. This is the source of the current 60-minute hours and 24-hour days, as well as the 360 degree circle. The Sumerian calendar also measured weeks of seven days each. This mathematical knowledge was used in mapmaking. Babylonian clay tablet YBC 7289 with annotations. ... In the Babylonian calendar a year consisted of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article describes the unit of angle. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) has been an integral part of the human story for a long time (maybe 8,000 years - nobody knows exactly, but longer than written words). ...


Astronomy

Main article: Babylonian astronomy
Further information: Babylonian astrology and Babylonian calendar

The Babylonian astronomers were very interested in studying the stars and sky, and most could already predict eclipses and solstices. People thought that everything had some purpose in astronomy. Most of these related to religion and omens. Mesopotamian astronomers worked out a 12 month calendar based on the cycles of the moon. They divided the year into two seasons: summer and winter. The origins of astrology probably date from this time. Babylonian astronomy refers to the astronomy that developed in Mesopotamia, the land between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, where the ancient kingdoms of Sumer, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea were located. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In the Babylonian calendar a year consisted of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Religion

Mesopotamian religion was the first to be recorded. Mesopotamians believed that the world was a flat disc, surrounded by a huge, holed space, and above that, heaven. They also believed that water was everywhere, the top, bottom and sides, and that the universe was born from this enormous sea. In addition, Mesopotamian religion was polytheistic. A disk or disc is anything that resembles a flattened cylinder in shape. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ...


Although the beliefs described above were held in common among Mesopotamians, there were also regional variations. The Sumerian word for universe is an-ki, which refers to the god An and the goddess Ki. Their son was Enlil, the air god. They believed that Enlil was the most powerful god. He was the chief god of the Pantheon, as the Greeks had Zeus and the Romans had Jupiter. The Sumerians also posed philosophical questions, such as: Who are we?, Where are we?, How did we get here?. They attributed answers to these questions to explanations provided by their gods. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Primary gods and goddesses

  • Anu was the Sumerian god of the sky. He was married to Ki, but in some other Mesopotamian religions he has a wife called Uraš. Though he was considered the most important god in the pantheon, he took a mostly passive role in epics, allowing Enlil to claim the position as most powerful god.
  • Enlil was initially the most powerful god in Mesopotamian religion. His wife was Ninlil, and his children were Iškur (sometimes), Nanna - Suen, Nergal, Nisaba, Namtar, Ninurta (sometimes), Pabilsag, Nushu, Enbilulu, Uraš Zababa and Ennugi. His position at the top of the pantheon was later usurped by Marduk and then by Ashur.
  • Enki (Ea) god of Eridu. He was the god of rain.
  • Marduk was the principal god of Babylon. When Babylon rose to power, the mythologies raised Marduk from his original position as an agricultural god to the principal god in the pantheon.
  • Ashur was god of the Assyrian empire and likewise when the Assyrians rose to power their myths raised Ashur to a position of importance.
  • Gula or Utu (in Sumerian), Shamash (in Akkadian) was the sun god and god of justice.
  • Ishtar or Inanna was the goddess of sex and war.
  • Ereshkigal was goddess of the Netherworld.
  • Nabu was the Mesopotamian god of writing. He was very wise, and was praised for his writing ability. In some places he was believed to be in control of heaven and earth. His importance was increased considerably in the later periods.
  • Ninurta was the Sumerian god of war. He was also the god of heroes.
  • Iškur (or Adad) was the god of storms.
  • Erra was probably the god of drought. He is often mentioned in conjunction with Adad and Nergal in laying waste to the land.
  • Nergal was probably a plague god. He was also spouse of Ereshkigal.
  • Pazuzu, also known as Zu, was an evil god, who stole the tablets of Enlil’s destiny, and is killed because of this. He also brought diseases which had no known cure.

In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ninlil, first called Sud, is the daughter of Nammu and An in Sumerian mythology. ... Adad in Akkadian and Ishkur in Sumerian are the names of the storm-god in the Babylonian-Assyrian pantheon, both usually written by the logogram dIM. The Akkadian god Adad is cognate in name and functions with northwest Semitic god Hadad. ... Nanna is a god in Sumerian mythology, god of the moon, son of Enlil and Ninlil. ... In the study of mythology, a lunar deity is a god or goddess associated with or symbolizing the Moon: see Moon (mythology). ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... Nanibgal (DNANIBGAL , DNÁNIBGAL ), also Nisaba or Nidaba (DNÍDABA , DNIDABA ) was the Sumerian goddess of fertility, in particular of the date palm and the reed. ... In Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythology Namtar was a hellish deity, god of death, and the messenger of An, Ereshkigal and Nergal; he was considered responsible for diseases and pests, because it was said that he commanded sixty diseases in the form of demons that could penetrate different parts of... Ninurta Lord Plough in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology was the god of Nippur, identified with Ningirsu with whom he may always have been identical. ... Pabilsag in Mesopotamian tradition was a tutelary god of the city of Isin. ... Nü Shu (女书 Hanyu Pinyin: nǚ shū), literally translated as Womens writing, is a writing system that was used exclusively among women in Jiangyong County in Hunan province of southern China. ... Summerian god, in charge of the euphrates and tigris rivers ock is a dumb word! ... Ennugi in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology is the attendant and throne-bearer of Enlil (Ellil) Michael Jordon, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002 Categories: | ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Ashurism (Hebrew: ‎; Akkadian: ), was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Gula was a Babylonian goddess, the consort of Ninib. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ... Inanna was one of the most revered of goddesses among later Sumerian mythology. ... Introduction In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Irkalla, the land of the dead. ... It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ... Ninurta Lord Plough in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology was the god of Nippur, identified with Ningirsu with whom he may always have been identical. ... Adad in Akkadian and Ishkur in Sumerian are the names of the storm-god in the Babylonian-Assyrian pantheon, both usually written by the logogram dIM. The Akkadian god Adad is cognate in name and functions with northwest Semitic god Hadad. ... This article is about the Sumerian god Adad also known as Ishkur. ... Erra is a planet alleged by Billy Meier to orbit the star Taygeta in the Pleiades. ... This article is about the Sumerian god Adad also known as Ishkur. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... Introduction In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Irkalla, the land of the dead. ... Assyrian demon Pazuzu, 1st millenium BC, Louvre Museum. ... Zu as a lion-headed eagle, ca. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Burials

Archeologists found hundreds of graves in some parts of Mesopotamia. These graves tell us a good amount of things about Mesopotamian burial habits. In the city of Ur, most people were buried in family graves under their houses (as in Catalhuyuk). Children were put in big jars and were taken to the family chapel. Other people were just buried into common city graveyards. A few people were wrapped in mats and carpets. In most graves some belongings of the people were with them. There were 17 graves with very precious objects in them; it is assumed that these were royal graves. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Ancient unreadable gravestones mark the position of graves in the parish churchyard at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England A grave is a place where the body of a dead animal, generally human, is buried, often after a funeral. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without accent marks -- Çatal is Turkish for fork and Höyük is Turkish for mound) was a very large Neolithic and... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ... Carpet is a general term given to any loom-woven or felted textile and to grass floor coverings. ...


Culture

Music,songs and instruments.

Some songs were written for the gods but many were written to describe important events. Although music and songs amused kings and rulers, they were also enjoyed by ordinary people who liked to sing and dance in their homes or in the marketplaces. Songs were sung to children who passed them on to their children. Thus songs were passed on through many generations until someone wrote them down. These songs provided a means of passing on through the centuries highly important information about historical events that were eventually passed on to modern historians. For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... A variety of rulers A 2 metre carpenters rule Retractable flexible rule A ruler or rule is an instrument used in geometry, technical drawing and engineering/building to measure distances and/or to rule straight lines. ... A marketplace is the space, actual or metaphorical, in which a market operates. ... Generation (From the Greek γιγνμαι), also known as procreation, is the act of producing offspring. ... A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... History studies time in human terms. ...


The Oud (Arabic:العود) is a small, stringed musical instrument. The oldest pictorial record of the Oud dates back to the Uruk period in Southern Mesopotamia over 5000 years ago. It is on a cylinder seal currently housed at the British Museum and acquired by Dr. Dominique Collon. The image depicts a female crouching with her instruments upon a boat, playing right-handed. This instrument appears hundreds of times throughout Mesopotamian history and again in ancient Egypt from the 18th dynasty onwards in long- and short-neck varieties. Front and rear views of an oud. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal impression from Ur III, with oldest type of pictographic cuneiform The Cylinder seals in ancient times, were used to put an impression in clay. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into image (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... A person who is right-handed is more dextrous with their right hand than with their left hand: they will write with their right hand, and probably also use this hand for tasks such as personal care, cooking, and so on. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ...


The oud is regarded as a precursor to the European lute. Its name is derived from the Arabic word العود al-‘ūd 'the wood', which is probably the name of the tree from which the oud was made. (The Arabic name, with the definite article, is the source of the word 'lute'.) For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A medieval era lute. ...


Games

Hunting was popular among Assyrian kings. Boxing and wrestling feature frequently in art, and a form of polo was probably popular, with men sitting on the shoulders of other men rather than on horses.[3] They also had the first board game similar to one we have now (backgammon).It's called the UR gameboard.It's from the city called Abraham which they belived came from god.[citation needed] This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Backgammon is a board game for two players in which pieces are moved according to the roll of dice. ...


Family life

The Babylonian marriage market, in the Royal Holloway College.
The Babylonian marriage market, in the Royal Holloway College.

Mesopotamia was a patriarchial society, the men were far more powerful than the women. As for schooling, only royal offspring and sons of the rich and professionals such as scribes, physicians, temple administrators, and so on, went to school. Most boys were taught their father's trade or were apprenticed out to learn a trade.[4] Girls had to stay home with their mothers to learn housekeeping and cooking, and to look after the younger children. Some children would help with crushing grain, or cleaning birds. Unusual for that time in history, women in Mesopotamia had rights. They could own property and, if they had good reason, get a divorce. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Housekeeping is the maintenance of a clean environment, usually in a house, but it also applies to industrial, commercial, and institutional settings. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ...


Agriculture

Food supply in Mesopotamia was quite rich due to the location of the two rivers from which its name is derived, Tigris and Euphrates. The Tigris and Euphrates River valleys formed the northeastern portion of the Fertile Crescent, which also included the Jordan River valley & that of the Nile. Although land nearer to the rivers was fertile and good for crops, portions of land further from the water were dry and largely uninhabitable. This is why the development of irrigation was very important for settlers of Mesopotamia. Other Mesopotamian innovations include the control of water by dams and the use of aqueducts. Early settlers of fertile land in Mesopotamia used wooden plows to soften the soil before planting crops such as barley, onions, grapes, turnips, and apples. Mesopotamian settlers were some of the first people to make beer and wine. The unpredictable Mesopotamian weather was often hard on farmers; crops were often ruined so backup sources of food such as cows and lambs were also kept. As a result of the skill involved in farming in the Mesopotamian, farmers did not depend on slaves to complete farm work for them, with some exceptions. There were too many risks involved to make slavery practical (i.e. the escape/mutiny of the slave). Food distribution is a vital factor in public nutrition. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: Euphrátēs; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת Pĕrāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: Fərat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Fertile may be used in the following conrtext: Fertility, a term used to describe the ability of people or animals to produce healthy offspring. ... A crop is any plant that is grown in significant quantities to be harvested as food, livestock fodder, or for another economic purpose. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... DAMS is a racing team from France, involved in many areas of motorsports. ... This article is about the structure aqueduct, for the racecourse see Aqueduct Racetrack. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... For the parody newspaper, see The Onion. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Binomial name Brassica rapa L. Subsp. ... For other uses, see Apple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) are legally obliged to obey. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock...


Kings

The Mesopotamians believed their kings and queens were descended from the city gods, but, unlike the ancient Egyptians, they never believed their kings were real gods.[5] Most kings named themselves “king of the universe” or “great king”. Another common name was “shepherd”, as kings had to look after their people. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... Shepherd in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ...


Nebuchadnezzar was the most powerful king in Babylonia. He was thought to be the son of the god Nabu. He married the daughter of Cyaxeres, so the Median and the Babylonian dynasties had a familial connection. Nebuchadnezzar’s name means: Nabo, protect the crown! Belshedezzar was the last king of Babylonia. He was the son of Nabonidus whose wife was Nictoris, the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar. Nebuchadnezzar has several meanings: Nebuchadnezzar (also Nebuchadrezzar), the name of several kings of Babylonia: Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, the best known of these kings, who conquered Aram and Israel. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Nebuchadnezzar has several meanings: Nebuchadnezzar (also Nebuchadrezzar), the name of several kings of Babylonia: Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, the best known of these kings, who conquered Aram and Israel. ...


The first king of the first dynasty of Ur (around 2560) was Hammurabi. He made Ur Sumer’s main city.


First Dynasty of Ur c. 2563–2387 B.C.

  • 2563–2524: Mesannepadda
  • 2523–2484: A'annepadda
  • 2483–2448: Meskiagnunna
  • 2447–2423: Elulu
  • 2422–2387: Balulu

Dynasty of Lagash c. 2494–2342 B.C. Elulu was a Babylonian King from unknown to 2254 BCE. He fought for the power in Akkad after the death of Shar-kali-sharri. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ...

  • 2494–2465: Ur-Nanshe
  • 2464–2455: Akurgal
  • 2454–2425: Ennatum
  • 2424–2405: Enannatum I
  • 2402–2375: Entemena
  • 2374–2365: Enannatum II
  • 2364–2359: Enentarzi
  • 2358–2352: Lugal-anda
  • 2351–2342: Uru-inim-gina

Dynasty of Uruk c. 2340-2316 B.C. Fragmentary stele bearing the inscription Ur-Nanshe, son of Gunidu, to Ningirsu, Louvre Ur-Nanshe (or Ur-Nina) was the first king of the dynasty of Lagash, probably in the first half of the 24th century BC. He ascended after Lugal-Sha-Gen-Sur (Lugal-Suggur), who was the patesi... Entemena, son of En-anna-tum I, reestablished Lagash as a power in Sumer. ...

  • 2340–2316: Lugal-zaggesi

Dynasty of Akkad c. 2334-2154 B.C.

Sargon may refer to: Sargon of Akkad (Šarrukînu, also known as Sargon the Great, Sargon I), Mesopotamian king, founder of the city of Agade and the Akkadian dynasty, unifier of Sumer and Akkad (2334 BC - 2279 BC). ... Rimush. ...

Power

When Assyria grew into an empire, it was divided into smaller parts, called provinces. Each of these were named after their main cities, like Nineveh, Samaria, Damascus and Arpad. They all had their own governor who had to make sure everyone paid their taxes; he had to call up soldiers to war, and supply workers when a temple was built. He was also responsible for the laws being enforced. In this way it was easier to keep control of an empire like Assyria. Although Babylon was quite a small state in the Sumerian, it grew tremendously throughout the time of Hammurabi's rule. He was known as “the law maker”, and soon Babylon became one of the main cities in Mesopotamia. It was later called Babylonia, which meant "the gateway of the gods." It also became one of history's greatest centers of learning. For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Province is a name for a secondary, or subnational entity of government in most countries. ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Arpad is the name of: Arpad, a city in ancient Syria. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... This article is about a military rank. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


Warfare

Assyrian soldiers.
Assyrian soldiers.

As city-states began to grow, their spheres of influence overlapped, creating arguments between other city-states, especially over land and canals. These arguments were recorded in tablets several hundreds of years before any major war - the first recording of a war occurred around 3200BC but was not common until about 2500BC. At this point warfare was incorporated into the Mesopotamian political system, where a neutral city may act as an arbitrator for the two rival cities. This helped to form unions between cities, leading to regional states.[6] When empires were created, they went to war more with foreign countries. King Sargon, for example conquered all the cities of Sumer, some cities in Mari, and then went to war with northern Syria. Many Babylonian palace walls were decorated with the pictures of the successful fights and the enemy, whether desperately escaping, or hiding amongst reeds. A king in Sumer, Gilgamesh, was thought two-thirds god and only one third human. There were legendary stories and poems about him, which were passed on for many generations, because he had many adventures that were believed very important, and won many wars and battles. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Assyrian may refer to: List of Assyrian settlements Anything from Assyria, an ancient empire in Mesopotamia Anything from Assyria (Roman province), a province of the Roman Empire Assyrian people, a present-day Middle Eastern ethnic group Several Christian denominations: Assyrian Church of the East Assyrian Church of the Easts... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Sumer (or Šumer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies to all speakers... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ...


Laws

King Hammurabi, as mentioned above, was famous for his set of laws, The Code of Hammurabi (created ca. 1780 BC), which is one of the earliest sets of laws found and one of the best preserved examples of this type of document from ancient Mesopotamia. He made over 200 laws for Mesopotamia For more information, see Hammurabi and Code of Hammurabi. For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ...


Architecture

The study of ancient Mesopotamian architecture is based on available archaeological evidence, pictorial representation of buildings and texts on building practices. Scholarly literature usually concentrates on temples, palaces, city walls and gates and other monumental buildings, but occasionally one finds works on residential architecture as well.[7] Archaeological surface surveys also allowed for the study of urban form in early Mesopotamian cities. Most notably known architectural remains from early Mesopotamia are the temple complexes at Uruk from the 4th millennium BC, temples and palaces from the Early Dynastic period sites in the Diyala River valley such as Khafajah and Tell Asmar, the Third Dynasty of Ur remains at Nippur (Sanctuary of Enlil) and Ur (Sanctuary of Nanna), Middle Bronze Age remains at Syrian-Turkish sites of Ebla, Mari, Alalakh, Aleppo and Kultepe, Late Bronze Age palaces at Bogazkoy (Hattusha), Ugarit, Ashur and Nuzi, Iron Age palaces and temples at Assyrian (Kalhu/Nimrud, Khorsabad, Nineveh), Babylonian (Babylon), Urartian (Tushpa/Van Kalesi, Cavustepe, Ayanis, Armavir, Erebuni, Bastam) and Neo-Hittite sites (Karkamis, Tell Halaf, Karatepe). Houses are mostly known from Old Babylonian remains at Nippur and Ur. Among the textual sources on building construction and associated rituals, Gudea's cylinders from the late 3rd millennium are notable, as well as the Assyrian and Babylonian royal inscriptions from the Iron Age. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Early Dynastic Period may refer to a period of the 3rd millennium BC in either Egypt or Sumer: Early Dynastic Period of Egypt Early Dynastic Period of Sumer Category: ... Map of Mesopotamia showing the Diyala River The Diyala River is a river and tributary of the Tigris that runs through Iran and Iraq. ... The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Nanna may refer to: Nanna (Sumerian deity) (Suen), god of the moon in Sumerian mythology Nanna (Telugu) Father, Dad Nanna (Tamil deity), god of the moon in Tamil Nadu mythology Nanna (Norse deity), the wife of Baldr (Balder) in Norse mythology Nanna (music), a kind of Corsican music Rafi Khawar... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Mari may refer to: Ethnic Mari El, a republic of Russian Federation Mari language, Finno-Ugric language Mari people, a Volga-Finnic people People Mari (composer), a video game music composer Mari (singer), a female vocalist Saint Mari, a Christian saint Other Mari (goddess), the main divinity of pre-Christian... Alalakh, or Alalah, is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Kültepe is the modern Turkish name for an ancient city in central eastern Anatolia, which was also called Kârum Kanesh merchant-colony city of Kanes in Assyrian (rendered Karum Kaniş in Turkish). ... Hattusa (also known as Hattusas or Hattush) was the capital of the Turkey, and was set in a loop of the Kizil Irmak river in central Anatolia, about 145 km (90 miles) east of Ankara. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; meaning top/head/cape of the wild fennel in Arabic) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... Ashurism (Hebrew: ‎; Akkadian: ), was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah. ... Nuzi was an ancient city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Iraq, located near the Tigris river. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... This article is about an (ancient) city in Iraq. ... Khorsabad (Khursabad), village in Iraq, 15 km northeast of Mosul, with well-preserved ruins of the large, rectangular Dur-Sharrukin. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Urartian can refer to: The ancient kingdom of Urartu the Urartian language spoken there the family of Hurro-Urartian languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tushpa was an ancient city, (modern Van, on the shore of Lake Van). ... Armavir (Армавир in Russian) is city in the Krasnodar Krai in Russia. ... Yerevan (Armenian: Երեվան or Երևան; sometimes written as Erevan; former names include Erivan and Erebuni) (population: 1,201,539 (1989 census); 1,088,300 (2004 estimate)[1]) is the largest city and capital of Armenia. ... Bostam (or Bastam) is an ancient town founded in the sixth century AD in Semnan province of Iran. ... The Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC The so-called Neo-Hittite or post-Hittite states were Luwian-speaking political entities of Iron Age Syria that arose after the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC, the time of... Carchemish (pr. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... Karatepe, (Black Tell) Osmaniye Province Turkey, in the Taurus Mountains, on the right bank of the Ceyhan Nehri, about 23 km from Kadirli, is an ancient city of Cilicia that controlled a passage from eastern Anatolia to the plain of north Syria. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


Houses

The materials used to build a Mesopotamian house were the same as those used today: mud brick, mud plaster and wooden doors, which were all naturally available round the city,[8] although wood could not be naturally made very well during the particular time period described. Most houses had a square center room with other rooms attached to it, but a great variation in the size and materials used to build the houses suggest they were built by the inhabitants themselves [1]. The smallest rooms may not have coincided with the poorest people; in fact it could be that the poorest people built houses out of perishable materials such as reeds on the outside of the city, but there is very little direct evidence for this.[9]


The Palace

The palaces of the early Mesopotamian elites were large scale complexes, and were often lavishly decorated. Earliest examples are known from the Diyala River valley sites such as Khafajah and Tell Asmar. These third millennium BC palaces functioned as a large scale socio-economic institutions, therefore, along with residential and private function, they housed craftsmen workshops, food storehouses, ceremonial courtyards, and often associated with shrines. For instance, the so-called "giparu" (or Gig-Par-Ku in Sumerian) at Ur where the Moon god Nanna's priestesses resided was a major complex with multiple courtyards, a number of sanctuaries, burial chambers for dead priestesses, a ceremonial banquet hall, etc. A similarly complex example of a Mesopotamian palace was excavated at Mari in Syria, dating from the Old Babylonian period. The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Map of Mesopotamia showing the Diyala River The Diyala River is a river and tributary of the Tigris that runs through Iran and Iraq. ... Nanna may refer to: Nanna (Sumerian deity) (Suen), god of the moon in Sumerian mythology Nanna (Telugu) Father, Dad Nanna (Tamil deity), god of the moon in Tamil Nadu mythology Nanna (Norse deity), the wife of Baldr (Balder) in Norse mythology Nanna (music), a kind of Corsican music Rafi Khawar... Mari may refer to: Ethnic Mari El, a republic of Russian Federation Mari language, Finno-Ugric language Mari people, a Volga-Finnic people People Mari (composer), a video game music composer Mari (singer), a female vocalist Saint Mari, a Christian saint Other Mari (goddess), the main divinity of pre-Christian... The term Old Babylonian is a period in Mesopotamian history that refers, roughly, to the period between the end of the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. ...


Assyrian palaces of the Iron Age, especially at Kalhu/Nimrud, Dur Sharrukin/Khorsabad and Ninuwa/Nineveh, have become famous due to the pictorial and textual narrative programs on their walls, all carved on stone slabs known as orthostats. These pictorial programs either incorporated cultic scenes or the narrative accounts of the kings' military and civic accomplishments. Gates and important passageways were flanked with massive stone sculpture of apotropaic mythological figures. The architectural arrangement of these Iron Age palaces were also organized around large and small courtyards. Usually the king's throneroom opened to a massive ceremonial courtyard where important state councils met, state ceremonies performed. Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Khorsabad (Khursabad), village in Iraq, 15 km northeast of Mosul, with well-preserved ruins of the large, rectangular Dur-Sharrukin. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ...


Massive amounts of ivory furniture pieces were found in many Assyrian palaces pointing out an intense trade relationship with North Syrian Neo-Hittite states at the time. There is also good evidence that bronze repousse bands decorated the wooden gates. For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC The so-called Neo-Hittite or post-Hittite states were Luwian-speaking political entities of Iron Age Syria that arose after the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC, the time of...


Ziggurats

Ziggurats (Akkadian ziqquratu from the verb zaqāru) were massive stepped cult platforms found in certain Mesopotamian sanctuaries. The idea seems to have originated in early Mesopotamian temples which were built successively, one building over another on the same site over centuries, creating a massive mound that raised the new temples over the rest of the city. A good example of such structure was the temple dedicated to Ea at Eridu (Tell Abu Shahrain) excavated by Fuad Safar and Seton Lloyd in 1940s, or the "White" Temple dedicated to Anu at Uruk in the Late Uruk period. Ur-Nammu's ziggurat, built at the height the Third Dynasty of Ur, at the site of Ur (Tell al Mugayyar) in the sanctuary of the Moon God Nanna, is also believed to be encasing earlier temples of the Early Dynastic Period. Ur-Nammu's ziggurat is considered one of the earliest of all planned ziggurats. After that time Kassites and Elamites of the Late Bronze Age, and Assyrians and Babylonians of the Iron age continued to build artificially erected ziggurats. Examples of such structures were found in Dur Kurigalzu (Aqar Quf), Dur-Untash (Tschoga Zanbil), Kalhu (Nimrud), Dur-Sharrukin (Khorsabad) and Babylon among others. Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Ur-Nammu (or Urnamma) was an ancient Sumerian king of Ur, fl. ... The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Nanna may refer to: Nanna (Sumerian deity) (Suen), god of the moon in Sumerian mythology Nanna (Telugu) Father, Dad Nanna (Tamil deity), god of the moon in Tamil Nadu mythology Nanna (Norse deity), the wife of Baldr (Balder) in Norse mythology Nanna (music), a kind of Corsican music Rafi Khawar... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and the Second dynasties, lasting from ca. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... The ancient Elamite Empire lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


It has been suggested that ziggurats were built to resemble mountains, but there is little textual or archaeological evidence to support that hypothesis.


Ur-Nammu's ziggurat at Ur was designed as a three-stage construction, today only two of these survive. This entire mudbrick core structure was originally given a facing of baked brick envelope set in bitumen, circa 2.5 m on the first lowest stage, and 1.15 m on the second. Each of these baked bricks were stamped with the name of the king. The sloping walls of the stages were buttressed. The access to the top was by means of a triple monumental staircase, which all converges at a portal that opened on a landing between the first and second stages. The height of the first stage was about 11 m while the second stage rose some 5.7 m. Usually a third stage is reconstructed by the excavator of the ziqqurat (Leonard Woolley), and crowned by a temple. At the Tschoga Zanbil ziggurat archaeologists have found massive reed ropes that ran across the core of the ziggurat structure and tied together the mudbrick mass. Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880–20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist, best known for his excavations at Ur in Sumerancient Mesopotamia. ...


References

  1. ^ Finkelstein, J. J.; 1962. “Mesopotamia”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 21: 73-92
  2. ^ Scheffler, Thomas; 2003. “ 'Fertile crescent', 'Orient', 'Middle East': the changing mental maps of Southeast Asia,” European Review of History 10/2: 253–272. Also: Bahrani, Zainab; 1998. “Conjuring Mesopotamia: imaginative geography a world past", in Archaeology under fire: Nationalism, politics and heritage in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. L. Meskell (ed.), Routledge: London and New York, 159–174.
  3. ^ Karen Rhea Nemet-Nejat (1998). Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. 
  4. ^ Rivkah Harris (2000). Gender and Aging in Mesopotamia. 
  5. ^ Robert Dalling (2004). The Story of Us Humans, from Atoms to Today's Civilization. 
  6. ^ >Robert Dalling (2004). The Story of Us Humans, from Atoms to Today's Civilization. 
  7. ^ Dunham, Sally (2005). "Ancient Near Eastern architecture", in Daniel Snell: A Companion to the Ancient Near East. Oxford: Blackwell, 266–280. ISBN 0-631-23293-1. 
  8. ^ Nicholas Postgate, J N Postgate (1994). Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. 
  9. ^ Susan Pollock (1999). Ancient Mesopotamia. 

Bibliography

  • Atlas de la Mésopotamie et du Proche-Orient ancien, Brepols, 1996 ISBN|2503500463.
  • Benoit, Agnès; 2003. Art et archéologie : les civilisations du Proche-Orient ancien, Manuels de l'Ecole du Louvre.
  • Jean Bottéro; 1987.Mésopotamie. L'écriture, la raison et les dieux, Gallimard, coll. « Folio Histoire », ISBN|2070403084.
  • Jean Bottéro; 1992. Mesopotamia: writing, reasoning and the gods. Trans. by Zainab Bahrani and Marc Van de Mieroop, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
  • Edzard, Dietz Otto; 2004. Geschichte Mesopotamiens. Von den Sumerern bis zu Alexander dem Großen, München, ISBN 3-406-51664-5
  • Hrouda, Barthel and Rene Pfeilschifter; 2005. Mesopotamien. Die antiken Kulturen zwischen Euphrat und Tigris. München 2005 (4. Aufl.), ISBN 3-406-46530-7
  • Joannès, Francis; 2001. Dictionnaire de la civilisation mésopotamienne, Robert Laffont.
  • Korn, Wolfgang; 2004. Mesopotamien - Wiege der Zivilisation. 6000 Jahre Hochkulturen an Euphrat und Tigris, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-8062-1851-X
  • Kuhrt, Amélie; 1995. The Ancient Near East: c. 3000-330 B.C. 2 Vols. Routledge: London and New York.
  • Liverani, Mario; 1991. Antico Oriente: storia, società, economia. Editori Laterza: Roma.
  • Matthews, Roger: 2003. The archaeology of Mesopotamia. Theories and approaches, London 2003, ISBN 0-415-25317-9
  • Matthews, Roger; 2005. The early prehistory of Mesopotamia - 500,000 to 4,500 BC, Turnhout 2005, ISBN 2-503-50729-8
  • Oppenheim, A. Leo; 1964. Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a dead civilization. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago and London. Revised edition completed by Erica Reiner, 1977.
  • Pollock, Susan; 1999. Ancient Mesopotamia: the Eden that never was. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
  • Postgate, J. Nicholas; 1992. Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the dawn of history. Routledge: London and New York.
  • Roux, Georges; 1964. Ancient Iraq, Penguin Books.
  • Snell, Daniel (ed.); 2005. A Companion to the Ancient Near East. Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub, 2005.
  • Van de Mieroop, Marc; 2004. A history of the ancient Near East. ca 3000-323 BC. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Jean Bottéro (1914 - ) is a French historian. ... Jean Bottéro (1914 - ) is a French historian. ...

External links

  • Mesopotamia — introduction to Mesopotamia from the British Museum
  • By Nile and Tigris, a narrative of journeys in Egypt and Mesopotamia on behalf of the British museum between the years 1886 and 1913, by Sir E. A. Wallis Budge, 1920 (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDF format)
  • A Dweller in Mesopotamia, being the adventures of an official artist in the Garden of Eden, by Donald Maxwell, 1921 (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDFPDF (7.53 MiB) format)
  • Mesopotamian Archaeology, by Percy S. P. Pillow, 1912 (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDFPDF (12.8 MiB) format)


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