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Encyclopedia > Mesolimbic pathway

The mesolimbic pathway is one of the neural pathways in the brain that link the ventral tegmentum in the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens in the limbic system. It is one of the four major pathways where the neurotransmitter dopamine is found. A neural pathway is a neural tract connecting one part of the nervous system with another, usually consisting of bundles of elongated, myelin insultated neurons, known collectively as white matter. ... In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Grays FIG. 712– Transverse section of mid-brain at level of superior colliculi. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... The nucleus accumbens (also known as the accumbens nucleus or nucleus accumbens septi) is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The limbic system within the brain. ... Chemical structure of D-Aspartic Acid, a common Amino Acid neurotransmitter. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The mesolimbic pathway is thought to be involved in producing pleasurable feeling, and is often associated with feelings of reward and desire, particularly because of the connection to the nucleus accumbens, which is also associated with these states. Because of this, this pathway is heavily implicated in neurobiological theories of addiction. However, recent research has pointed towards this pathway being involved in incentive salience rather than euphoric mood states. Pleasure is a positive sensation, which by analogy to pain, can be physiologically described as either peripheral or central (euphoria). ... Definition: Positive Reinforcement: the presentation of something pleasant or rewarding immediately following a behavior. ... It has been suggested that Intrinsic motivation be merged into this article or section. ... The nucleus accumbens (also known as the accumbens nucleus or nucleus accumbens septi) is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... Neurobiology is a branch of biology that is involved in the study of nervous systems of all animals from a biological and evolutionary perspective. ... Addiction is a mental or physical disorder proposed to be precipitated by a combination of genetic, biological/pharmacological and social factors. ... The salience (also called saliency) of an item is its state or quality of standing out relative to other items. ...


The mesolimbic pathway is one of the major pathways targeted by antipsychotic medication. Although the process is not fully understood, it has been found that disruption of dopamine function (particularly, an excess of dopamine) in this area has been linked to psychosis and the 'positive symptoms' of schizophrenia (particularly delusions and hallucinations). Successful antipsychotic medication is therefore thought to have its effect by blocking dopamine receptors in this pathway. The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state in which thought and perception are severely impaired. ... A delusion is commonly defined as a false belief, and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... A hallucination is a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... The dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptors with the neurotransmitter dopamine as their endogenous ligand. ...


Dopamine neurons are lost in the mesolimbic pathway in Parkinson's Disease; however, they are lost far more quickly in the nigrostriatal pathway, and, because deficits do not become apparent until a reduction of 80-90% in the numbers of neurons, their loss here is asymptomatic. Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... The nigrostriatal pathway is a neural pathway which connects the substantia nigra with the striatum. ...


Other major dopamine pathways include:

The mesocortical pathway is a neural pathway which connects the ventral tegmentum to the cortex, particularly the frontal lobes. ... The nigrostriatal pathway is a neural pathway which connects the substantia nigra with the striatum. ... The tuberoinfundibular pathway is a neural pathway which runs between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. ...

See also

The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... The medical expression Tardive Dysphrenia, was proposed by the American neurologist Stanley Fahn, the head of the Division of Movements Disorders of the Neurological Institute of New York, in collaboration with the psychiatrist David V Forrest in the 1970s. ...

External links

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Telencephalon (cerebrum, cerebral cortex, cerebral hemispheres) - edit

primary sulci/fissures: medial longitudinal, lateral, central, parietoöccipital, calcarine, cingulate The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... Human brain viewed from above, showing cerebral hemispheres. ... A sulcus (pl. ... The medial longitudinal fissure is the deep groove which separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain. ... Lateral sulcus The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. ... Central sulcus of the human brain. ... Only a small part of the Parieto̦ccipital Fissure (or parieto-occipital sulcus) is seen on the lateral surface of the hemisphere, its chief part being on the medial surface. ... The calcarine fissure (or calcarine sulcus) is on the medial surface of the hemisphere. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ...


frontal lobe: precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex, 4), precentral sulcus, superior frontal gyrus (6, 8), middle frontal gyrus (46), inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area, 44-pars opercularis, 45-pars triangularis), prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal cortex, 9, 10, 11, 12, 47) The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of vertebrates. ... The precentral gyrus (a. ... The primary motor area is a group of networked cells in mammalian brains that controls movements of specific body parts associated with cell groups in that area of the brain. ... Brodmann area 4 of human brain. ... Precentral sulcus of the human brain. ... Superior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... // Human Brodmann area 8, or BA8, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Middle frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... // Where is it? Brodmann area 46, or BA46, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Inferior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Brocas area is the section of the human brain (in the opercular and triangular sections of the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex) that is involved in language processing, speech production and comprehension. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The Pars Opercularis is part of the inferior frontal gyrus and is part of the mirror neurons. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The Pars triangularis is a portion of the inferior frontal gyrus. ... The prefrontal cortex is the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas. ... The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a region of association cortex of the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The term Brodmann area 12 refers to a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. ... Where is it? Brodmann area 47, or BA47, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ...


parietal lobe: postcentral sulcus, postcentral gyrus (1, 2, 3, 43), superior parietal lobule (5), inferior parietal lobule (39-angular gyrus, 40), precuneus (7), intraparietal sulcus The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... Postcentral sulcus of the human brain. ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The superior parietal lobule is bounded in front by the upper part of the postcentral sulcus, but is usually connected with the posterior central gyrus above the end of the sulcus; behind it is the lateral part of the parietoöccipital fissure, around the end of which it is joined... Brodmann area 5 is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The inferior parietal lobule (subparietal district or lobule) lies below the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus, and behind the lower part of the postcentral sulcus. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The angular gyrus is a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language and cognition. ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The precuneus is a structure in the brain positioned above the cuneus and located in the parietal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The lateral surface of the parietal lobe is cleft by a well-marked furrow, the intraparietal sulcus of Turner, which consists of an oblique and a horizontal portion. ...


occipital lobe: primary visual cortex (17), cuneus, lingual gyrus, 18, 19 (18 and 19 span whole lobe) The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain. ... Visual cortex is the term applied to both the primary visual cortex (also known as striate cortex or V1) and upstream visual cortical areas also known as extrastriate cortical areas (V2, V3, V4, V5). ... Cuneus (Latin for wedge; plural, cunei), the architectural term applied to the wedge-shaped divisions of the Roman theatre separated by the scalae or stairways; see Vitruvius v. ... The lingual gyrus of the occipital lobe lies between the calcarine fissure and the posterior part of the collateral fissure; behind, it reaches the occipital pole; in front, it is continued on to the tentorial surface of the temporal lobe, and joins the hippocampal gyrus. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 19 is shown in yellow in this image which also shows ares 17 (red) and 18 (orange) Brodmann area 19, or BA19, is part of the occipital lobe cortex in the human brain. ...


temporal lobe: transverse temporal gyrus (41-42-primary auditory cortex), superior temporal gyrus (38, 22-Wernicke's area), middle temporal gyrus (21), inferior temporal gyrus (20), fusiform gyrus (36, 37) The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The transverse temporal gyri (also called Heschls gyri) are found in the area of primary auditory cortex in the superior temporal gyrus of the human brain. ... The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... Superior temporal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... On the left side of the brain is an area called Brodmann’s area 22, that help generate and help the understanding of individual words, and on the right side of the brain it helps tell the difference between melody, pitch, and sound intensity. ... Approximate location of Wernickes area highlighted in gray Wernickes area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex, on the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, posterior to the primary auditory cortex, on the central sulcus (part of the brain where... The location in the brain of the middle temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus is a gyrus in the brain on the Temporal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Function of Inferior Temporal Gyrus The Inferior Temporal Gyrus, also known as Brocas area, carries out many tasks, and is mainly responsible for its task in phoenetical analysis for reading. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Grays Fig. ... This area is known as ectorhinal area 36, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ...


limbic lobe/fornicate gyrus: cingulate cortex/cingulate gyrus, anterior cingulate (24, 32, 33), posterior cingulate (23, 31),
isthmus (26, 29, 30), parahippocampal gyrus (piriform cortex, 25, 27, 35), entorhinal cortex (28, 34) The limbic system is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression, fear, pleasure and also in the formation of memory. ... The Fornicate Gyrus is connected to the amydala, the mid region of the parietal region of the skull. ... The cingulate cortex is part of the brain and situated roughly in the middle of the cortex. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... Grays FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. ... 24 - ventral anterior cingulate (area cingularis anterior ventralis). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This area is known as pregenual area 33, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... The Cingulum is a collection of nerve fibres following a long, arcuate course superior to and around to posterior to the Corpus callosum. ... Brodmann area 23 (BA23) is a region in the brain corresponding to some portion of the posterior cingulate cortex. ... This area is known as dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... In anatomy, isthmus refers to a constriction between organs. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... This area is known as granular retrolimbic area 29, and it refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as agranular retrolimbic area 30, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... The parahippocampal gyrus (or hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ... In anatomy of animals, the piriform cortex, or pyriform cortex is a region in the brain. ... // Human Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... The term area 27 of Brodmann-1909 refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined cortical area that is a rostral part of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS of the guenon (Brodmann-1909). ... // Human This area is known as perirhinal area 35, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined hippocampal region of the cerebral cortex. ... The entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important memory center in the brain. ... // Guenon The term Brodmann area 28 refers to a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. ... You have new messages. ...


subcortical/insular cortex: rhinencephalon, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, septum pellucidum, ependyma, internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule The insular cortex (also often referred to as just the insula) is a structure of the human brain. ... In animal anatomy, the rhinencephalon is a part of the brain involved with olfaction. ... Vesalius Fabrica, 1543. ... The corpus callosum is a structure in the mammalian brain that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. ... The ventricular system is a fluid conducting system within the brain. ... The septum pellucidum, also called the septum lucidum, is a thin, triangular, vertical membrane that separates the lateral ventricles of the brain. ... Ependyma is the thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord canal Categories: Anatomy stubs | Physiology ... The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the lenticular nucleus. ... The corona radiata surround an ovum or unfertilized egg cell, and consist of two or three strata (layers) of follicular cells. ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ...


hippocampal formation: dentate gyrus, hippocampus, subiculum The location of the hippocampus in the human brain. ... The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal formation. ... The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... The subiculum (Latin: support) forms the most inferior portion of the human hippocampus. ...


basal ganglia: striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen), lentiform nucleus (putamen, globus pallidus), claustrum, extreme capsule, amygdala, nucleus accumbens The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. ... Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia, globus pallidus: external segment (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus: internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra (SN). ... Grays Fig. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus describes the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... The globus pallidus (Latin for pale body) is a sub-cortical structure in the brain. ... The claustrum is a thin layer of grey matter lying between the extreme capsule and external capsule in the brain. ... The extremem capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The nucleus accumbens (also known as the accumbens nucleus or nucleus accumbens septi) is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ...


Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri.


 
 

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