Mesenchymal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSC), are stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, adipocytes, neuronal cells, and, as described lately, into beta-pancreatic islets cells. MSC differentiate from colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F). MSCs cultured in the presence of transformation growth factor (TGF), specifically bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), will differentiate into chondrocytes, whereas MSCs cultured in serum with ascorbic acid, inorganic phosphate and dexamethasone will differentiate into osteoblasts. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capability for renewal and differentiation into various lineages of mesenchymal tissues. These features of MSCs attract a lot of attention from investigators in the context of cell-based therapies of several human diseases. Despite the fact that bone marrow represents the main available source of MSCs, the use of bone-marrow-derived cells is not always acceptable due to the high degree of viral infection and the significant drop in cell number and proliferative/differentiation capacity with age. Thus, the search for possible alternative MSC sources remains to be validated. Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and does not contain mesenchymal progenitors. However, MSCs circulate in the blood of preterm fetuses and may be successfully isolated and expanded. Where these cells home at the end of gestation is not clear. Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and to build) is a mononucleate cell which produces a protein that produces osteoid. ... Chondrocytes (< Greek chondros cartilage + kytos cell) are the only cells found in cartilage. ... Myocyte is the technical term for a muscle cell. ... Adipocytes are cells present in adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... Transforming growth factor (TGF) is one of many characterized growth factors that exist in nature. ... Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors belonging to the TGF-Î² (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) super family with a strong ability to induce new bone and/or cartilage formation. ... Chondrocytes are the cells of cartilage. ... This article deals with the molecule ascorbic acid in General, for the nutrient see Vitamin C Ascorbic acid is an organic acid with antioxidant properties. ... In inorganic chemistry, a phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Dexamethasone is a synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of hormones. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and to build) is a mononucleate cell which produces a protein that produces osteoid. ...
Hematopoietic stemcells are adult stemcells found mainly in the bone marrow and they provide the blood cells required for daily blood turnover and for fighting infections.
The potential for hematopoietic stemcells to produce cell types other than blood cells has become the subject of intense scientific controversy, and it is still not clear whether they could be used on a clinical scale to restore tissues and organs other than blood and the immune system.
However, the stemcells themselves would be recognized as foreign and rejected the same way as a transplanted organ, unless the patient's immune system is strongly suppressed, or has been ablated before transplantation, such as is the case prior to bone marrow transplantations.
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