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Encyclopedia > Mesangium

Mesangial cells are specialized cells around blood vessels in the kidneys. The arterial system The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...

Contents

Anatomical Location

Mesangial cells are located among the glomerular capillaries within a renal corpuscle. They are also found outside the glomerulus near the macula densa. In this location they are called lacis cells. The glomerulus is a capillary bed found surrounded by the Bowmans capsule of the nephron in the vertebrate kidney. ... The word capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. ... A renal corpuscle is the initial filtering component of a nephron in the kidney. ...


Function

Glomerular capillaries consist of endothelial cells with large fenestrations, and are therefore very permeable ("leaky") for most solutes in blood plasma. The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...


Mesangial cells are specialized pericytes that are thought to aid in the regulation of glomerular filtration. They provide structural support for and regulate blood flow of the glomerular capillaries by their contractile activity. They are also major contributors to the extracellular matrix which contains fibronectin, type IV collagen, perlecan, and laminin. Mesangial cells secrete prostaglandins and endothelins and respond to angiotensin II. Mesangial cells also phagocytose glomerular basal lamina components and immunoglobulins. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal glomerular capillaries into Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... In biology, extracellular matrix (ECM) is any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell. ...


Mesangial cells, in combination with the Macula Densa of the Distal Convoluted Tubule and Juxtaglomerular cells of the Afferent Arteriole, form the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus. This apparatus controls blood pressure through the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system.


In the presence of Angiotensin II mesangial cells vasoconstrict. This action is countered by the effects of Prostaglandin I2


References

Tortora GJ., & Grabowski SR., Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 10th Ed. John Wiley & Sons


Shannon Armstrong


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mesangium glycation and ... (1016 words)
In this context mesangium matrix, which is the extracellular matrix found within the glomerulus, is of considerable interest because its accumulation correlates closely with renal impairment in diabetes [1].
Glycation of mesangium matrix resulted in a threefold increase in AGE and reduced by 45% the matrix-degrading activity of MMP secreted by mesangial cells.
One of the major changes to mesangium matrix in diabetes is the accumulation of AGE as a result of chronic hyperglycemia.
IUHS Student (3523 words)
b/c the proliferation is predominantly in the mesangium, a frequently used synonym is mesangicapillary glomerulonephritis...
the glomeruli are large and hypercellular...the hypercelluarity is produced by proliferation of cells in the mesangium, although infiltrating leukocytes and parietal epithelial crescents are present in many cases...
C3 is also present in the mesangium in characterisitc circular aggregates (mesangial rings)...IgG is usually absent, as are the early acting complement components (C1q and C4)...
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