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EncyclopediaMesa > Boogie
Mesas in the Glass Mountains of western Oklahoma.
Mesas in the Glass Mountains of western Oklahoma.
Several mesas near Los Alamos, New Mexico.
Several mesas near Los Alamos, New Mexico.
Tucumcari Mountain is a mesa outside of Tucumcari, New Mexico.

A mesa (Spanish and Portuguese for "table") is an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs. It takes its name from its characteristic table-top shape. It is a characteristic landform of arid environments, particularly the southwestern United States. Many examples are also found in Spain, North and South Africa, Arabia, India, Australia, and the Badlands and Colorado regions of North America. The largest mesa in the world is considered to be the Grand Mesa in western Colorado in the United States. Urraca Mesa in northern New Mexico is particularly famous for being "haunted" in local tradition. Look up mesa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 676 KB) Author is myslef I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 676 KB) Author is myslef I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Glass Mountains are a series of low mesas south of the Cimarron River. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1130x792, 169 KB) Mesa near Los Alamos, New Mexico. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1130x792, 169 KB) Mesa near Los Alamos, New Mexico. ... Los Alamos is an unincorporated townsite in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. ... Tucumcari Mountain is a mesa in Tucumcari. ... This article is about the city in New Mexico, USA. For other uses see Tucumcari (disambiguation). ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain, and as such, is typically an element of topography. ... The Chinle Badlands at Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. ... The Grand Mesa is a large geologic formation in the western Colorado in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Urraca Mesa is a large mesa located in northern New Mexico on the property of Philmont Scout Ranch. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ...


Formation of a Mesa

Mesas form in areas where horizontally layered rocks are uplifted by tectonic activity. Variations in the ability of different types of rock to resist weathering and erosion cause the weaker types of rocks to be eroded away, leaving the more resistant types of rocks topographically higher relative to their surroundings.[1] This process is called differential erosion. The most resistant rock types include sandstone, conglomerate, quartzite, chert, limestone, lava flows and sills.[1] Lava flows and sills, in particular, are very resistant to weathering and erosion, and often form the flat top, or caprock, of a mesa. The less resistant rock layers are mainly made up of shale, a softer rock that weathers and erodes more easily.[1] The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... A conglomerate with iron oxide cementing material Conglomerate, Submarine Landslide located at Point Reyes, Marin County California. ... Quartzite Quartzite (from German Quarzit[1]) is a hard, metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. ... Chert Chert (IPA: ) is a fine-grained silica-rich cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In geology, a sill is a tabular, often horizontal mass of igneous rock that has been intruded laterally between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or even along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock. ...


The differences in strength of various rock layers is what gives mesas their distinctive shape. Less resistant rocks are eroded away on the surface into valleys, where they collect water drainage from the surrounding area, while the more resistant layers are left standing out.[1] A large area of very resistant rock, such as a sill may shield the layers below it from erosion while the softer rock surrounding it is eroded into valleys, thus forming a caprock. Differences in rock type also reflect on the sides of a mesa, as instead of smooth slopes, the sides are broken into a staircase pattern called "cliff-and-bench topography."[1] The more resistant layers form the cliffs, or stair steps, while the less resistant layers form gentle slopes, or benches, between the cliffs. Cliffs retreat and are eventually cut off from the main cliff, or plateau, by basal sapping. When the cliff edge does not retreat uniformly, but instead is indented by headward eroding streams, a section can be cut off from the main cliff, forming a mesa.[1] Basal sapping occurs as water flowing around the rock layers of the mesa erodes the underlying soft shale layers, either as surface runoff from the mesa top or from groundwater moving through permeable overlying layers, which leads to slumping and flowage of the shale.[2] As the underlying shale erodes away, it can no longer support the overlying cliff layers, which collapse and retreat. When the caprock has caved away to the point where only a little remains, it is known as a butte. In geology, a sill is a tabular, often horizontal mass of igneous rock that has been intruded laterally between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or even along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... For the anime and manga, see Dr. Slump. ... Butte near Sedona, Arizona A butte is an isolated hill with steep sides and a small flat top. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Easterbrook, Don J. (1999). Surface Processes and Landforms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 
  2. ^ Choreley, Richard J.; Stanley A. Schumm, David E. Sugden (1985). Geomorphology. New York: Methuen. 
Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ...

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