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Encyclopedia > Merlin (wizard)

Merlin Ambrosius (Welsh: Myrddin Emrys (Merlin the Wise); also known as Myrddin Wyllt (Merlin the Wild), Merlin Caledonensis (Scottish Merlin), Merlinus, and Merlyn) is the personage best known as the mighty wizard featured in Arthurian legends, starting with Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae. Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... It has been suggested that Mageborn be merged into this article or section. ... King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Britain. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. ... Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniæ (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) was written around 1136. ...

Merlin dictating his poems, as illustrated in a French book from the 13th century.

Other accounts distinguish two different figures named Merlin. For example, the Welsh Triads state there were three baptisimal bards: Taliesin, Chief of Bards, Myrddin Wyllt, and Myrddin Emrys. It is believed that these two bards called Myrddin were originally variants of the same figure; their stories have become different in the earliest texts that they are treated as separate characters, even though similar incidents are ascribed to both. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (642x700, 90 KB) Merlin when dictating its poems, French book painting from the 13th century. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (642x700, 90 KB) Merlin when dictating its poems, French book painting from the 13th century. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... The Welsh Triads (Welsh, Trioedd Ynys Prydein) is used to describe any of the related Medieval collection of groupings of three that preserve a major portion of Welsh folklore and Welsh literature. ... For the studio established by Frank Lloyd Wright, see Taliesin (studio) Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... A bard is a poet and singer, with the particular meaning differing for various countries and epochs. ... Myrddin Wyllt is the wild man of the woods mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouths Vita Merlini. ... Myrddin Emrys is the Welsh name of King Arthurs enchanter Merlin. ...

Contents


Origin

The name may have arisen from Roman-period Celtic Mori-dunum = "sea fort", a place in Wales; the name became Carmarthen (Caer Myrddin in Welsh). Someone may have treated the name as meaning "Royal residence of a man called Myrddin". For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Carmarthen (Welsh Caerfyrddin - caer fort + Myrddin Moridunum, Merlin (origin disputed)) is the county town of Carmarthenshire, Wales. ... Look up Welsh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Welsh language, a caer or kaer was a royal residence during the 1st millennium AD or earlier. ...


Merlinus Caledonensis, Myrddin Wyllt

This Myrddin had nothing to do with Arthur and flourished after the Arthurian period. The earliest (pre-12th century) Welsh poems that concern the Myrddin legend present him as a madman living a wretched existence in the Caledonian Forest, ruminating on his former existence and the disaster that brought him low: the death of his lord Gwenddoleu, whom he served as bard. The allusions in these poems serve to sketch out the events of the Battle of Arfderydd, where Riderch Hael, King of Alt Clut (Strathclyde) slaughtered the forces of Gwenddoleu, and Myrddin went mad watching this defeat. The Annales Cambriae date this battle to AD 573, and name Gwenddoleu's adversaries as the sons of Eliffer, presumably Gwrgi and Peredur. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Caledonian Forest is the name of a type of woodland that once covered vast areas of the Scottish Highlands, Scotland, UK. Today, however, all that remains is a mere 1% of the original forest in 35 isolated locations. ... A bard is a poet or singer, in religious or feudal contexts. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Riderch I of Alt Clut, (fl. ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Strathclyde (Srath Chluaidh in Gaelic) was one of the regional council areas of Scotland from 1975 to 1996. ... Annales Cambriae, or The Annals of Wales, believed to date from 970, is a chronicle of events thought to be significant occurring during the years 447-954. ... Events Pope Gregory I is ordained monk. ... Peredur Arueu Dur, King of Ebrauc (c. ...


A version of this legend is preserved in a late fifteenth-century manuscript, in a story called Lailoken and Kentigern. In this narrative, St. Kentigern meets in a deserted place with a naked, hairy madman who is called Lailoken, although said by some to be called Merlynum or "Merlin", who declares that he has been condemned for his sins to wander in the company of beasts. He added that he had been the cause for the deaths of all of the persons killed in the battle fought "on the plain between Liddel and Carwannok." Having told his story, the madman lept up and fled from the presence of the saint back into the wilderness. He appears several times more in the narrative until at last asking St. Kentigern for the Sacrament, prophesying that he was about to die a triple death. After some hesitation, the saint granted the madman's wish, and later that day the shepherds of King Meldred captured him, beat him with clubs, then cast him into the river Tweed where his body was pierced by a stake, thus fulfilling his prophecy. Saint Mungo, also known as Saint Kentigern, is by tradition an apostle to the Kingdom of Strathclyde, Scotland, and patron saint and legendary founder of the city of Glasgow. ... With its origin from Arthurian legend and derived from Celtic mythology, a Scottish lord and madman attributed with prophetic abilities. ... SiN is a computer game developed by Ritual Entertainment and published by Activision in late 1998. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy mystery. ... In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ... There are other rivers with this name: see Tweed River The River Tweed at Abbotsford, near Melrose The River Tweed at Coldstream The River Tweed (156 kilometres or 97 miles long) flows primarily through the Borders region of Scotland. ...


Welsh literature has many examples of a prophetic literature, predicting the military victory of all of the Celtic peoples of Great Britain who will join together and drive the English -- and later the Normans also -- back into the sea. Some of these works were claimed to be the prophecies of Myrddin; some of it was not, as for example the Armes Prydein. This wild prophetic Merlin was also treated by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Vita Merlini which looks like a close adaptation of a number of Myrddin poems. The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... Prophecy, in a broad sense, is the prediction of future events. ... A Celtic cross. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous people of France and the Viking invaders under the leadership of Hrolf Ganger, who adopted the French name Rollo and swore allegiance to the king of France (Charles the Simple). ...


Merlin Ambrosius, Myrddin Emrys

It was Geoffrey of Monmouth who introduced Merlin into the myths of King Arthur. The name Myrddin is altered to Merlin to avoid a resemblance to the obscene French word merde (meaning excrement). While Geoffrey is remembered most for his character of Arthur, it was Merlin whom he concentrated on, making the prophetic bard a central character of his three books: Prophetiae Merlini, Historiae Regum Britanniae and Vita Merlini. As a result of this second book, where Merlin appears in the tales of the king Vortigern, Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther Pendragon who reigned immediately before Arthur, Merlin in some later works also became a character in tales of Arthur. Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. ... Vortigern, Vortiger, or Vortigen was a fifth century warlord, possibly legendary, traditionally said to have invited the Anglo-Saxons to settle in Britain as mercenaries, who later revolted and established their own kingdoms. ... Ambrosius Aurelianus (incorrectly referred to in the Historia Regum Britanniae as Aurelius Ambrosius ) was a leader of the Romano-British, who won important battles against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas and to the legends preserved in the Historia Britonum. ... Uther Pendragon (pen-dragon = head of the dragons) is the legendary father of King Arthur in the Arthurian legend. ...


Geoffrey tells only two tales of Merlin. Merlin is begotten on a king's daughter by a demon and the episode is now placed at Carmarthen, in Welsh Caer Myrddin. As a young boy, he was already known for his prophetic abilities, and was consulted by King Vortigern to explain why his castle would collapse every time it was rebuilt. He revealed there was an underground lake, with two sleeping dragons, a white one and red one and explained they, respectively, represented the Saxons and Britons (and portent for things to come). Carmarthen (Welsh Caerfyrddin - caer fort + Myrddin Moridunum, Merlin (origin disputed)) is the county town of Carmarthenshire, Wales. ... Vortigern, Vortiger, or Vortigen was a fifth century warlord, possibly legendary, traditionally said to have invited the Anglo-Saxons to settle in Britain as mercenaries, who later revolted and established their own kingdoms. ...


Nennius had recorded this tale in the Historia Britonum of the 9th century, but attached it to Aurelius Ambrosius rather than Merlin. Geoffrey conflated the two sages and incorporated them into his work, simply and baldly stating that Merlin was also called Ambrosius to cover over his changing of Nennius. A long section of prophecy is added at this point. The first tale tells how Merlin created Stonehenge as a burial place for Aurelius Ambrosius. The second tale tells how by shape-changing magic Merlin enabled Uther Pendragon to enter into Tintagel in disguise and father his son Arthur. These episodes also appear in many later adaptations of Geoffrey's account. Nennius, or Nemnivus, is the name of two shadowy personages traditionally associated with the history of Wales. ... The Historia Britonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 820, and exists in several recensions of varying difference. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Ambrosius Aurelianus (incorrectly referred to in the Historia Regum Britanniae as Aurelius Ambrosius ) was a leader of the Romano-British, who won important battles against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas and to the legends preserved in the Historia Britonum. ... Stonehenge Stonehenge is a Neolithic and Bronze Age megalithic monument located near Amesbury in the English county of Wiltshire, about 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Salisbury. ... Uther Pendragon (pen-dragon = head of the dragons) is the legendary father of King Arthur in the Arthurian legend. ... Situated on the north Atlantic coast of Cornwall, the village of Tintagel (pronounced with the stress on the second syllable; Cornish: Dintagell) and nearby Tintagel Castle are associated with the legends surrounding King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ...


Somewhat later the poet Robert de Boron retold this material in his poem Merlin with many expansions but with details garbled and changed in a way that suggests that the version of Wace, who adapted Geoffrey's account into Anglo-Norman, had entered oral tradition and that this oral tradition was what Robert knew along with some other Merlin tales. Only a few lines of the poem have survived. But a prose retelling became popular and was later incorporated into two other romances. Robert de Boron (also spelled in the manuscripts Bouron, Beron) was a French poet of the late 12th and early 13th centuries, originally from the village of Boron, in the arrondissement of Montbéliard. ... Wace (c. ... The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the variety of Norman spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ...


In Robert's account Merlin is begotten by a devil from hell on a virgin as an intended Antichrist. But his expectant mother, advised by her confessor and counsellor Blaise who realised what was amiss, had the boy baptized at birth to foil this Satanic plot. However, being half-demon, Merlin still had tremendous magical powers to know what was happening past and present and God himself gave him prophetic knowledge of the future. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Robert de Boron lays great emphasis on Merlin's power to change his shape, on his joking personality and on his connection to the Grail. This text introduces Merlin's master Blaise, who is pictured as writing Merlin's deeds which Merlin dictates to him, explaining how they came to be known and preserved. It also connects Merlin with the Holy Grail. In Christian mythology, the Holy Grail was the dish, plate, or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper, said to possess miraculous powers. ...


As the Arthurian mythos was retold and embellished upon, Merlin's prophetic aspects were sometimes de-emphasized in favor of portraying Merlin as a wizard and elder advisor to Arthur. On the other hand in Prose Lancelot it is said that Merlin was never baptized and never did any good in his life, only evil. Medieval Arthurian tales abound in inconsistencies. It has been suggested that Mageborn be merged into this article or section. ... The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ...


In the Prose Lancelot and later accounts Merlin's eventual downfall came from his lusting after a woman named Nimue, who coaxed his magical secrets from him, eventually turning the magic he had taught her against him and imprisoning him either in a cave where he died or in a magical and invisible palace where he may live still. This was unfortunate for Arthur, depriving him of Merlin's counsel. In Arthurian legend, The Lady of the Lake gave King Arthur the sword known as Excalibur. ...


There are three such accounts of Merlin in Arthur's day which also cover the early days of Arthur's reign. The earliest, known as the Vulgate Merlin, includes Robert de Boron's Merlin. It was intended as a sort of prequel to the three romances of the Lancelot-Grail Cycle. An incomplete variant version known as The Book of Arthur also exists. The second is sometimes called the Huth Merlin or the Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlin. It is part of a long prose romance that has not survived intact but which is now known as The Book of the Grail or the Post-Vulgate Cycle, intended as an entire history of the Grail and of Arthur and his knights. This also includes Robert de Boron's Merlin. The third work is called The Prophecies of Merlin and contains long prophecies of Merlin (mostly concerned with thirteenth century Italian politics!), some by his ghost after his death. The prophecies are interspersed with episodes relating Merlin's deeds and with various Arthurian adventures in which Merlin does not appear at all. The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... The Post-Vulgate Cycle is one of the major Old French prose cycles of Arthurian literature. ...


Later fiction about Merlin

Novels and plays

(Many of the novels in the article King Arthur also include Merlin as a character. The following works are either told from Merlin's point of view, or are based on the earlier legends of Merlin.) King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Great Britain, where he appears as the ideal of kingship in both war and peace. ...

  • Mark Twain made Merlin the villain in his novel A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court.
  • C. S. Lewis used the figure of Merlin Ambrosius in his 1946 novel That Hideous Strength, the third book in the Space Trilogy. In it, Merlin has supposedly lain asleep for centuries to be awakened for the battle against the materialistic agents of the devil, able to consort with the angelic powers because he came from a time when sorcery was not yet a corrupt art. Lewis's character of Ransom has apparently inherited the title of Pendragon from the Arthurian tradition. Merlin also mentions "Numinor," a misspelling of Númenor, in a nod to J. R. R. Tolkien.
  • T.H. White's Arthurian retelling, The Once and Future King, in which 'Merlyn', as White calls him, has the curious affliction of living backwards in time to everyone else.
  • Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon retells the Arthurian legend with Morgan Le Fay as protagonist, in the tradition of John Gardner's Grendel. It includes two distinct characters who, in succession, hold the title of "The Merlin of Britain," an office which grants leadership of the Druids in the same way that "The Lady of the Lake" is the title of the high priestess of Avalon.
  • Mary Stewart's Merlin Trilogy. 'Myrddin Emrys' (Merlin Ambrosius) is the protagonist of the first two novels, The Crystal Cave and The Hollow Hills, which are based on earlier traditions of the character, as shown above. The last book of the trilogy, The Last Enchantment, and a related book, The Wicked Day, focus more on Arthur and Mordred, though the former is still told from his viewpoint. Stewart portrays Aurelius Ambrosius (brother to Uther Pendragon) as his father, and thus makes him Arthur's cousin. Here Merlin goes mad due to Morgause's poison.
  • In Stephen R. Lawhead's Merlin (1988), the title character (also called the same Latin and Welsh names) is half-Cymric (from his father, the bard Taliesin) and half-Atlantean (from his mother, the Lady of the Lake, an Atlantean princess who escaped its destruction). Trained as a bard in his youth, he becomes a Christian, marries, and rules as king in Dyfed until his wife and companions are killed by Saxon marauders. He goes mad and dwells in Celyddon Forest until he is healed by an angel. After this, he becomes the prophet, bard and advisor of Aurelius, Uther and Arthur.
  • Arthurian scholar Nikolai Tolstoy (a relation of Leo Tolstoy) wrote a non-fiction book, The Quest For Merlin, and a historical fantasy, The Coming of the King, the first of an unfinished trilogy. The latter book's depiction of Merlin may be the most historically accurate of all, since he lives after Arthur's death. The hero Beowulf even appears as an invader.
  • Catherine Christian, in her historical fiction novel The Pendragon, interprets "the Merlin" as the title of the chief bard of Britain, succesively held by one Emrys (who is only mentioned), one Celidon ("the" Merlin of the traditional legends) and Bedivere (after Arthur's death).
  • T.A. Barron portrays Merlin as a young man in his Lost Years of Merlin series, and is an adult in its sequel series, The Great Tree of Avalon. Merlin also figures prominently in Barron's The Merlin Effect, which may be in the same fictional continuity.
  • Merlin—or Merlyn, this time—is the protagonist in many of Jack Whyte's The Dream of Eagles series (known as The Camulod Chronicles outside Canada).
  • Peter David depicts Merlin, Arthur and the familiar cast of characters from the Arthur stories appearing in modern-day America in his King Arthur trilogy, Knight Life, One Knight Only, and the upcoming Fall of Knight. In these stories, David employs T.H. White's idea that Merlin is living backwards in time, as the character appears physically to be a young boy in these stories.
  • Kara Dalkey has written a trilogy called Water for young adults where Niniane and Merlin (known as Nia and Corwin respectively) must recover Excalibur to save Atlantis, the underwater city in which lives in. The books are subtitled Ascension, Reunion, and Transformation.
  • In Susan Cooper's The Dark is Rising Sequence, Merlin is portrayed as Professor Merriman Lyon, one of the Old Ones in the story - the oldest Old One in fact. He appears in all five books of the sequence and has many powers, one of which lets him go forward and backward in time.
  • René Barjavel's L'Enchanteur.
  • Merlin, by Robert Nye , (1978, Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 0241899524)
  • William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin (play, 1622)

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, novelist, writer, and lecturer. ... A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court book cover A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court is a novel by American humorist and writer Mark Twain, first published in 1889. ... C.S. Lewis Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898–22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, and by his friends as Jack, was an Irish author and scholar of mixed Irish, English, and Welsh ancestry. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... That Hideous Strength is a novel by C. S. Lewis first published in 1945. ... The Space Trilogy, Cosmic Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy is a trilogy of three science fiction novels by C. S. Lewis. ... Pendragon, meaning head of the dragons, may refer to: Uther Pendragon, mythical father of King Arthur Stephen R. Lawheads Pendragon Cycle of fantasy books Peter Pendragon, star of Aleister Crowleys Diary of a Drug Fiend Pendragon (band) a British progressive rock band Pendragon role-playing game The above... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (January 3, 1892 – September 2, 1973) is best known as the author of The Hobbit and its sequel The Lord of the Rings. ... Terence Hanbury White (May 29, 1906 - January 17, 1964) was a writer. ... The Once and Future King The Once and Future King is an Arthurian fantasy novel written by T.H. White. ... Merlyn can refer to: T.H. Whites name for the wizard Merlin in his work, The Once and Future King The Book of Merlyn, the lost fifth book of The Once and Future King Baron Merlyn Rees, the 20th Century British politician This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley (June 3, 1930 – September 25, 1999) was a prolific author of largely feminist fantasy novels such as The Mists of Avalon and was a steadfast encourager of equality (and quality) in writing. ... The Mists of Avalon is a novel by Marion Zimmer Bradley. ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation In Arthurian legend, Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain or Morgana and a slew of related name variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of... John Champlin Gardner, Jr. ... Grendel is one of three antagonists (along with Grendels Mother and the dragon) in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf (c. ... In Celtic polytheism the word druid denotes the priestly class in ancient Celtic societies, which existed through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... The Lady of the Lake taking the infant Lancelot. ... Avalon (probably from the Celtic word abal: apple; see Etymology below) is a legendary island somewhere in the British Isles, famous for its beautiful apples. ... Mary Stewart (born 12 September 1916 in Sunderland, County Durham, England) is a popular English novelist, best known for her trilogy about Merlin, which straddles the boundary between the historical novel and the fantasy genre. ... The Crystal Cave is a novel by Mary Stewart. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ambrosius Aurelianus (incorrectly referred to in the Historia Regum Britanniae as Aurelius Ambrosius ) was a leader of the Romano-British, who won important battles against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas and to the legends preserved in the Historia Britonum. ... In Arthurian legend, Morgause or Morgase (also known as Anna-Morgause or Ann-Morgause) is the half-sister of King Arthur who slept with him and produced Mordred, the incestuous heir that would lead to Camelots downfall. ... Stephen R. Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is an American writer known for novels, both fantasy and science fiction and more recently his works of historical fiction. ... The Pendragon Cycle is a series of fantasy or semi-historical books based on the Arthurian legend, written by Stephen R. Lawhead. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom, England and Wales and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... A bard is a poet or singer, in religious or feudal contexts. ... For the studio established by Frank Lloyd Wright, see Taliesin (studio) Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Atlantis is an island whose existence and location have never been confirmed. ... The Lady of the Lake taking the infant Lancelot. ... Dyfed was one of the ancient kingdoms (or principalities) of Wales prior to the Norman Conquest. ... Count Nikolai Tolstoy-Miloslavsky (born 1935) is a prominent and controversial Russo-British historian and author, who writes under the name Nikolai Tolstoy. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й; commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy) (September 9, 1828 – November 20, 1910, N.S.; August 28, 1828 – November 7, 1910, O.S.) was a Russian novelist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of the Tolstoy family. ... The first page of Beowulf This article is about the epic poem. ... T. (Tom) A. Barron (born March 26, 1952 in Boston, Massachusetts) is an American writer of young adult and fantasy literature. ... Jack Whyte (Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 1939) is an author and writer born and raised in Scotland, but living in Canada since 1967. ... Peter David Peter Allen David (born September 23, 1956) is an American writer, best known for his work in comic books and Star Trek novels. ... Motto: (1789 to 1956) (Latin for Out of many, one) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice... In Arthurian legend, The Lady of the Lake gave King Arthur the sword known as Excalibur. ... Atlantis is an island whose existence and location have never been confirmed. ... Susan Mary Cooper (born May 23, 1935) in Burnham, Buckinghamshire, England is a British author. ... The Dark is Rising is the name of a five-book series by Susan Cooper, as well as the name of the second of the five books. ... René Barjavel (January 24, 1911 - November 24, 1985) was a French author, journalist and critic who supposedly was the first to think of the Grandfather paradox. ... William Rowley was an English Jacobean dramatist, best known for works written in collaboration with more successful writers. ... The Birth of Merlin, or, The Child Hath Found his Father is a Jacobean play, written in 1622. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ...

Television and film

Naturally, Merlin is featured in many Arthurian films, like: Image File history File links Excalibur_Merlin. ... Image File history File links Excalibur_Merlin. ... Hamilton, Scotland-born actor (on September 14, 1938), Nicol Williamson was described by British playwright John Osborne as the greatest actor since Marlon Brando. Nicol was born to a struggling working-class Scottish family, but managed to attend the Birmingham School of Speech & Drama. ... Excalibur is a 1981 film which retells the legend of King Arthur. ...

Television: This article is about the animated film. ... Walt Disney Pictures is an American movie studio, with off-shoot studios in Japan and other sites in the United States. ... King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Great Britain, where he appears as the ideal of kingship in both war and peace. ... Kingdom Hearts ) is a hybrid action-RPG that was released in 2002, which is notable for being the result of a collaboration between the video game developer and publisher Square and Disney. ... Sora, as he appears in Kingdom Hearts II. Sora ) is the protagonist of the Kingdom Hearts series. ... Excalibur is a 1981 film which retells the legend of King Arthur. ... // Events January 19 - Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer acquires beleaguered concurrent United Artists. ... Hamilton, Scotland-born actor (on September 14, 1938), Nicol Williamson was described by British playwright John Osborne as the greatest actor since Marlon Brando. Nicol was born to a struggling working-class Scottish family, but managed to attend the Birmingham School of Speech & Drama. ... DVD Cover Merlin is a 3 hour made-for-television movie released in 1998 that retells the famous legend of King Arthur from the perspective of the wizard Merlin. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1998. ... A television movie (also known as a TV film, TV movie, TV-movie, feature-length drama, made-for-TV movie, movie of the week (MOTW or MOW), single drama, telemovie, telefilm, or two-hour-long drama) is a film that is produced for and originally distributed by a television network. ... Sam Neill (born Nigel John Dermot Neill), OBE (born 14 September 1947) is a British-born, New Zealand film and television actor, and owner of the Two Paddocks winery in Central Otago. ... Miranda Richardson as Queenie in Blackadder II (1986) Miranda Richardson (born 3 March 1958, in Southport, Merseyside) is an English actress, noted for her distinctive ability to deeply delve into the minds of the characters she plays. ... In English folklore, Queen Mab is a fairy. ... The Lady of the Lake taking the infant Lancelot. ... Martin Hayter Short, CM (born March 26, 1950) is an actor, writer, and producer best known for his comedy work, particularly on the TV programs SCTV and Saturday Night Live. ... Isabella Rossellini, 1990 for others of the same surname see Rossellini Isabella Fiorella Elettra Giovanna Rossellini, born June 18, 1952 in Rome, is a model and an actress, daughter of Ingrid Bergman and Roberto Rossellini. ... In Arthurian legend, The Lady of the Lake gave King Arthur the sword known as Excalibur. ... Rutger Hauer Rutger Oelsen Hauer is a Dutch actor, born January 23, 1944 in Breukelen, the Netherlands. ... Vortigern, Vortiger, or Vortigen was a fifth century warlord, possibly legendary, traditionally said to have invited the Anglo-Saxons to settle in Britain as mercenaries, who later revolted and established their own kingdoms. ... King Arthur is a film first released in the United States on June 28, 2004, dubbed as The Untold True Story That Inspired The Legend by Touchstone Pictures. ... This is a list of film-related events in 2004. ... The Pictish Strathpeffer eagle stone, Highland, Scotland. ... Clive Owen Clive Owen (born October 3, 1964), is an English actor, now a regular performer in Hollywood and independent American films. ... The Legend of Prince Valiant is an animated cartoon based on the Prince Valiant comic strip created by Hal Foster. ...

  • Doctor Who's 26th season featured "Battlefield" (by Ben Aaronovitch), a 4 episode story in which Arthur and his contemporaries are revealed to be of extraterrestrial origin, and that the good Doctor and Merlin may be one in the same.
  • Mr. Merlin, a 1981-82 sitcom starring Barnard Hughes as the wizard, disguised as Max Merlin, a mechanic in modern-day San Francisco. He hires Zachary Rogers, played by Clark Brandon, to work in his garage, and when Zac pulls a crowbar out of a rock, the crowbar is revealed to be Arthur's sword Excalibur, and Merlin must reveal himself to Zac and make him an apprentice, and magic-based hijinks ensue. When Zac asks him how he can still be alive after 1,600 years, Merlin says, "I do 30 push-ups a day, and I don't eat fried food" -- but, in the middle of the season, has to have his tonsils removed. The show, while sometimes funny, was typical of late-1970s and early-1980s sci-fi/fantasy TV and film, and was too campy for its own good.
  • In a two-part MacGyver episode/dream sequence Merlin is shown to be a bumbling trickster who relies on the title character's wit and wisdom to save the day (later taking credit himself, generating his legend off of MacGyver's exploits).
  • In Stargate SG-1, Merlin is revealed to have been an Ancient, named Myrddin, who returned to earth 10,000 years ago, after the Ancients abandoned Atlantis. Merlin then ascended. He later retook mortal form when he decided that the threat that the Ori posed to the humans in the galaxy as well as the ancients who would not fight to protect even themselves was too great, so he created a device capable of killing other ascended beings such as the Ori. Ancient technology is revealed to be the basis of many of the myths about Merlin on Earth - Jackson speculated the myth about 'moving backwards in time' giving Merlin the power of prophecy, means he had a time machine (possibly a version of Janis's timeship first seen in Before I Sleep, there is a possibility that he IS Janis under another name), in the same way as 'Merlins cloak of invisibility' was a device that moved the user into another dimension.

Doctor Who is a long-running British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC about a mysterious time-travelling adventurer known only as The Doctor, who explores time and space with his companions, fighting evil. ... This is a list of Doctor Who television serials. ... Ben Aaronovitch is a London-born, British writer who has worked on television series including Doctor Who, Casualty, Jupiter Moon and Dark Knight. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword Excalibur into the Water. ... MacGyver was an American adventure television series about a laid-back, extremely resourceful ex-secret agent named Angus Mac MacGyver, played by Richard Dean Anderson. ... Stargate SG-1 (sometimes written Stargåte to mimic the title art, and popularly abbreviated as SG-1) is a television series based upon the 1994 science fiction film Stargate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ancient City of Atlantis Atlantis is a fictional, technologically advanced city, featured in the science fiction television series Stargate Atlantis, the spin-off of Stargate SG-1, both of which are part of the Stargate science fiction setting. ... Daniel Jackson and a Zen Monk meditate on the complexities of Ascension. ... The Ori (pronounced OR-eye) are fictional characters on the Stargate SG-1 television program. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Daniel Jackson is a fictional character in both the science fiction feature film Stargate and the subsequent television series Stargate SG-1. ...

Other media

Merlin has appeared in various comics, usually in stories where King Arthur plays a part. Some examples include:

Camelot 3000 is a comic book maxi-series written by Mike Barr and penciled by Brian Bolland and published by DC Comics from 1982-1985 as one of its first Direct Market projects. ... Captain Britain (Brian Braddock), also briefly known as Britannic, is a fictional character, a comic book superhero in the Marvel universe. ... Parallel universe (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Demon is a DC Comics superhero series created by comic book master, Jack Kirby. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Hellblazer John Constantine (Born 1953 in Liverpool England) is the fictional protagonist of the comic series Hellblazer. ... Hellblazer is a comic book series published by the Vertigo imprint of DC Comics, which features the central character John Constantine. ... Bran the Blessed, also known as Bran Vendigaid, Bendigeidfran or Branovices, is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. ... In Christian mythology, the Holy Grail was the dish, plate, or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper, said to possess miraculous powers. ... Prince Valiant in the Days of King Arthur, or simply Prince Valiant, is a comic strip created by Hal Foster. ... Shining Knight is the name of three fictional superheroes in the DC Comics universe. ... The Uncanny X-Men is a Marvel Comics series featuring an eponymous group of mutant superheroes, published from 1963 to present day. ...

See also

2597 Arthur is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by Edward L. G. Bowell in 1980. ... 2598 Merlin is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by Edward L. G. Bowell in 1980. ... Drinking games are games which involve drinking alcoholic beverages. ...

External links

  • Vita Merlini, Basil Clarke's English translation from Life of Merlin: Vita Merlini (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1973).
    • At Grove of the Great Dragon: Manuscripts
    • At Branwaedd (PDF)
  • Merlin: or the early History of King Arthur: a prose romance (Early English Text Society [Series]. Original series : 10, 112), edited by Henry Wheatly. (1450s) (The complete prose Middle English translation of the Vulgate Merlin. Chapter I to VI cover Robert de Boron's Merlin.)
  • Prose Merlin, Introduction and Text (TEAMS Middle English text series) edited by John Conlea, 1998. (1450s) (A selection of many passages of the prose Middle English translation of the Vulgate Merlin with connecting summary. The sections from The Birth of Merlin to Arthur and the Sword in the Stone cover Robert de Boron's Merlin).
  • Of Arthour and Merlin: Auchenlich Manuscipt (National Library of Scotland) (1330s). (A Middle-English verse adaptation of the Vulgate Merlin combined with material closer to Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia. Lines 1-3059 cover approximately Robert de Boron's Merlin).
  • The Cry of Merlin the Wise, translated into English by Dorothea Salo from the 1498 Burgos publication of the Portuguese El baladro del sabio Merlin. (The original is essentially a medieval Portuguese adaptation of the Post-Vulgate Merlin. From Prologue 3 to Chapter 18 to the sentence And thus was Arthur king in Londres, and held the land in his power and in peace corresponds to Robert de Boron's Merlin).
  • The Beguiling of Merlin, Edward Burne-Jones
  • Merlin: Texts, Images, Basic Information, Camelot Project at the University of Rochester. (Numerous further texts and art concerning Merlin.)
  • Merlin : Opera by Ezequiel Viñao with a Libretto by Caleb Carr, (Words and Music. Excerpts from the opera)

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Merlin, sage from another world, was an inspired seer and mystic mage, a wise councilor and faithful friend to three kings.
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