FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Merlin" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Merlin
Merlin dictating his poems, as illustrated in a French book from the 13th century
Merlin dictating his poems, as illustrated in a French book from the 13th century

Merlin is best known as the wizard featured in Arthurian legend. The standard depiction of the character first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, and is based on an amalgamation of previous historical and legendary figures. Geoffrey combined existing stories of Myrddin Wyllt (Merlinus Caledonensis), a northern madman with no connection to King Arthur, with tales of Aurelius Ambrosius to form the composite figure he called Merlin Ambrosius. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (642x700, 90 KB) Merlin when dictating its poems, French book painting from the 13th century. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (642x700, 90 KB) Merlin when dictating its poems, French book painting from the 13th century. ... Merlin is a wizard associated with King Arthur. ... The Enchanted Garden of Messer Ansaldo by Marie Spartali Stillman: a magician makes his garden bear fruit and flowers in winter. ... The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, centering around King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... Myrddin Wyllt is the wild man of the woods mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouths Vita Merlini. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Ambrosius Aurelianus, called Aurelius Ambrosius in the Historia Regum Britanniae and elsewhere, was a war leader of the Romano-British who won an important battle against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas. ...


Geoffrey's rendering of the character was immediately popular; later writers expanded the account to produce a fuller image of the wizard. Merlin's traditional biography casts him as born of mortal woman, sired by incubus, the non-human wellspring from whom he inherits his supernatural powers and abilities.[1] Merlin matures to an ascendant sagehood and engineers the birth of Arthur through magic and intrigue. Later, Merlin serves as the king's advisor until he is bewitched and imprisoned by The Lady of the Lake. Incubus, 1870 This article is about the type of demon called an Incubus. For other uses, see Incubus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Geoffrey's sources

Geoffrey's composite Merlin is based primarily on Myrddin Wyllt, also called Merlinus Caledonensis, and Aurelius Ambrosius, a mostly fictionalized version of the historical war leader Ambrosius Aurelianus. The former had nothing to do with Arthur and flourished after the Arthurian period. According to lore he was a bard driven mad after witnessing the horrors of war, who fled civilization to become a wildman of the woods in the 6th century. Geoffrey had this individual in mind when he wrote his earliest surviving work, the Prophetiae Merlini (Prophecies of Merlin), which he claimed were the actual words of the legendary madman. Medievalist Gaston Paris suggested he altered the name to "Merlinus" rather than the standard romanization "Merdinus" to avoid a resemblance to the vulgar French word merde, meaning "excrement". Myrddin Wyllt is the wild man of the woods mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouths Vita Merlini. ... Ambrosius Aurelianus, called Aurelius Ambrosius in the Historia Regum Britanniae and elsewhere, was a war leader of the Romano-British who won an important battle against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas. ... Woodwoses support coats of arms in the side panels of a portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1499 (Alte Pinakothek, Munich) Grand arms of Prussia, 1873 The Woodwose or hairy wildman of the woods was the Sasquatch figure of pre-Christian Gaul, in Anglo-Saxon a Woodwoses appear in the carved... Bruno Paulin Gaston Paris (August 9, 1839 - March 6, 1903), was a French scholar, the son of Alexis Paulin Paris. ...


Geoffrey's Prophetiae do not reveal much about Merlin's background. When he included the prophet in his next work, Historia Regum Britanniae, he supplemented the characterization by attributing to him stories about Aurelius Ambrosius, taken from Nennius' Historia Brittonum. According to Nennius, Ambrosius was discovered when the British king Vortigern was trying to erect a tower. The tower always collapsed before completion, and his wise men told him the only solution was to sprinkle the foundation with the blood of a "child born without a father". Ambrosius was rumored to be such a child, but when brought before the king, he revealed the real reason for the tower's collapse: below the foundation was a lake containing two dragons who destroyed the tower by fighting. Geoffrey retells this story in Historia Regum Britanniæ with some embellishments, and gives the fatherless child the name of the prophetic bard, Merlin. He keeps this new figure separate from Aurelius Ambrosius, and to disguise his changing of Nennius, he simply states that Ambrosius was another name for Merlin. He goes on to add new episodes that tie Merlin into the story of King Arthur and his predecessors. Nennius, or Nemnivus, is the name of two shadowy personages traditionally associated with the history of Wales. ... The Historia Britonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 820, and exists in several recensions of varying difference. ... Vortigern (also spelled Vortiger and Vortigen, and in Welsh Gwrtheyrn), was a 5th century warlord in Britain, a leading ruler among the Britons (Brythons). ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ...


Geoffrey dealt with Merlin again in his third work, Vita Merlini. He based the Vita on stories of the original 6th century Myrddin. Though set long after his timeframe for the life of "Merlin Ambrosius," he tries to assert the characters are the same with references to King Arthur and his death as told in the Historia Regum Britanniae. Vita Merlini, or The Life of Merlin, is a work by Geoffrey of Monmouth composed in Latin around AD 1150. ...


Merlinus Caledonensis, or Myrddin Wyllt

Main article: Myrddin Wyllt

The earliest (pre-12th century) Welsh poems concerning the Myrddin legend present him as a madman living a wretched existence in the Caledonian Forest, ruminating on his former existence and the disaster that brought him low: the death of his lord Gwenddoleu, whom he served as bard. The allusions in these poems serve to sketch out the events of the Battle of Arfderydd, where Riderch Hael, King of Alt Clut (Strathclyde) slaughtered the forces of Gwenddoleu, and Myrddin went mad watching this defeat. The Annales Cambriae date this battle to AD 573 and name Gwenddoleu's adversaries as the sons of Eliffer, presumably Gwrgi and Peredur. Myrddin Wyllt is the wild man of the woods mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouths Vita Merlini. ... Scots Pine at Mar Lodge, Deeside. ... Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio, (d. ... The Bard (ca. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Riderch I of Alt Clut, (fl. ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Strathclyde (Srath Chluaidh in Gaelic) was one of the regional council areas of Scotland from 1975 to 1996. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Welsh_Annals Annales Cambriae: page view from MS. A Annales Cambriae, or The Annals of Wales, is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles deriving ultimately from a text compiled from diverse sources at St Davids in Dyfed, Wales, not... Peredur Arueu Dur, King of Ebrauc (c. ...


Some early references name the madman as "Lailoken"; this name especially used in the hagiography of Saint Kentigern. A version of this legend is preserved in a late 15th century manuscript, in a story called Lailoken and Kentigern. In this narrative, Kentigern meets in a deserted place with the naked, hairy madman Lailoken, also called Merlynum or "Merlin", who declares that he has been condemned for his sins to wander in the company of beasts. He adds that he had been the cause for the deaths of all of the persons killed in the battle fought "on the plain between Liddel and Carwannok." Having told his story, the madman leaps up and flees from the presence of the saint back into the wilderness. He appears several times more in the narrative until at last he asks Kentigern for the sacrament, prophesying that he was about to die a triple death. After some hesitation, the saint grants the madman's wish, and later that day the shepherds of King Meldred capture him, beat him with clubs, then cast him into the River Tweed where his body is pierced by a stake, thus fulfilling his prophecy. With its origin from Arthurian legend and derived from Celtic mythology, a Scottish lord and madman attributed with prophetic abilities. ... Saint Mungo, also known as Saint Kentigern, is by tradition an apostle to the Kingdom of Strathclyde, Scotland, and patron saint and legendary founder of the city of Glasgow. ... There are other rivers with this name: see Tweed River The River Tweed at Abbotsford, near Melrose The River Tweed at Coldstream The River Tweed (156 kilometres or 97 miles long) flows primarily through the Borders region of Scotland. ...


Welsh literature has many examples of a prophetic literature, predicting the military victory of all of the Brythonic peoples of Great Britain who will join together and drive the English – and later the Normans – back into the sea. Some of these works were claimed to be the prophecies of Myrddin; some were not, as for example the Armes Prydein. This wild prophetic Merlin was also treated by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Vita Merlini which looks like a close adaptation of a number of Myrddin poems. The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Norman conquests in red. ...


Merlin Ambrosius, or Myrddin Emrys

Main article: Ambrosius Aurelianus
A giant helps Merlin build Stonehenge. From a manuscript of the Roman de Brut by Wace (British Library, Egerton 3208)
A giant helps Merlin build Stonehenge. From a manuscript of the Roman de Brut by Wace (British Library, Egerton 3208)

Geoffrey's account of Merlin Ambrosius' early life in the Historia Regum Britanniae is based on the story of Ambrosius in the Historia Brittonum. He adds his own embellishments to the tale, which he sets in Carmarthen (Welsh: Caerfyrddin). While Nennius' Ambrosius eventually reveals himself to be the son of a Roman consul, Geoffrey's Merlin is begotten on a king's daughter by an incubus. The story of Vortigern's tower is essentially the same; the underground dragons, one white and one red, represent the Saxons and the British, and their final battle is a portent of things to come. Ambrosius Aurelianus, called Aurelius Ambrosius in the Historia Regum Britanniae and elsewhere, was a war leader of the Romano-British who won an important battle against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 570 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (613 × 645 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cropped version of Image:BLEgerton3028Fol30rStonehenge. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 570 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (613 × 645 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cropped version of Image:BLEgerton3028Fol30rStonehenge. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... Roman de Brut Roman de Brut or Brut is a verse literary history of England of 14,866 lines written in Anglo-Norman by Wace. ... Wace (c. ... Carmarthen (Welsh Caerfyrddin - caer fort + Myrddin Moridunum, Merlin (origin disputed)) is the county town of Carmarthenshire, Wales. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ...


At this point Geoffrey inserts a long section of Merlin's prophecies, taken from his earlier Prophetiae Merlini. He tells only two further tales of the character; in the first, Merlin creates Stonehenge as a burial place for Aurelius Ambrosius. In the second, Merlin's magic enables Uther Pendragon to enter into Tintagel in disguise and father his son Arthur on his enemy's wife, Igraine. These episodes appear in many later adaptations of Geoffrey's account. For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... Remains of Tintagel Castle Tintagel (pronounced with the stress on the second syllable; Cornish: Dintagell) is a village situated on the Atlantic coast of Cornwall, in England, UK. The village and nearby Tintagel Castle are associated with the legends surrounding King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Later adaptations of the legend

Merlin, from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493)
Merlin, from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493)

Several decades later the poet Robert de Boron retold this material in his poem Merlin. Only a few lines of the poem have survived, but a prose retelling became popular and was later incorporated into two other romances. In Robert's account Merlin is begotten by a devil on a virgin as an intended Antichrist. This plot is thwarted when the expectant mother informs her confessor Blaise of her predicament; they immediately baptize the boy at birth, thus freeing him from the power of Satan. The demonic legacy invests Merlin with a preternatural knowledge of the past and present, which is supplemented by God, who gives the boy a prophetic knowledge of the future. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1552x1636, 1014 KB) Illustrations from the Nuremberg Chronicle, by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1552x1636, 1014 KB) Illustrations from the Nuremberg Chronicle, by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514) Source: http://www. ... Page depicting Constantinople with added hand-colouring The Nuremberg Chronicle, written in Latin and German versions by Hartmann Schedel, is one of the best documented early printed books and, appearing in 1493, is an incunabulum. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert de Boron (also spelled in the manuscripts Bouron, Beron) was a French poet of the late 12th and early 13th centuries, originally from the village of Boron, in the arrondissement of Montbéliard. ... In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person, office, or group recognized as fulfilling the Biblical prophecies about one who will oppose Christ and substitute himself in Christs place. ...


Robert de Boron lays great emphasis on Merlin's power to shapeshift, on his joking personality and on his connection to the Holy Grail. This text introduces Merlin's master Blaise, who is pictured as writing down Merlin's deeds, explaining how they came to be known and preserved. Robert was inspired by Wace's Roman de Brut, an Anglo-Norman adaptation of Geoffrey's Historia. Robert's poem was rewritten in prose in the 12th century as the Estoire de Merlin, also called the Vulgate or Prose Merlin. It was originally attached to a cycle of prose versions of Robert's poems, which tells the story of the Holy Grail; brought from the Middle East to Britain by followers of Joseph of Arimathea, and eventually recovered by Arthur's knight Percival. The Prose Merlin was detached from that shorter cycle to serve as a sort of prequel to the vast Lancelot-Grail, also known as the Vulgate Cycle. The authors of that work expanded it with the Vulgate Suite du Merlin (Vulgate Merlin Continuation), which described King Arthur's early adventures. The Prose Merlin was also used as a prequel to the later Post-Vulgate Cycle, the authors of which added their own continuation, the Huth Merlin or Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlin. These works were adapted and translated into several other languages; the Post-Vulgate Suite was the inspiration for the early parts of Sir Thomas Malory's English language Le Morte d'Arthur. Shapeshifting, transformation or transmogrification refers to a change in the form or shape of a person. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... Wace (c. ... Roman de Brut Roman de Brut or Brut is a verse literary history of England of 14,866 lines written in Anglo-Norman by Wace. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... Percival or Perceval is one of King Arthurs legendary Knights of the Round Table. ... The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... The Post-Vulgate Cycle is one of the major Old French prose cycles of Arthurian literature. ... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Last Sleep of Arthur by Edward Burne-Jones Le Morte dArthur (spelled Le Morte Darthur in the first printing and also in some modern editions, Middle French for la mort dArthur, the death of Arthur) is Sir Thomas Malorys compilation of some French and English Arthurian...


Many later medieval works also deal with the Merlin legend. For example, The Prophecies of Merlin contains long prophecies of Merlin (mostly concerned with 13th century Italian politics), some by his ghost after his death. The prophecies are interspersed with episodes relating Merlin's deeds and with various Arthurian adventures in which Merlin does not appear at all. The earliest English verse romance concerning Merlin is Arthour and Merlin, which drew from chronicles and the French Lancelot-Grail.


As the Arthurian mythos was retold and embellished, Merlin's prophetic aspects were sometimes de-emphasized in favor of portraying Merlin as a wizard and elder advisor to Arthur. On the other hand in Lancelot-Grail it is said that Merlin was never baptized and never did any good in his life, only evil. Medieval Arthurian tales abound in inconsistencies. In the Lancelot-Grail and later accounts Merlin's eventual downfall came from his lusting after a woman named Nimue (or Ninive, in some versions of the legend), one of the maidens serving the Lady of the Lake, who coaxed his magical secrets from him before turning her new powers against her master and trapping him in an enchanted prison (variously described as a cave, a large rock, an invisible tower, etc.) This is unfortunate for Arthur, who has lost his greatest counselor. The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Name and etymology

Merlin advising King Arthur in Gustave Doré's illustration
Merlin advising King Arthur in Gustave Doré's illustration

The name "Myrddin" (note that double-d in Welsh makes the voiced 'th' sound in English 'the' and 'this') may have arisen from the Roman-period Celtic name for a place in Wales, *Mori-dunon, meaning "sea fort". The name became Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin in Welsh), which can be loosely translated as "Fort of Moridunum", since a Caer is a fortified royal residence. It seems that the name was taken to mean "Caer of [some man called] Myrddin". Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (916x1210, 339 KB) Gustave Doré’s illustration of Lord Alfred Tennyson’s “Idylls of the King”, 1868. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (916x1210, 339 KB) Gustave Doré’s illustration of Lord Alfred Tennyson’s “Idylls of the King”, 1868. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Carmarthen (Welsh Caerfyrddin - caer fort + Myrddin Moridunum, Merlin (origin disputed)) is the county town of Carmarthenshire, Wales. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... In Welsh language, a caer or kaer was a royal residence during the 1st millennium AD or earlier. ...


Some accounts describe two different figures named Merlin. For example, the Welsh Triads state there were three baptisimal bards: Chief of Bards Taliesin, Myrddin Wyllt, and Myrddin Emrys (i.e. Merlinus Ambrosius). It is believed that these two bards called Myrddin were originally variants of the same figure. The stories of Wyllt and Emrys have become different in the earliest texts that they are treated as separate characters, even though similar incidents are ascribed to both. The Welsh Triads (Welsh, Trioedd Ynys Prydein) is used to describe any of the related Medieval collection of groupings of three that preserve a major portion of Welsh folklore and Welsh literature. ... A bard is a poet and singer, with the particular meaning differing for various countries and epochs. ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Myrddin Wyllt is the wild man of the woods mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouths Vita Merlini. ...


Fiction about Merlin

Much Arthurian fiction includes Merlin as a character. The following works are either told from Merlin's point of view, or are based on the earlier legends of Merlin.

Further information: List of films in which Merlin appears

This is a list of appearance of the character Merlin in films; generally Arthurian. ...

Novels and plays

  • Mark Twain made Merlin the villain in his 1889 novel A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. He is presented as a complete charlatan with no real magic power, and the character seems to stand for (and to satirise) superstition, yet at the very last chapter of the book Merlin suddenly seems to have a real magic power and he puts the protagonist into a centuries-long sleep (as Merlin himself was put to sleep in the original Arthurian canon).
  • C. S. Lewis used the figure of Merlin Ambrosius in his 1946 novel That Hideous Strength, the third book in the Space Trilogy. In it, Merlin has supposedly lain asleep for centuries to be awakened for the battle against the materialistic agents of the devil, able to consort with the angelic powers because he came from a time when sorcery was not yet a corrupt art. Lewis's character of Ransom has apparently inherited the title of Pendragon from the Arthurian tradition. Merlin also mentions "Numinor," a nod to J. R. R. Tolkien's Númenor.
  • The Galician author Álvaro Cunqueiro published Merlín y familia in 1957. In it, Merlin dwells in the Galician forest of Esmelle and is visited by mythical figures seeking magical advice. It synthesizes Arthurian legend and Galician folktales.
  • T.H. White's 1958 Arthurian retelling, The Once and Future King, in which "Merlyn", as White calls him, has the curious affliction of living backwards in time to everyone else. This affliction also appears in Dan Simmons' Hyperion as the "Merlin sickness."
  • Mary Stewart's Merlin Trilogy. "Myrddin Emrys" (Merlin Ambrosius) is the protagonist of the first two novels, The Crystal Cave (1970) and The Hollow Hills (1973), which are based on earlier traditions of the character, as shown above. The last book of the trilogy, The Last Enchantment, and a related book, The Wicked Day, focus more on Arthur and Mordred, though the former is still told from his viewpoint. Stewart portrays Aurelius Ambrosius (brother to Uther Pendragon) as his father, and thus makes him Arthur's cousin. Here Merlin goes mad due to Morgause's poison.
  • Marion Zimmer Bradley's 1979 The Mists of Avalon retells the Arthurian legend with Morgan Le Fay as protagonist, in the tradition of John Gardner's Grendel. It includes two distinct characters who, in succession, hold the title of "The Merlin of Britain," an office which grants leadership of the Druids in the same way that "The Lady of the Lake" is the title of the high priestess of Avalon. The division of the Merlin character of the Arthurian canon into two different persons enables Bradley to have in the early part of the story an elderly, fatherly Merlin to be Arthur's mentor, and in the later part - a younger Merlin with whom Nimue could fall tragically in love. This usage ("the Merlin") has found its way into a fair amount of subsequent Arthurian fiction.
  • Arthurian scholar Nikolai Tolstoy (a relation of Leo Tolstoy) wrote a non-fiction book, The Quest For Merlin (1985), and a historical fantasy, The Coming of the King (1988), the first of an unfinished trilogy. The latter book's depiction of Merlin may be the most historically accurate of all, since he lives after Arthur's death. The hero Beowulf even appears as an invader.
  • Merlin (1988) and Pendragon (1994), the second and fourth book of Stephen Lawhead's Pendragon Cycle, are narrated by Merlin (Myrddin) and seen through his viewpoint. Lawhead makes him a half-Atlantean king of Dyfed who goes insane, but recovers after years of living in the forests; he then assumes the roles of prophet, adviser and bard.
  • T.A. Barron portrays Merlin as a young man in his Lost Years of Merlin series, and is an adult in its sequel series, The Great Tree of Avalon. Merlin also figures prominently in Barron's The Merlin Effect, which may be in the same fictional continuity.
  • Kara Dalkey has written a trilogy called Water for young adults where Niniane and Merlin (known as Nia and Corwin respectively) must recover Excalibur to save Atlantis, the underwater city in which she lives. The books are subtitled Ascension, Reunion, and Transformation.
  • René Barjavel's L'Enchanteur.
  • Michel Rio's "Merlin."
  • Merlin, by Robert Nye, (1978, Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 0-241-89952-4) is a bawdy, irreverent version of the Arthurian story, as relived by Merlin after Nimue has trapped him.
  • William Rowley's The Birth of Merlin (play, 1622)
  • Merlin was a Broadway musical in 1983 featuring illusionist Doug Henning and music by Elmer Bernstein.
  • Irene Radford portrays a tragically human Merlin in Guardian of the Balance, the first book in the Merlin's Descendants series. Merlin is, through his daughter, the ancestor of other major characters in the series.
  • Merlin is one of the main characters in the Magic Tree House series of children's books by Mary Pope Osborne. He appears in the later volumes of the series, known as the Merlin Missions.
  • Merlin is a Druid who rules over Avalon in Bernard Cornwell's The Warlord Chronicles. He is portrayed as an irreverent, lecherous, sarcastic and condescending mystic who is obsessed with bringing back the old gods of Britain.
  • Fred Saberhagen's novel Merlin's Bones is told partly from the perspective of a young Merlin.
  • In Diana Wynne Jones's book The Merlin Conspiracy, Merlin is not one person, but a title. The Merlin is entrusted with the kingdom's magical health.
  • Merlin, called Aurelianus, is a character in Tim Powers's 1979 novel "The Drawing of the Dark" which describes the reincarnation of King Arthur, an Irishman named Brian Duffy, leading the forces of the West in battle against the forces of the East in 16th century Vienna.
  • Merlin is the name of a powerful magician in Roger Zelazny's The Chronicles of Amber whos story cycle follows that of Corwin, this protagonists father, a warrior in the vein of King Arthur.
  • Merlin is the main character in Robert Holdstock's Merlin's Codex trilogy of mythic fiction novels which traces Merlin's adventures in Europe over a span of two millenia. Merlin is also a major character in Holdstock's novel Merlin's Wood.
  • Stephen R. Lawhead writes an account of Merlin in his fantasy series, The Pendragon Cycle (Merlin is Book Two of the five-book series).
  • Stephen King mentions a character called Maerlyn in the Dark Tower series of novels, as well as the prequel comic The Gunslinger Born.

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... See also: 1888 in literature, other events of 1889, 1890 in literature, list of years in literature. ... A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court is an 1889 novel by American humorist and writer Mark Twain. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... That Hideous Strength is a 1945 novel by C. S. Lewis, the final book in Lewiss theological science fiction Space Trilogy. ... The Space Trilogy, Cosmic Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy is a trilogy of three science fiction novels by C. S. Lewis. ... Pendragon or Pen Draig, meaning head dragon or chief dragon (referring to a battle standard), is the name of several traditional Kings of the Britons: Aurelius Ambrosius, the son of Constantine II of Britain, is called Pendragon in the Vulgate Cycle. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Álvaro Cunqueiro Álvaro Cunqueiro (Mondoñedo, December 22, 1911 - Vigo, March 28, 1981) was a Galician writer. ... Terence Hanbury White (May 29, 1906 - January 17, 1964) was a writer. ... The Once and Future King is an Arthurian fantasy novel written by T.H. White. ... Dan Simmons (born April 4, 1948 in Peoria, Illinois) is an American author most widely known for his Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel Hyperion and its sequel The Fall of Hyperion. ... Hyperion is a Hugo Award-winning 1989 science fiction novel by Dan Simmons. ... For the Canadian freestyle swimmer, see Mary Stewart (swimmer). ... The Crystal Cave is a novel by Mary Stewart. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ambrosius Aurelianus, called Aurelius Ambrosius in the Historia Regum Britanniae and elsewhere, was a war leader of the Romano-British who won an important battle against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas. ... In Arthurian legend, Morgause or Morgase (also known as Anna-Morgause or Ann-Morgause) is the half-sister of King Arthur who slept with him and produced Mordred, the incestuous heir that would lead to Camelots downfall. ... Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley (June 3, 1930 – September 25, 1999) was an American author of fantasy novels such as The Mists of Avalon and the Darkover series, often with a feminist outlook. ... The Mists of Avalon is a 1979 novel by Marion Zimmer Bradley, in which she relates the Arthurian legends from the perspective of the female characters. ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana and other variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of King Arthur and Guinevere in the Arthurian legend. ... Grendel is a 1971 parallel novel by American author John Gardner. ... For other uses, see Druid (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Avalon (disambiguation). ... In Arthurian legend, The Lady of the Lake gave King Arthur the sword known as Excalibur. ... Count Nikolai Dmitrievich Tolstoy-Miloslavsky (23 June 1935) is a prominent Russo-British historian and author, who writes under the name Nikolai Tolstoy. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... Stephen R. Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is an American writer known for novels, both fantasy and science fiction and more recently his works of historical fiction. ... The Pendragon Cycle is a series of fantasy or semi-historical books based on the Arthurian legend, written by Stephen R. Lawhead. ... The Kingdom of Dyfed was a sub-Roman and early medieval kingdom in south-west Wales. ... T. (Tom) A. Barron (born March 26, 1952 in Boston, Massachusetts) is an American writer of young adult and fantasy literature. ... In Arthurian legend, The Lady of the Lake gave King Arthur the sword known as Excalibur. ... For other uses, see Atlantis (disambiguation). ... René Barjavel (January 24, 1911 - November 24, 1985) was a French author, journalist and critic who supposedly was the first to think of the Grandfather paradox. ... Robert Nye (born 1939) is a British novelist, poet and playwright. ... William Rowley was an English Jacobean dramatist, best known for works written in collaboration with more successful writers. ... The Birth of Merlin, or, The Child Hath Found his Father is a Jacobean play, written in 1622. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Merlin ia a musical based on a concept by popular illusionist Doug Henning and Barbara De Angelis, written by Richard Levinson and William Link, with music (and incidental music) written by Elmer Bernstein and lyrics by Don Black. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theater combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Doug James Henning (born May 3, 1947 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, died February 7, 2000 of liver disease) was a Canadian magician, illusionist, and escape artist. ... Elmer Bernstein (pronounced Bern-steen[1]) (April 4, 1922 – August 18, 2004) was an Academy and two-time Golden Globe award winning American film score composer. ... Dinosaurs Before Dark book cover // Magic Tree House Very Important Note: Magic Tree House is a book series for young children by Mary Pope Osborne. ... Osborne at a book signing at the Phoenix Zoo Mary Pope Osborne (born May 20, 1949) is a childrens author who wrote the Magic Tree House book series for children. ... Bernard Cornwell OBE (born February 23, 1944) is a prolific and popular English historical novelist. ... The Warlord Chronicles is a trilogy of books written by Bernard Cornwell about Arthurian Britain. ... Fred Thomas Saberhagen (May 18, 1930–June 29, 2007[1][2]) was a Chicago-born American science fiction and fantasy fiction author most famous for his Berserker series of science fiction stories. ... Merlins Bones is a 1995 novel by Fred Saberhagen which melds elements of science fiction and Arthurian legend. ... Diana Wynne Jones (born London August 16, 1934) is a British writer, principally of fantasy novels for children and adults, as well as a small amount of non-fiction. ... The Merlin Conspiracy was written by Diana Wynne Jones. ... Tim Powers at the Israeli ICon 2005 SF&F Convention Timothy Thomas Powers (born February 29, 1952) is an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Roger Joseph Zelazny (May 13, 1937 – June 14, 1995) was an American writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels. ... The Chronicles of Amber is a popular fantasy series by Roger Zelazny. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Robert Holdstock is an English fantasy author and was born in Kent in 1948 - he became a full-time writer in 1975 after studying Medical Zoology as a student. ... Mythic fiction is literature that is rooted in, inspired by, or that in some way draws from the tropes, themes and symbolism of myth, folklore, and fairy tales. ... Stephen R. Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is an American writer known for novels, both fantasy and science fiction and more recently his works of historical fiction. ... The Pendragon Cycle is a series of fantasy or semi-historical books based on the Arthurian legend, written by Stephen R. Lawhead. ... For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... The Dark Tower can refer to one of several things: The Dark Tower (series) — a series of novels by Stephen King. ...

Video games

Various video games, especially those with a magic or Arthurian background have presence of Merlin as a figure, sometimes just as a reference but he appears, too, as himself.

  • In Gauntlet, Merlin is one of the 4 playable heroes.
  • In Master of Magic, Merlin is one of the predefined wizards.
  • In Zoda's Revenge: StarTropics II Merlin gives the protagonist, Mike, psychic attacks to help him throughout game.
  • Young Merlin, videogame about Merlin's youth.
  • In Kingdom Hearts Merlin, depicted in the same way as his appearance in Disney's The Sword in the Stone, is the wizard that gives you a tutorial on both summon magic, and elemental magic. He is one of the main bases of the game and helps widen the story.
  • In Merlin's Revenge game series Merlin is the main protagonist.
  • In RuneScape Merlin is a part of two quests, including merlin's crystal,holy grail and Kings Ransom.

Gauntlet is a 1985 arcade game by Atari Games. ... Master of Magic (MoM) is a turn-based fantasy strategic computer game published by Microprose in 1994 and developed by Steve Barcia (Simtex), who wrote the better-known Master of Orion. ... Young Merlin is a video game for the Super Nintendo released in 1994. ... This article contains information on the first Kingdom Hearts video game. ... RuneScape is a Java-based MMORPG operated by Jagex Ltd. ...

Television

  • In Stargate SG-1 Merlin is depicted as a Lantean from the Pegasus galaxy who ascended to a higher plane of existence, descended to a lower plane of existence on Earth, and proceeded to 'create' King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table.
  • In a 1998 film named Merlin (starring Sam Neill, Miranda Richardson, and Helena Bonham Carter, among others), Merlin is a half-faeren man created by the sister of the Lady of the Lake, Maeb,as a saviour of the "Old Ways" aka Paganism. Becomes a tutor of King Arthur and the lover of Lady Nimue. *Editing needed to secure hyperlinks and more information*

Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ...

Music

  • Merlin is an opera composed by Karl Goldmark that premiered in 1886.
  • "Merlin" as an opera also by Spanish composer Isaac Albéniz completed in 1902 but world premier wasn't until 2004.

Karl Goldmark, also known originally as Károly Goldmark and later sometimes as Carl Goldmark, (May 18, 1830 Keszthely, Hungary - January 2, 1915 Vienna) was a Hungarian composer. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Katharine Mary Briggs (1976). An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, p.440. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-394-73467-X

Katharine Mary Briggs (November 8, 1898 – 1980) is the author of The Anatomy of Puck, the definitive 4-volume Dictionary of British Folk-Tales, and various other books on fairies and folklore. ...

See also

Theories about Stonehenge Stonehenge has been subjected to many theories about its origin, ranging from the academic worlds of archaeology to explanations from mythology and the paranormal. ...

The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, centering around King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... The Arthurian legend featured many characters, whose names often differed from version to version, and language to language. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Sir Ector (sometimes Hector, Antor, or Ectorius) is the father of Sir Kay and the foster father of King Arthur in the Arthurian legend. ... For other uses, see Guinevere (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana and other variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of King Arthur and Guinevere in the Arthurian legend. ... In Arthurian legend, Morgause or Morgase (also known as Anna-Morgause or Ann-Morgause) is the half-sister of King Arthur who slept with him and produced Mordred, the incestuous heir that would lead to Camelots downfall. ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... For the film, see Knights of the Round Table (film). ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... Sir Agravain or Sir Agravaine was a knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword Excalibur into the Water. ... In Arthurian Legend, Sir Bors was a Knight of the Round Table. ... Sir Calogrenant, sometimes known in English as Colgrevance, is a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... Gaheris is a figure of Arthurian legend, a knight of the Round Table, and a son of Morgause and King Lot of Orkney and Lothian. ... For other uses, see Galahad (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gareth (disambiguation). ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Gawain (Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein etc. ... Geraint, with his wife Enid, from The Idylls of the King Geraint is a character from Welsh folklore and Arthurian legend, a king of Dumnonia and a valiant warrior. ... Sir Kay, son of Sir Ector, was one of the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthurs foster brother. ... Sir Lamorak was the son of King Pellinore and the brother of Sir Tor, Sir Aglovale, Sir Dornar, Sir Percival, and Dindrane. ... For other uses, see Lancelot (disambiguation) and Sir Lancelot (disambiguation). ... Palamedes, (also called Palamede, Palomides or some other variant) was a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... Percival or Perceval is one of King Arthurs legendary Knights of the Round Table. ... Sir Sagramore is a Knight of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend. ... This article is about the Knight of the Round Table. ... Ywain rescues the lion Sir Ywain (also called Owain, Yvain, Ewain or Uwain) is a Knight of the Round Table and the son of King Urien in Arthurian legend. ... For other uses, see Excalibur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... The following is a list and assessment of sites and places associated with King Arthur and the Arthurian legend in general. ... For other uses, see Avalon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mythical castle. ... Corbenic (also Carbonek and Corbin) is the name of the castle of the Holy Grail in the Lancelot-Grail cycle and Thomas Malorys Le Morte dArthur. ... Remains of Tintagel Castle Tintagel (pronounced with the stress on the second syllable; Cornish: Dintagell) is a village situated on the Atlantic coast of Cornwall, in England, UK. The village and nearby Tintagel Castle are associated with the legends surrounding King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... The Arthurian legend is one of the most popular literary subjects of all time, and has been adapted numerous times in every form of media. ... This is a list of books about King Arthur, or his related world, family, friends or enemies. ... Films based on the Arthurian legend are many and varied. ...

References

  • Lacy, Norris J. (Ed.) (1991). The New Arthurian Encyclopedia. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8240-4377-4.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Merlin
  • Vita Merlini, Basil Clarke's English translation from Life of Merlin: Vita Merlini (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1973).
    • At Grove of the Great Dragon: Manuscripts Site is not active
    • At Branwaedd
  • Merlin: or the early History of King Arthur: a prose romance (Early English Text Society [Series]. Original series: 10, 112), edited by Henry Wheatly. (1450s) (The complete prose Middle English translation of the Vulgate Merlin. Chapter I to VI cover Robert de Boron's Merlin.)
  • Prose Merlin, Introduction and Text (TEAMS Middle English text series) edited by John Conlea, 1998. (1450s) (A selection of many passages of the prose Middle English translation of the Vulgate Merlin with connecting summary. The sections from The Birth of Merlin to Arthur and the Sword in the Stone cover Robert de Boron's Merlin).
  • Of Arthour and Merlin: Auchenlich Manuscipt (National Library of Scotland) (1330s). (A Middle-English verse adaptation of the Vulgate Merlin combined with material closer to Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia. Lines 1-3059 cover approximately Robert de Boron's Merlin).
  • The Cry of Merlin the Wise, translated into English by Dorothea Salo from the 1498 Burgos publication of the Portuguese El baladro del sabio Merlin. (The original is essentially a medieval Portuguese adaptation of the Post-Vulgate Merlin. From Prologue 3 to Chapter 18 to the sentence And thus was Arthur king in Londres, and held the land in his power and in peace corresponds to Robert de Boron's Merlin).
  • The Beguiling of Merlin, Edward Burne-Jones
  • Merlin: Texts, Images, Basic Information, Camelot Project at the University of Rochester. (Numerous further texts and art concerning Merlin.)
  • Merlin : Opera by Ezequiel Viñao with a Libretto by Caleb Carr, (Words and Music. Excerpts from the opera)
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Early English Text Society is an organization to reprint early English texts, especially those only available in manuscript. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Merlin (787 words)
Merlin obtains Excalibur from the Lady of the Lake and assists the King in his early struggles for unification.
Merlin's role as a whole is that of advisor and scholar.
In the 16th century, Welsh chronicler Elis Gruffudd claims the first Merlin was reborn as the second and in addition as the bard Taliesin, another who gains his identity by inspiration.
Merlin (7659 words)
Merlin is a paradox, he was the son of the devil, yet he was the servant of God.
Merlin was a bard and a lawgiver in Demetia (Dyved), a region in southern Wales.
Merlin foretold the death of Balin, Pellinor and Arthur.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m