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Encyclopedia > Mercury (element)
80 goldmercurythallium
Cd

Hg

Uub
General
Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d
Appearance silvery
Standard atomic weight 200.59(2) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
Physical properties
Phase liquid
Density (near r.t.) (liquid) 13.534 g·cm−3
Melting point 234.32 K
(-38.83 °C, -37.89 °F)
Boiling point 629.88 K
(356.73 °C, 674.11 °F)
Critical point 1750 K, 172.00 MPa
Heat of fusion 2.29 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 59.11 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 27.983 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 315 350 393 449 523 629
Atomic properties
Crystal structure rhombohedral
Oxidation states 2 (mercuric), 1 (mercurous)
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.00 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1007.1 kJ/mol
2nd: 1810 kJ/mol
3rd: 3300 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 150 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 171 pm
Covalent radius 149 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (25 °C) 961 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 8.30 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 60.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (liquid, 20 °C) 1451.4 m/s
CAS registry number 7439-97-6
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of mercury
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
194Hg syn 444 y ε 0.040 194Au
195Hg syn 9.9 h ε 1.510 195Au
196Hg 0.15% 196Hg is stable with 116 neutrons
197Hg syn 64.14 h ε 0.600 197Au
198Hg 9.97% 198Hg is stable with 118 neutrons
199Hg 16.87% 199Hg is stable with 119 neutrons
200Hg 23.1% 200Hg is stable with 120 neutrons
201Hg 13.18% 201Hg is stable with 121 neutrons
202Hg 29.86% 202Hg is stable with 122 neutrons
203Hg syn 46.612 d β- 0.492 203Tl
204Hg 6.87% 204Hg is stable with 124 neutrons
References

Mercury(IPA: /ˈmɜrkjʊri/), also called quicksilver, is a chemical element with the symbol Hg (Latinized Greek: hydrargyrum, meaning watery or liquid silver) and atomic number 80. A heavy, silvery d-block metal, mercury is one of six elements that are liquid at or near room temperature and pressure.[1] The others are the metals caesium, francium, gallium, and rubidium, and the non-metal bromine. Of these, only mercury and bromine are liquids at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Look up Mercury in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... File links The following pages link to this file: Mercury (element) User:Femto/elements e9 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The Group 12 elements are: Zinc (30) Cadmium (48) Mercury (80) Ununbium (112) Color coding for these atomic numbers: At room temperature, all are solid but mercury is liquid; red indicates item is synthetic and does not occur naturally. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... For other uses, see Silver (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1268x1012, 224 KB) Summary Picture I took of a small puddle of the element mercury. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius Van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Levitating pyrolytic carbon Diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that is only exhibited by a substance in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... mercury (Hg) Standard atomic mass: 200. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... Bromo redirects here. ... Bromo redirects here. ... In chemistry and other sciences, STP or standard temperature and pressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental measurements, to enable comparisons to be made between sets of data. ...


Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, and other scientific apparatus, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favour of alcohol-filled, digital, or thermistor-based instruments. It remains in use in a number of other ways in scientific and scientific research applications, and in amalgam material for dental restoration. Mercury is mostly obtained by reduction from the mineral cinnabar. A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... A manometer is a pressure measuring instrument, often also called pressure gauge. ... BP 126/70 mmHg as result on electronic sphygmomanometer A sphygmomanometer (often condensed to sphygmometer[1]) or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, comprising an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. ... A float valve is a mechanical feedback mechanism that regulates fluid level by using a float to drive an inlet valve such that a higher fluid level will force the valve closed whilst a lower fluid level will force the valve open. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... NTC thermistor, bead type, insulated wires Thermistor symbol A thermistor is a type of resistor used to measure temperature changes, relying on the change in its resistance with changing temperature. ... This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ... A dental restoration or dental filling is a dental restorative material used artificially to restore the function, integrity and morphology of missing tooth structure. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ...


Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world and it is harmless in an insoluble form, such as mercuric sulfide, but it is poisonous in soluble forms such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury. Mercury chloride is a white poisonous soluble crystalline sublimate of mercury, used as a pesticide or antiseptic or wood preservative. ... Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury), an organometallic cation with the formula [CH3Hg]+. It is a bioaccumulative environmental toxin. ...

Contents

History

Mercury was known to the ancient Chinese and Indians,[2] and was found in Egyptian tombs that date from 1500 BC.[3] In China and Tibet, mercury use was thought to prolong life, heal fractures, and maintain generally good health. China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di — said to have been buried in a tomb that contained rivers of flowing mercury, representative of the rivers of China — was driven insane and killed by mercury pills (failing liver, poison, brain death) intended to give him eternal life.[4] The ancient Greeks used mercury in ointments; the ancient Egyptians and the Romans used it in cosmetics. By 500 BC mercury was used to make amalgams with other metals. The Indian word for alchemy is Rasavātam which means "the way of mercury". This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Make-up redirects here. ... An amalgam is an alloy of mercury. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Rasavātam was a form of alchemy in early India. ...


Alchemists often thought of mercury as the First Matter from which all metals were formed. They believed that different metals could be produced by varying the quality and quantity of sulfur contained within the mercury. The purest of these was gold, and mercury was required for the transmutation of base (or impure) metals into gold as was the goal of many alchemists. For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... The primitive formless base of all matter, according to Aristotle and the Alchemists, given particular manifestation through the influence of Forms. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


Hg is the modern chemical symbol for mercury.It comes from hydrargyrum, a Latinized form of the Greek word `Υδραργυρος (hydrargyros), which is a compound word meaning "water" and "silver" — since it is liquid, like water, and yet has a silvery metallic sheen. The element was named after the Roman god Mercury, known for speed and mobility. It is associated with the planet Mercury. The astrological symbol for the planet is also one of the alchemical symbols for the metal. Mercury is the only metal for which the alchemical planetary name became the common name. A chemical symbol is an abbreviation or short representation of the name of a chemical element. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... This article is about the planet. ...


Occurrence

Mercury is an extremely rare element in the Earth's crust, having an average crustal abundance by mass of only 0.08 parts per million. However, because it does not blend geochemically with those elements that constitute the majority of the crustal mass, mercury ores can be extraordinarily concentrated considering the element's abundance in ordinary rock. The richest mercury ores contain up to 2.5% mercury by mass, and even the leanest concentrated deposits are at least 0.1% mercury (12,000 times average crustal abundance). The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with...


It is found either as a native metal (rare) or in cinnabar, corderoite, livingstonite and other minerals, with cinnabar (HgS) being the most common ore. Mercury ores usually occur in very young orogenic belts where rock of high density are forced to the crust of the Earth, often in hot springs or other volcanic regions. Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ... Corderoite is an extremely rare mercury sulfide chloride mineral with formula Hg3S2Cl2. ... Livingstonite is a mineral which contains Mercury. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...

Mercury output in 2005
Mercury output in 2005

Beginning in 1558, with the invention of the patio process to extract silver from ore using mercury, mercury became an essential resource in the economy of Spain and its American colonies. More than 100,000 tons of mercury were mined from the region of Huancavelica, Peru, over the course of three centuries following the discovery of deposits there in 1563. The patio process and later pan amalgamation process continued to create great demand for mercury to treat silver ores until the late 1800s. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mercury output in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - 1,150 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of mercury output in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - 1,150 tonnes). ... The patio process was a process used to refine silver from silver sulfide ores. ... Huancavelica is a city in Peru. ... The patio process was a process used to extract silver from silver sulfide ores. ...


Former mines in Italy, the United States and Mexico which once produced a large proportion of the world supply have now been completely mined out or, in the case of Slovenia and Spain, shut down due to the fall of the price of mercury. Nevada's McDermitt Mine, the last mercury mine in the United States, closed in 1992. The price of mercury has been highly volatile over the years and in 2006 was $650 per 76-pound flask.[5] This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ...


Mercury is extracted by heating cinnabar in a current of air and condensing the vapor. The equation for this extraction is

HgS + O2 → Hg + SO2

In 2005, China was the top producer of mercury with almost two-thirds global share followed by Kyrgyzstan.[6] Several other countries are believed to have unrecorded production of mercury from copper electrowinning processes and by recovery from effluents. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Former mercury mines may be suited for constructive re-use. For example, in 1976 Santa Clara County, California purchased the historic Almaden Quicksilver Mine and created a county park on the site, after conducting extensive safety and environmental analysis of the property. Santa Clara County is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. ... Senador Mine ruins Western Poison-oak in autumn, a common hazard in the park Shooting Star flower Almaden Quicksilver County Park is a 4,147 acres (17 km²) park that includes the grounds of former mercury (quicksilver) mines adjacent to south San Jose, California, USA. The parks elevation varies...


See also Category:Mercury minerals, Category:Mercury mines.


Releases in the environment

Amount of atmospheric mercury deposited at Wyoming's Upper Fremont Glacier over the last 270 years
Amount of atmospheric mercury deposited at Wyoming's Upper Fremont Glacier over the last 270 years

Preindustrial deposition rates of mercury from the atmosphere may be in the range of 4 ng/L in the western USA. Although that can be considered a natural level of exposure, regional or global sources have significant effects. Volcanic eruptions can increase the atmospheric source by 4–6 times.[7] Atmospheric mercury deposition corresponds to volcanic and anthropogenic events over the past 270 years. ... Atmospheric mercury deposition corresponds to volcanic and anthropogenic events over the past 270 years. ...


Natural sources such as volcanoes are responsible for approximately half of atmospheric mercury emissions.[8] The human-generated half can be divided into the following estimated percentages: Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...

  • 65% from stationary combustion, of which coal-fired power plants are the largest aggregate source (40% of U.S. mercury emissions in 1999).[9] This includes power plants fueled with gas where the mercury has not been removed. Emissions from coal combustion are between one and two orders of magnitude higher than emissions from oil combustion, depending on the country.[8]
  • 11% from gold production. The three largest point sources for mercury emissions in the U.S. are the three largest gold mines.[10]
  • 6.8% from non-ferrous metal production, typically smelters.
  • 6.4% from cement production.
  • 3.0% from waste disposal, including municipal and hazardous waste, crematoria, and sewage sludge incineration. This is a significant underestimate due to limited information, and is likely to be off by a factor of two to five.[8]
  • 3.0% from caustic soda production.
  • 1.4% from pig iron and steel production.
  • 1.1% from mercury production, mainly for batteries.
  • 2.0% from other sources.

The above percentages are estimates of the global human-caused mercury emissions in 2000, excluding biomass burning, an important source in some regions.[8] Non-ferrous metals are metals that do not contain iron. ... Historic smelter in Florence, Colorado In extractive metallurgy, a smelter is a factory for producing metal by the reduction of ore. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... Waste management is literally the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). ... Municipal waste are a loud band from Richmond, VA. They play crossover thrash in the vein of DRI and Sepultura. ... This article describes hazardous waste as a substance; for the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal see Basel Convention Put simply, a Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and generally exhibits one... Cremation is the practice of disposing of a corpse by burning. ... Sludge is a generic term for solids separated from suspension in a liquid by a variety of processes. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic soda or lye in North America, is a caustic metallic base used in industry (mostly as a strong chemical base) in the manufacture of paper, textiles, and detergents. ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...

Mercury use of compact fluorescent bulb vs. incandescent bulb when powered by electricity generated from coal. Coal power in the United States accounts for approximately 50% of all power produced.
Mercury use of compact fluorescent bulb vs. incandescent bulb when powered by electricity generated from coal. Coal power in the United States accounts for approximately 50% of all power produced.

Mercury also enters into the environment through the disposal (e.g., landfilling, incineration) of certain products. Products containing mercury include: auto parts, batteries, fluorescent bulbs, medical products, thermometers, and thermostats.[11] Due to health concerns (see below), toxics use reduction efforts are cutting back or eliminating mercury in such products. For example, most thermometers now use pigmented alcohol instead of mercury. Mercury thermometers are still occasionally used in the medical field because they are more accurate than alcohol thermometers, though both are being replaced by electronic thermometers. Mercury thermometers are still widely used for certain scientific applications because of their greater accuracy and working range. Image File history File links CFL_bulb_mercury_use_environment. ... Image File history File links CFL_bulb_mercury_use_environment. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Battery. ... For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The United States Clean Air Act, passed in 1990, put mercury on a list of toxic pollutants that need to be controlled to the greatest possible extent. Thus, industries that release high concentrations of mercury into the environment agreed to install maximum achievable control technologies (MACT). In March 2005 EPA rule[12] added power plants to the list of sources that should be controlled and a national cap and trade rule was issued. States were given until November 2006 to impose stricter controls, and several States are doing so. The rule was being subjected to legal challenges from several States in 2005 and decision was made in 2008. The Clean Air Mercury Rule was struck down by a Federal Appeals Court on February 8, 2008. The rule was deemed not sufficient to protect the health of persons living near coal fired power plants. The court opinion cited the negative impact on human health from coal fired power plants' mercury emissions documented in the EPA Study Report to Congress of 1998. (http://pacer.cadc.uscourts.gov/docs/common/opinions/200802/05-1097a.pdf) It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Clean Air Act. ... Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. ...


Historically, one of the largest releases was from the Colex plant, a lithium-isotope separation plant at Oak Ridge. The plant operated in the 1950s and 1960s. Records are incomplete and unclear, but government commissions have estimated that some two million pounds of mercury are unaccounted for.[13]


One of the worst industrial disasters in history was caused by the dumping of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay, Japan. The Chisso Corporation, a fertilizer and later petrochemical company, was found responsible for polluting the bay from 1932–1968. It is estimated that over 3,000 people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what became known as Minamata disease. Industrial disasters are mass disasters caused by industrial companies, either by accident, negligence or incompetence. ... Minamata (水俣市; -shi) is a city located in Kumamoto, Japan. ... Chisso Corporation ) is a Japanese chemical company. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Minamata disease ), sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease ), is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. ...


Applications

Mercury column to measure pressure
Mercury column to measure pressure

Mercury is used primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. It is used in some thermometers, especially ones which are used to measure high temperatures (In the United States, non-prescription sale of mercury fever thermometers is banned by a number of different states and localities). Other uses: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2415, 312 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pressure Mercury (element) Barometer Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2415, 312 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pressure Mercury (element) Barometer Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ...

  • Mercury was used inside wobbler (fishing) lures. Its heavy, liquid form made it useful since the lures made an attractive irregular movement when the mercury moved inside the plug. Such use was stopped due to environmental concerns, but illegal preparation of modern fishing plugs has occurred.
  • Mercury sphygmomanometers.
  • The lenses of old lighthouses used to float and rotate in a bath of mercury which acted like a bearing.
  • Mercury barometers, diffusion pumps, coulometers, and many other laboratory instruments. As an opaque liquid with a high density and a nearly linear thermal expansion, it is ideal for this role.
  • The triple point of mercury, -38.8344 °C, is a fixed point used as a temperature standard for the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90).
  • In some gaseous electron tubes, including ignitrons, thyratrons, and mercury arc rectifiers
  • Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapour lamps and some "neon sign" type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps.
  • Mercury is used to construct liquid-mirror telescopes. The mirror is formed by rotating liquid mercury on a disk, the parabolic form of the liquid thus formed reflecting and focusing incident light. Such telescopes are cheaper than conventional large mirror telescopes by up to a factor of 100, but the mirror cannot be tilted and always points straight up.
  • Liquid mercury was sometimes used as a coolant for nuclear reactors; however, sodium is proposed for reactors cooled with liquid metal, because the high density of mercury requires much more energy to circulate as coolant.
  • Liquid mercury has been proposed as a working fluid for a heat pipe type of cooling device for spacecraft heat rejection systems or radiation panels.
  • Mercury was a propellant for early ion engines in electric propulsion systems. Advantages were mercury's high molecular weight, low ionization energy, low dual-ionization energy, high liquid density and liquid storability at room temperature. Disadvantages were concerns regarding environmental impact associated with ground testing and concerns about eventual cooling and condensation of some of the propellant on the spacecraft in long-duration operations. The first spaceflight to use electric propulsion was a mercury-fueled ion thruster SERT-1 launched by NASA at its Wallops Flight Facility in 1964. SERT stands for Space Electric Rocket Test. The SERT-1 flight was followed up by the SERT-2 flight in 1970. Mercury and caesium were preferred propellants for ion engines until Hughes Research Laboratory performed studies finding xenon gas to be a suitable replacement. Xenon is now the preferred propellant for ion engines as it has a high molecular weight, little or no reactivity due its noble gas nature, and has a high liquid density under mild cryogenic storage.
  • Experimental Mercury vapour turbines were proposed to increase the efficiency of fossil-fuel electrical power plants.
  • Mercury was once used in the amalgamation process of refining gold and silver ores. This polluting practice is still used by the garimpeiros (gold miners) of the Amazon basin in Brasil and by illegal miners in South Africa.
  • Mercury is still used in some cultures for folk medicine and ceremonial purposes which may involve ingestion, injection, or the sprinkling of elemental mercury around the home. The former two procedures, especially, are extremely hazardous and the latter is nearly as so because mercury spreads easily and is therefore ingested.
  • Alexander Calder built a mercury fountain for the Spanish Pavilion at the 1937 World's Fair in Paris. The fountain is now on display at the Fundació Joan Miró in Barcelona.
  • Used in electrochemistry as part of a secondary reference electrode called the calomel electrode as an alternative to the Standard Hydrogen Electrode. This is used to work out the electrode potential of half cells.
  • Used in Cold Cathode (also generalised under the Neon Sign Industry) lighting to increase the success of ionization and conductivity in Argon filled lamps, an Argon filled lamp without Mercury will have dull spots and will fail to light correctly. Lighting containing Mercury can only be bombarded/oven pumped once. When added to neon filled tubes the light produced will be inconsistent red/blue spots until the initial burning-in process is completed; eventually it will light a consistent dull off-blue colour.
  • Mercury was once used as a gun barrel bore cleaner.

Miscellaneous uses: mercury switches (including home Mercury Light Switches installed prior to 1970), tilt switches used in old fire detectors, tilt switches in many modern home thermostats, electrodes in some types of electrolysis, batteries (mercury cells, including for sodium hydroxide and chlorine production, handheld games, and alkaline batteries), catalysts, insecticides, dental amalgams/preparations and liquid mirror telescopes. A wobbler is a larger fishing lure, designed to resemble larger fishes than the jig. ... BP 126/70 mmHg as result on electronic sphygmomanometer A sphygmomanometer (often condensed to sphygmometer[1]) or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, comprising an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... Diffusion pumps use a high speed jet of vapor to direct gas molecules in the pump throat down into the bottom of the pump and out the exhaust. ... Introduction Mercury coulometer is based on the electrochemical processes of oxidation/reduction with according of the follow reaction: Hg2+ +e = Hg These oxidation/reduction processes have 100% efficienty with the wide range of the current densities. ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... ITS-90 is the current version of the International Temperature Scale. ... Gas filled tubes are arrangements of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope. ... An ignitron is a type of controlled rectifier dating from the 1930s. ... A thyratron is a type of gas filled tube used as a high energy electrical switch. ... A mercury arc valve is a type of electrical rectifier which converts alternating current into direct current. ... A mercury-vapor yard light approximately 15 seconds after starting A Mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses mercury in an excited state to produce light. ... Neon signs are often used to advertise for hotels, bars and entertainment venues. ... A compact fluorescent lamp A fluorescent lamp is a type of electric lamp that excites argon and mercury vapor to create luminescence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mercury mirror. ... A coolant, or heat transfer fluid, is a fluid which flows through a device in order to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that utilize or dissipate it. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... A heat sink (aluminium) with heat pipe (copper) A heat pipe is a heat transfer mechanism that can transport large quantities of heat with a very small difference in temperature between the hotter and colder interfaces. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ion thruster. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... SERT-1 (Space Electric Propulsion Test) was a NASA probe used to test ion engine design and was built by NASAs Lewis Research Center. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Wallops Flight Facility Coordinates: Latitude 37. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... In the 1940s, Howard Hughes created a R&D facility in Culver City, California; by the early 1960s, it had been moved to Malibu, California. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... A Mercury vapour turbine has been used, in conjunction with a steam turbine, for generating electricity. ... This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... For other uses, see Brazil (disambiguation). ... A traditional healer in Côte dIvoire Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness. ... In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming something edible, i. ... An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. ... For other persons named Alexander Calder, see Alexander Calder (disambiguation). ... Alexander Calders Mercury Fountain in the sculpture garden of the Fundació Joan Miró The Mercury Fountain is a type of fountain constructed for use with mercury rather than water. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... An Alexander Calder sculpture (featuring moving mercury) in the sculpture garden of the Fundació Joan Miró The Fundació Joan Miró, Centre dEstudis dArt Contemporani (Joan Miró Foundation) is a museum of modern art honoring Joan Miró and located on Montjuïc in Barcelona. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... Mercury(I) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2. ... A standard hydrogen electrode (abbreviated SHE) is a redox electrode which is placed in the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... A half cell is a structure that contains an electrode and a surrounding electrolyte. ... Note: Principles are mostly the same for cold cathode ion sources as in particle accelerators to create electrons. ... Ionization is the physical process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by changing the difference between the number of protons and electrons. ... Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material accommodates the transport of electric charge. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Bombarding is the process of pumping a Cold Cathode Lighting tube (otherwise called Neon Signs). ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... A Single-Pole, Single-Throw (SPST) mercury switch A mercury switch is a switch whose purpose is to allow or interrupt the flow of electric current in an electrical circuit in a manner that is dependent on the switchs physical position or alignment relative to the direction of the... A typical down light switch — this one is on. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... For other uses, see Battery. ... A mercury battery (also called mercuric oxide battery, or mercury cell) is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery, a primary cell. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Alkaline batteries A Duracell AA alkaline battery 2 Duracell-Brand AAA Alkaline batteries Alkaline batteries are a type of power cell dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide (Zn/MnO2). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... An amalgam is an alloy of mercury. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mercury mirror. ...

The ultraviolet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a Germicidal lamp.
The ultraviolet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a Germicidal lamp.

Historical uses: preserving wood, developing daguerreotypes, silvering mirrors, anti-fouling paints (discontinued in 1990), herbicides (discontinued in 1995), handheld maze games, cleaning, and road levelling devices in cars. Mercury compounds have been used in antiseptics, laxatives, antidepressants, and in antisyphilitics. It was also allegedly used by allied spies to sabotage German planes. A mercury paste was applied to bare aluminium, causing the metal to rapidly corrode. This would cause mysterious structural failures[citation needed]. Thiomersal (INN) (C9H9HgNaO2S), formerly and still commonly known in the United States as thimerosal, is an organomercury compound (approximately 49% mercury by weight) used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (538x1324, 87 KB) Glow of a germicidal lamp as excited by a high voltage probe (handheld tesla coil). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (538x1324, 87 KB) Glow of a germicidal lamp as excited by a high voltage probe (handheld tesla coil). ... A 9W germicidal lamp in a modern compact fluorescent lamp form factor Close-up of the electrodes and the safety warning An EPROM. The small quartz window admits UV light during erasure. ... An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre. ... Silvering is the chemical process of coating glass with a reflective substance, originally silver, in order to create a mirror. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Laxatives (or purgatives) are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... The Western Allies were the democracies and their colonial peoples, within the broader coalition of Allies during World War II. The term is generally understood to refer to the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and Poland (from 1939), exiled forces from Occupied Europe (from 1940), the United States... Aluminum redirects here. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ...


In Islamic Spain it was used for filling decorative pools.[15] Al-Āndalus (Arabic الأندلس) was the Arabic name given to the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim inhabitants; it refers to both the Emirate (ca 750-929) and Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031) and its taifa successor kingdoms specifically, and in general to territories under Muslim occupation (711-1492). ...


In some applications, mercury can be replaced with less toxic but considerably more expensive galinstan alloy. Galinstan is an eutectic alloy of gallium, indium, and tin which is liquid at room temperature, typically freezing at -20 °C (-4 °F). ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ...


A new type of atomic clock, using mercury instead of caesium, has been demonstrated. Accuracy is expected to be within one second in 100 million years.[16][17] “Nuclear Clock” redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ...


Hat making

From the mid-18th to the mid-19th centuries, a process called "carroting" was used in the making of felt hats. Animal skins were rinsed in an orange solution (the term "carroting" arose from this color) of the mercury compound mercuric nitrate, Hg(NO3)2·2H2O.[18] This process separated the fur from the pelt and matted it together. This solution and the vapors it produced were highly toxic. The United States Public Health Service banned the use of mercury in the felt industry in December 1941. The psychological symptoms associated with mercury poisoning are said by some to have inspired the phrase "mad as a hatter", though etymological study suggests that the phrase is actually much older and unrelated to hatters - see hatter for commentary on the origin of the phrase. Lewis Carroll's "Mad Hatter" in his book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was a play on words based on the older phrase, but the character himself does not exhibit symptoms of mercury poisoning.[19] A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ... Mercury(II) nitrate is a toxic colorless or white soluble crystalline compound of mercury. ... Template:Higher standard // History of the United States Public Health Service The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams in 1798 as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ... A hatter is a maker or seller of hats. ... The Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... For the Batman supervillain, see Mad Hatter (comics). ... Alice in Wonderland redirects here. ...


Cosmetics

Mercury is widely used in the manufacture of mascara. In 2008, Minnesota became the first state in the US to ban intentionally added mercury in cosmetics, giving it a tougher standard than the federal government.[20] A mascara tube and a wand applicator Mascara is a cosmetic used to darken, thicken and define eyelashes. ...


Production of chlorine and caustic soda

Chlorine is produced from sodium chloride (common salt, NaCl) using electrolysis to separate the metallic sodium from the chlorine gas. Usually the salt is dissolved in water to produce a brine. By-products of any such chloralkali process are caustic soda (sodium hydroxide (NaOH)) and hydrogen (H2). By far the largest use of mercury[21][22] in the late 1900s was in the mercury cell process (also called the Castner-Kellner process) where metallic sodium is formed as an amalgam at a cathode made from mercury; this sodium is then reacted with water to produce sodium hydroxide.[23] Many of the industrial mercury releases of the 1900s came from this process, although modern plants claimed to be safe in this regard.[22] After about 1985, all new chloralkali production facilities that were built in the United States used either membrane cell or diaphragm cell technologies to produce chlorine. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... The chloralkali process is a redox reaction, an electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride: 2 NaCl(aq) + 2 H2O(l) —→ 2 NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e- 2 H+ + 2 e- —→ H2(g) The process is primarily used to produce chlorine, but one of its byproducts... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... The Castner-Kellner process is a method of electrolysis on an aqueous alkali chloride solution (usually sodium chloride solution) to produce the corresponding alkali hydroxide,[1] invented by Hamilton Castner and Karl Kellner in the 1890s. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ...


Dentistry

The element mercury is the main ingredient in dental amalgams. Controversy over the health effects from the use of mercury amalgams began shortly after its introduction into the western world, nearly 200 years ago,.[citation needed] In 1845, The American Society of Dental Surgeons, concerned about mercury poisoning, asked its members to sign a pledge that they would not use amalgam.[citation needed] The ASDS disbanded in 1865.[citation needed] The American Dental Association formed three years after and currently takes the position that "amalgam is a valuable, viable and safe choice for dental patients,"[24] In 1993, the United States Public Health Service reported that "amalgam fillings release small amounts of mercury vapor," but in such a small amount that it "has not been shown to cause any ... adverse health effects". This position is not shared by all governments[citation needed] and there is an ongoing dental amalgam controversy. A recent review by an FDA-appointed advisory panel rejected, by a margin of 13-7, the current FDA report on amalgam safety,[citation needed] stating the report's conclusions were unreasonable given the quantity and quality of information currently available. Panelists said remaining uncertainties about the risk of so-called silver fillings demanded further research; in particular, on the effects of mercury-laden fillings on children and the fetuses of pregnant women with fillings, and the release of mercury vapor on insertion and removal of mercury fillings.[citation needed] In Norway new dental amalgam fillings are banned from 1 January 2008. The Minister of the Environment and International Development announced the ban in a press release 21 December 2007. The ban affects the use of mercury in nearly all products.[25] The ban is implemented by changes in The Product Control Act.[26] This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ... Health effects, health impacts or health risks are an important consideration in many areas, such as hygiene, pollution studies, workplace safety, nutrition and health sciences in general. ... The American Society of Dental Surgeons (ASDS) was the first national dental organization formed in the United States of America. ... The American Dental Association (ADA) is an American advocacy group that promotes Oral Health Care and the field of dentistry. ... Template:Higher standard // History of the United States Public Health Service The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams in 1798 as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ... The dental amalgam controversy is a debate over the use of amalgams containing mercury as a dental filling. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Medicine

Mercury and its compounds have been used in medicine, although they are much less common today than they once were, now that the toxic effects of mercury and its compounds are more widely understood.


Mercury(I) chloride (also known as calomel or mercurous chloride) has traditionally been used as a diuretic, topical disinfectant, and laxative. Mercury(II) chloride (also known as mercuric chloride or corrosive sublimate) was once used to treat syphilis (along with other mercury compounds), although it is so toxic that sometimes the symptoms of its toxicity were confused with those of the syphilis it was believed to treat.[27] It was also used as a disinfectant. Blue mass, a pill or syrup in which mercury is the main ingredient, was prescribed throughout the 1800s for numerous conditions including constipation, depression, child-bearing and toothaches.[28] In the early 20th century, mercury was administered to children yearly as a laxative and dewormer, and it was used in teething powders for infants. The mercury containing organohalide Mercurochrome is still widely used but has been banned in some countries such as the U.S. Mercury(I) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2. ... Calomel (chemical formula Hg2Cl2) is a mild chloride of mercury, a heavy, white or yellowish white substance, insoluble and tasteless, much used in medicine as a mercurial and purgative; mercurous chloride. ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... Laxatives (or purgatives) are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Mercury(II) chloride, more commonly called Mercuric Chloride (once known as corrosive sublimate (see image at right)), is the chemical compound with the formula HgCl2. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Blue mass was the name of a medicine prescribed, made, and sold in the United States in the 1800s. ... A currently banned bottle of US Mercurochrome. ...


Since the 1930s some vaccines have contained the preservative thiomersal, which is metabolized or degraded to ethyl mercury. Although it was widely speculated that this mercury-based preservative can cause or trigger autism in children, scientific studies showed no evidence supporting any such link.[29] Nevertheless thiomersal has been removed from or reduced to trace amounts in all U.S. vaccines recommended for children 6 years of age and under, with the exception of inactivated influenza vaccine.[30] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Thiomersal (INN) (C9H9HgNaO2S), formerly and still commonly known in the United States as thimerosal, is an organomercury compound (approximately 49% mercury by weight) used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent. ... Ethylmercury (sometimes ethyl mercury) is a cation composed of an ethyl group and a mercury atom; its chemical formula is C2H5Hg+. The term ethylmercury is sometimes used as a generic term to describe organomercury compounds which include ethylmercury such as ethylmercury chloride and ethylmercury urea. ... Following US government action to evaluate levels of environmental toxins, including mercury, it has been claimed, particularly in the context of lawsuits, that thimerosal in childhood vaccines could contribute to, or cause, a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, most notably autism and related Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs), or other... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ...


Mercury in the form of one of its common ores, cinnabar, remains an important component of Chinese, Tibetan, and Ayurvedic medicine. As problems may arise when these medicines are exported to countries that prohibit the use of mercury in medicines, in recent times, less toxic substitutes have been devised. Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Tibetan medicine is a centuries-old traditional medical system that employs a complex approach to diagnosis, incorporating techniques such as pulse analysis and urinalysis, and utilizes behavior and dietary modification, medicines composed of natural materials (e. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ...


Today, the use of mercury in medicine has greatly declined in all respects, especially in developed countries. Thermometers and sphygmomanometers containing mercury were invented in the early 18th and late 19th centuries, respectively. In the early 21st century, their use is declining and has been banned in some countries, states and medical institutions. In 2002, the U.S. Senate passed legislation to phase out the sale of non-prescription mercury thermometers. In 2003, Washington and Maine became the first states to ban mercury blood pressure devices.[31] Mercury compounds are found in some over-the-counter drugs, including topical antiseptics, stimulant laxatives, diaper-rash ointment, eye drops, and nasal sprays. The FDA has “inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness,” of the mercury ingredients in these products.[32] Mercury is still used in some diuretics, although substitutes now exist for most therapeutic uses. Close up of a maximum thermometer. ... BP 126/70 mmHg as result on electronic sphygmomanometer A sphygmomanometer (often condensed to sphygmometer[1]) or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, comprising an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... Laxatives (or purgatives) are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Diaper rash (U.S.) or nappy rash (UK), is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the diaper area that are caused by a various skin disorders and/or irritants. ... An ointment is a viscous semisolid preparation used topically on a variety of body surfaces. ... Eye Drops was a television program on TechTV that showcased short computer animation movies and clips made using off the shelf 3D animation software. ... Nasal sprays are used for the nasal delivery of a drug or drugs, generally to alleviate cold or allergy symptoms. ... FDA redirects here. ...


Gold mining

Mercury was historically extensively used in hydraulic gold mining, in order to help the gold to sink through the flowing water-gravel mixture. Thin mercury particles may form mercury-gold amalgam and therefore increase the gold recovery rates. Large scale use of mercury stopped in the 1960s. However mercury is still used in small scale, often clandestine, gold prospection. Total use of mercury in placer mining in California has been estimated to more than 4500 tons (10,000,000 lbs).[33] Miners operate a hydraulic sluice in San Francisquito Canyon, Los Angeles County. ...


Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of mercury

There are seven stable isotopes of mercury with Hg-202 being the most abundant (29.86%). The longest-lived radioisotopes are 194Hg with a half-life of 444 years, and 203Hg with a half-life of 46.612 days. Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives that are less than a day. 199Hg and 201Hg are the most often studied NMR-active nuclei, having spins of 1/2 and 3/2 respectively. mercury (Hg) Standard atomic mass: 200. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... NMR redirects here. ...


Reactivity

Mercury dissolves to form amalgams with gold, zinc and many metals. Because iron is an exception to this rule, iron flasks have been traditionally used to trade mercury. When heated, mercury also reacts with oxygen in air to form mercury oxide, which then can be decomposed by further heating to higher temperatures. This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ... ALL THIS ARE COMPETELY BULLSHIT ...


Since it is below hydrogen in the reactivity series of metals, mercury does not react with most acids, such as dilute sulfuric acid, though oxidizing acids such as concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid or aqua regia dissolve it to give sulfate and nitrate and chloride. Similar to silver, mercury reacts with atmospheric hydrogen sulfide. Mercury even reacts with solid sulfur flakes, which is used in mercury spill kits to absorb mercury vapors (spill kits also use activated charcoal and powdered zinc). In chemistry, the reactivity series is a series of metals, in order of reactivity from highest to lowest. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Freshly prepared aqua regia is colorless, but it turns orange within seconds. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...


Compounds

The most important salts are

Laboratory tests have found that an electrical discharge causes the noble gases to combine with mercury vapor. These compounds are held together with van der Waals forces and result in Hg·Ne, Hg·Ar, Hg·Kr, and Hg·Xe (see exciplex). Organic mercury compounds are also important. Methylmercury is a dangerous compound that is widely found as a pollutant in water bodies and streams. Mercury(I) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Hg2Cl2. ... Calomel (chemical formula Hg2Cl2) is a mild chloride of mercury, a heavy, white or yellowish white substance, insoluble and tasteless, much used in medicine as a mercurial and purgative; mercurous chloride. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Mercury(II) chloride, more commonly called Mercuric Chloride (once known as corrosive sublimate (see image at right)), is the chemical compound with the formula HgCl2. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mercury fulminate (Hg(ONC)2) is a primary explosive. ... For the Ratt album see Detonator (album) top: small nonel detonator with 25ms delay for chaining nonel tubes, middle: class B SPD detonator, bottom: class C SPD detonator A detonator is a device used to trigger an explosive device. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide, has a formula of HgO and a formula weight of 216. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Cinnabar (German Zinnober), sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ... Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ... Vermilion, also spelled vermillion, when found naturally-occurring, is an opaque reddish orange pigment, used since antiquity, originally derived from the powdered mineral cinnabar. ... In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ... Mercury selenide (HgSe) is a chemical compound of mercury and selenium. ... A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... Mercury telluride (HgTe) is a binary chemical compound of mercury and tellurium. ... A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. ... mercury ... Mercury zinc telluride (HgZnTe, MZT) is a telluride of mercury and zinc, an alloy of mercury telluride and zinc telluride. ... An infrared detector is a detector that reacts to infrared (IR) radiation. ... The noble gases are a chemical series. ... In chemistry, the term van der Waals force originally referred to all forms of intermolecular forces; however, in modern usage it tends to refer to intermolecular forces that deal with forces due to the polarization of molecules. ... An excimer[1] (originally short for excited dimer) is a short-lived dimeric or heterodimeric molecule formed from two species, at least one of which is in an electronic excited state. ... A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by mass. ... Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury), an organometallic cation with the formula [CH3Hg]+. It is a bioaccumulative environmental toxin. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...


The discovery of Mercury(IV) fluoride (HgF4) was announced in September 2007. Square planar structure of HgF4. ...


See also Category:Mercury compounds.


Safety

See also: mercury poisoning

Mercury and most of its compounds are extremely toxic and are generally handled with care; in cases of spills involving mercury (such as from certain thermometers or fluorescent light bulbs) specific cleaning procedures are used to avoid toxic exposure.[34] It can be inhaled and absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes, so containers of mercury are securely sealed to avoid spills and evaporation. Heating of mercury, or compounds of mercury that may decompose when heated, is always carried out with adequate ventilation in order to avoid exposure to mercury vapor. The most toxic forms of mercury are its organic compounds, such as dimethylmercury and methylmercury. Mercury can cause both chronic and acute poisoning. It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Skull_and_crossbones. ... Close up of a maximum thermometer. ... A compact fluorescent lamp A fluorescent lamp is a type of electric lamp that excites argon and mercury vapor to create luminescence. ... An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... Dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) is a flammable, colorless liquid, and one of the strongest known neurotoxins. ... Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury), an organometallic cation with the formula [CH3Hg]+. It is a bioaccumulative environmental toxin. ...


Amando Kapauan was among the first to look into the problem of mercury in the environment, and he designed the appropriate equipment for mercury analysis in water, fish, and soil.


Occupational exposure

Due to the health effects of mercury exposure, industrial and commercial uses are regulated in many countries. The World Health Organization, OSHA, and NIOSH all treat mercury as an occupational hazard, and have established specific occupational exposure limits. Environmental releases and disposal of mercury are regulated in the U.S. primarily by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. WHO redirects here. ... If you are searching for the organization, click OSHA. Osha (Ligusticum porteri) is a perennial herb used for its medicinal properties. ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ... EPA redirects here. ...


Case control studies have shown effects such as tremors, impaired cognitive skills, and sleep disturbance in workers with chronic exposure to mercury vapour even at low concentrations in the range 0.7–42 μg/m3.[35][36]


A study has shown that acute exposure (4–8 hours) to calculated elemental mercury levels of 1.1 to 44 mg/m3 resulted in chest pain, dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, impairment of pulmonary function, and evidence of interstitial pneumonitis.[37] Dyspnea (R06. ... Hemoptysis (US English) or haemoptysis (International English) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ... Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung. ...


Acute exposure to mercury vapor has been shown to result in profound central nervous system effects, including psychotic reactions characterized by delirium, hallucinations, and suicidal tendency. Occupational exposure has resulted in broad-ranging functional disturbance, including erethism, irritability, excitability, excessive shyness, and insomnia. With continuing exposure, a fine tremor develops and may escalate to violent muscular spasms. Tremor initially involves the hands and later spreads to the eyelids, lips, and tongue. Long-term, low-level exposure has been associated with more subtle symptoms of erethism, including fatigue, irritability, loss of memory, vivid dreams, and depression.[38][39]


Treatment

Research on the treatment of mercury poisoning is limited. Currently available drugs for acute mercurial poisoning include chelators N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (NAP), British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS), and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In one small study including 11 construction workers exposed to elemental mercury, patients were treated with DMSA and NAP.[40] Chelation therapy with both drugs resulted in the mobilization of a small fraction of the total estimated body mercury. DMSA was able to increase the excretion of mercury to a greater extent than NAP. Penicillamine is a pharmaceutical of the chelator class. ... British Anti Lewisite, often referred to by its acronym BAL, is a compound developed by the British biochemists of Oxford University during World War II . ... Chemical structure of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid or DMPS is a chelating agent that forms complexes with various heavy metals. ... DMSA or dimercaptosuccinic acid is a chelating agent. ...


Mercury in fish

California sign warning about the risks from mercury-containing fish.

Fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury, a highly toxic organic compound of mercury. Species of fish that are high on the food chain, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, albacore tuna, and tilefish contain higher concentrations of mercury than others. This is because mercury is stored in the muscle tissues of fish, and when a predatory fish eats another fish, it assumes the entire body burden of mercury in the consumed fish. Since fish are less efficient at depurating than accumulating methylmercury, fish-tissue concentrations increase over time. Thus species that are high on the food chain amass body burdens of mercury that can be ten times higher, or more, than the species they consume. This process is called biomagnification. The first occurrence of widespread mercury poisoning in humans occurred this way in Minamata, Japan, now called Minamata disease. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (792x612, 77 KB)†¿†== Summary == http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (792x612, 77 KB)†¿†== Summary == http://www. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury), an organometallic cation with the formula [CH3Hg]+. It is a bioaccumulative environmental toxin. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... This article is about a type of fish. ... Binomial name (Cuvier, 1829) The king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) is a migratory species of mackerel that lives its entire life in the open waters of the western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. ... Binomial name Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre, 1788) The albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is an important food fish, a type of tuna (family Scombridae). ... Genera Branchiostegus Caulolatilus Hoplolatilus Lopholatilus Malacanthus Tilefish, also known as blanquillo, are mostly small perciform marine fish comprising the family Malacanthidae. ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... Biomagnification is a similar but distinct concept from bioaccumulation. ... It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ... Minamata (水俣市; -shi) is a city located in Kumamoto, Japan. ... Minamata disease ), sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease ), is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. ...


The complexities associated with mercury transport and environmental fate are described by USEPA in their 1997 Mercury Study Report to Congress.[41] Because methylmercury and high levels of elemental mercury can be particularly toxic to unborn or young children, organizations such as the U.S. EPA and FDA recommend that women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant within the next one or two years, as well as young children avoid eating more than 6 ounces (one average meal) of fish per week.[42] EPA redirects here. ...


In the United States the FDA has an action level for methyl mercury in commercial marine and freshwater fish that is 1.0 parts per million (ppm), and in Canada the limit for the total of mercury content is 0.5 ppm. The Got Mercury? website includes a calculator for determining mercury levels in fish.[43]


Species with characteristically low levels of mercury include shrimp, tilapia, salmon, pollock, and catfish (FDA March 2004). The FDA characterizes shrimp, catfish, pollock, salmon, and canned light tuna as low-mercury seafood, although recent tests have indicated that up to 6 percent of canned light tuna may contain high levels.[44] Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia (pronounced ) is the common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Species Pollachius pollachius Pollachius virens Pollock (or pollack, pronounced the same and listed first in most UK and US dictionaries) is the common name used for either of the two species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus. ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ...


Mercury and aluminium

Mercury readily combines with aluminium to form a mercury-aluminum amalgam when the two pure metals come into contact. However, when the amalgam is exposed to air, the aluminium oxidizes, leaving behind mercury. The oxide flakes away, exposing more mercury amalgam, which repeats the process. This process continues until the supply of amalgam is exhausted, and since it releases mercury, a small amount of mercury can “eat through” a large amount of aluminium over time, by progressively forming amalgam and relinquishing the aluminium as oxide. Aluminum redirects here. ... A mercury-aluminum amalgam is a chemical reagent that uses aluminum coated with mercury to reduce compounds, such as the reduction of imines to amines. ...


Aluminium in air is ordinarily protected by a molecule-thin layer of its own oxide, which is not porous to oxygen. Mercury coming into contact with this oxide does no harm. However, if any elemental aluminium is exposed (even by a recent scratch), the mercury may combine with it, starting the process described above, and potentially damaging a large part of the aluminium before it finally ends.[45]


For this reason, restrictions are placed on the use and handling of mercury in proximity with aluminium. In particular, mercury is not allowed aboard aircraft under most circumstances because of the risk of it forming amalgam with exposed aluminium parts in the aircraft.


Regulations

In the European Union, Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (See RoHS) bans mercury from certain electrical and electronic products, and limits the amount of mercury in other products to less than 1000 ppm.[46] The Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS) 2002/95/EC [1] (commonly referred to as the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive) was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ...


Besides, in the European Union there are restriction for mercury concentration in packaging (the limit is 100 ppm for sum of mercury, lead, hexavalent chromium and cadmium) and batteries (the limit is 5 ppm).[47] General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... A Hexavalent chromium compound: Chromium(VI)-oxide Hexavalent chromium or Cr(VI) compounds are those which contain the element chromium in the +6 oxidation state. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ...


In July 2007, European Union also banned mercury in non-electrical measuring devices, such as thermometers and barometers. The ban applies to new devices only, and contains exemptions for the healthcare sector and a two-year grace period for manufacturers of barometers.[48]


In Norway, there is a total ban on use of mercury in the manufacturing as well as import or export of mercury products. The ban is effective as of January 1, 2008.[49] Lakes in Norway are already polluted by mercury.[50]


References

  • Kolev, S.T. Bates, N. Mercury (UK PID). National Poisons Information Service: Medical Toxicology Unit (London Centre).
  • Jahn, Robert G. "Physics of Electric Propulsion" McGraw-Hill Series in Missile and Space Technology, McGraw-Hill, (1968)
  1. ^ Fred Senese. Why is mercury a liquid at STP?. General Chemistry Online at Frostburg State University. Retrieved on 1 May 2007.
  2. ^ Mercury — Element of the ancients. Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Dartmouth College. Retrieved on 2008-03-27.
  3. ^ Mercury and the environment — Basic facts. Environment Canada, Federal Government of Canada (2004). Retrieved on 2008-03-27.
  4. ^ Qin Shihuang. Ministry of Culture, People's Republic of China (2003). Retrieved on 2008-03-27.
  5. ^ http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/mercury/mercumcs07.pdf]
  6. ^ World Mineral Production 2001-05, British Geological Survey, NERC, London, 2007
  7. ^ Glacial Ice Cores Reveal A Record of Natural and Anthropogenic Atmospheric Mercury Deposition for the Last 270 Years. United States Geological Survey (USGS). Retrieved on 1 May 2007.
  8. ^ a b c d Pacyna EG, Pacyna JM, Steenhuisen F, Wilson S (2006). "Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000". Atmos Environ 40 (22): 4048–63. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.041. 
  9. ^ What is EPA doing about mercury air emissions?. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Retrieved on 1 May 2007.
  10. ^ Rebecca Solnit (September/October 2006). Winged Mercury and the Golden Calf. Orion Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  11. ^ Mercury-containing Products. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Retrieved on 1 May 2007.
  12. ^ Clean Air Mercury Rule. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Retrieved on 1 May 2007.
  13. ^ Introduction. Y-12 Mercury Task Force Files: A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and its Contractors. Department of Energy.
  14. ^ FDA. Thimerosal in Vaccines. Retrieved on 25 October 2006.
  15. ^ Tor Eigeland. "The City of Al-Zahra". Saudi Aramco World 27 (5) Retrieved on 1 May 2007. 
  16. ^ "World's most precise clock developed", BBC, 2001-07-12. Retrieved on 2007-05-01. 
  17. ^ "NIST New Atomic Clock Could Be 1,000 Times Better Than Today’s Best" (July 23, 2001). NIST update Retrieved on 1 May 2007. 
  18. ^ Concise Inorganic Chemistry- J.D.Lee
  19. ^ Waldron HA (1983). "Did the Mad Hatter have mercury poisoning?". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 287 (6409): 1961. PMID 6418283. 
  20. ^ "Mercury in your eye?", MSN, 2008-02-16. Retrieved on 2008-02-16. 
  21. ^ The CRB Commodity Yearbook (annual) 2000, p. 173, ISSN 1076-2906
  22. ^ a b Leopold, Barry R. (2002). "Chapter 3: Manufacturing Processes Involving Mercury" Use and Release of Mercury in the United States. National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio. Retrieved on 1 May 2007.
  23. ^ Chlorine Online Diagram of mercury cell process. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  24. ^ Statement on Dental Amalgam. American Dental Association. Retrieved on 1 May 2007.
  25. ^ Bans mercury in products, Press release, 21.12.2007, Minister of the Environment and International Development Erik Solheim[1]
  26. ^ Amendments in Product regulations in Norway from 1 January 2008[2]
  27. ^ Pimple, K.D. Pedroni, J.A. Berdon, V. (2002, July 09). Syphilis in history. Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions at Indiana University-Bloomington. Retrieved on April 17, 2005.
  28. ^ Hillary Mayell (July 17, 2001). "Did Mercury in "Little Blue Pills" Make Abraham Lincoln Erratic?". National Geographic Retrieved on 1 May 2007. 
  29. ^ Parker SK, Schwartz B, Todd J, Pickering LK (2004). "Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data". Pediatrics 114 (3): 793–804. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0434. PMID 15342856.  Erratum (2005). Pediatrics 115 (1): 200. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2402 PMID 15630018.
  30. ^ Thimerosal in vaccines. Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2007-09-06). Retrieved on 2007-10-01.
  31. ^ Two States Pass First-time Bans on Mercury Blood Pressure Devices. Health Care Without Harm (June 2, 2003). Retrieved on 1 May 2007.
  32. ^ Title 21—Food and Drugs Chapter I—Food and Drug Administration Department of Health and Human Services Subchapter D—Drugs for Human Use Code of federal regulations. United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on 1 May 2007.
  33. ^ Mercury Contamination from Historical Gold Mining in California. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  34. ^ Mercury: Spills, Disposal and Site Cleanup. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  35. ^ Ngim CH, Foo SC, Boey KW, and Keyaratnam J (1992). "Chronic neurobehavioral effects of elemental mercury in dentists". British Journal of Industrial Medicine 49: 782–790. 
  36. ^ Liang YX, Sun RK, Chen ZQ, and Li LH. "Psychological effects of low exposure to mercury vapor: Application of computer-administered neurobehavioral evaluation system". Environmental Research 60: 320–327. 
  37. ^ McFarland, RB and H. Reigel. J Occup Med. 1978 Aug;20(8):532-4.
  38. ^ WHO (1976) Environmental Health Criteria 1: Mercury, Geneva, World Health Organization, 131 pp.
  39. ^ WHO. Inorganic mercury. Environmental Health Criteria 118. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1991.
  40. ^ Bluhm, RE, et. Al. Hum Exp Toxicol 1992 May;11(3):201-10.
  41. ^ EPA (1997). Mercury Study Report to Congress. Retrieved on 23 January 2008.
  42. ^ FDA/EPA (2004). What You Need to Know About Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. Retrieved on 25 October 2006.
  43. ^ Got Mercury? Online Calculator Helps Seafood Consumers Gauge Mercury Intake. Common Dreams (March 9, 2004). Retrieved on 2008-03-30.
  44. ^ "FDA tests show risk in tuna", Chicago Tribune, January 27, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-05-01. 
  45. ^ Ornitz, Barry L. (15 December 1998). Aluminium Alloys and Mercury and FEATHERS. USENET sci.engr.chem. Retrieved on 2006-01-29.
  46. ^ Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment 2002/95/EC, Article 4 Paragraph 1. "Member States shall ensure that, from 1 July 2006, new electrical and electronic equipment put on the market does not contain lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)." http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:037:0019:0023:EN:PDF
  47. ^ Mercury compounds in European Union
  48. ^ EU bans mercury in barometers, thermometers
  49. ^ Norway to ban mercury
  50. ^ Mercury in lake sediments, map

Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. Incorporated as Trustees of Dartmouth College,[6][7] it is a member of the Ivy League and one of the nine colonial colleges founded before the American Revolution. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... The Natural Resources Defense Council is an environmental advocacy organization that led the drive to ban alar, claiming that it was a dangerous carcinogen. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery grey-white metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [289] g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...

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Mercury (element) - MSN Encarta (978 words)
Mercury is used in thermometers because its coefficient of expansion is nearly constant—that is, the change in volume for each degree of rise or fall in temperature is the same.
Among the commercially important compounds of mercury are mercuric sulfide, a common antiseptic also used as the pigment vermilion; mercurous chloride, or calomel, used for electrodes, and formerly used as a cathartic; mercuric chloride, or corrosive sublimate; and organic compounds used as disinfectants, germicides, and antiseptics, known as mercurials.
Mercury is acutely hazardous as a vapor and in the form of its water-soluble salts, which corrode membranes of the body.
Mercury (element) - MSN Encarta (526 words)
Mercury is one of the transition elements of the periodic table.
Mercury is used in thermometers because its coefficient of expansion is nearly constant; the change in volume for each degree of rise or fall in temperature is the same.
Mercury is acutely hazardous as a vapour and in the form of its water-soluble salts, which corrode membranes of the body.
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