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Encyclopedia > Mercosur
Mercado Común del Sur
Mercado Comum do Sul
Ñemby Ñemuha
Southern Common Market
Flag of Mercosul
Motto
Nuestro Norte es el Sur  (Spanish)
Nosso norte é o Sul  (Portuguese)
Yvy mba'e yvate ojehegui  (Guaraní)
"Our North is the South"
Location of Mercosul
Members • Associate members • Observer
Pro Tempore Secretariat Flag of Uruguay Montevideo, Uruguay
34°53′S 56°10′W / -34.883, -56.167
Largest city Flag of Brazil São Paulo, Brazil
Official languages
Membership
Leaders
 -  Pro Tempore Secretary Flag of Argentina Carlos Álvarez
Establishment
 -  Declaration of
Foz do Iguaçu

30 December 1985 
 -  Treaty of Asunción 26 March 1991 
 -  Protocol of Ouro Preto 16 December 1994 
Area
 -  Total 12,781,179 km² (2nd1)
4,934,841 sq mi 
Population
 -  2006 estimate 266.616.849 (4th1)
GDP (PPP)  estimate
 -  Total U$ 2.895 trillion (5th1)
 -  Per capita U$ 10.858 (70th1)
HDI  0.817 (high) (57th1)
Currency
1 If Mercosur considered as a single entity.
With associate members
Associate members
Area
 -  Total 17,320,270 km² (1st1)
6,687,394 sq mi 
Population
 -  2006 estimate 365,555,352 (3rd1)
GDP (PPP)  estimate
 -  Total U$ 2,970,543 (5th1)
 -  Per capita U$ 8.126 (63th1)
HDI  0.792 (medium) (73th1)
Currency
1 If Mercosur considered as a single entity.

Mercosur or Mercosul (Spanish: Mercado Común del Sur, Portuguese: Mercado Comum do Sul, Guarani: Ñemby Ñemuha, English: Southern Common Market) is a Regional Trade Agreement (RTA) among Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, founded in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción, which was later amended and updated by the 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto. Its purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... Image File history File links Mercosul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... For other uses, see Montevideo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article is about the city. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Carlos Alberto Chacho Álvarez (born on December 26, 1948 in Buenos Aires) is an Argentine politician; he was Vice-President of Argentina during part of President Fernando de la Rúas mandate, and currently heads the Mercosur Secretariat. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Treaty of Asunción was a treaty between the countries of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay signed on March 16, 1991. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... The 1994 Protocol of Ouro Preto was the continuation of economic policies setting up a customs union, as set forth four years earlier in the Treaty of Asuncion by the four original Mercosur states. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 10 million km² and 100 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... The Argentine peso (originally established as the nuevo peso argentino or peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... ISO 4217 Code BRL User(s) Brazil Inflation 3. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... The guaraní (plural: guaraníes; ISO 4217 code PYG) is the national currency unit of Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... The peso uruguayo (ISO 4217 code: UYU) is the official currency of Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... ISO 4217 Code VEB User(s) Venezuela Inflation 16% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 10 million km² and 100 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... The boliviano (ISO 4217 code: BOB) is the currency of Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Chilean notes currently in circulation: 1,000; 2,000; 5,000; 10,000; 20,000 pesos The peso is the currency of Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... ISO 4217 Code COP User(s) Colombia Inflation 4. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... ISO 4217 Code PEN User(s) Peru Inflation 2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... USD redirects here. ... Guaraní (gwah-rah-nee) [gwarani] (local name: avañeẽ) is a language spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and southwestern Brazil. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Treaty of Asunción was a treaty between the countries of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay signed on March 16, 1991. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto was the continuation of economic policies setting up a common market as set forth four years earlier in the Treaty of Asuncion between the Mercosur. ...


Mercosur/Mercosul origins trace back to 1985 when Presidents Raúl Alfonsín of Argentina and José Sarney of Brazil signed the Argentina-Brazil Integration and Economics Cooperation Program or PICE (Spanish: Programa de Integración y Cooperación Económica Argentina-Brasil, Portuguese: Programa de Integração e Cooperação Econômica Argentina-Brasil). [1] This article is about the year. ... Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín (born 13 March 1927) is an Argentine politician, who was the President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 9 July 1989. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Portuguese (  or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and northern Portugal from the Latin spoken by romanized Celtiberians about 1000 years ago. ...


Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru currently have associate member status. Venezuela signed a membership agreement on 17 June 2006, but before becoming a full member its entry has to be ratified by the Paraguayan and the Brazilian parliaments. is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The founding of the Mercosur Parliament was agreed at the December 2004 presidential summit. It should have 18 representatives from each country by 2010.[2]

Contents

Role and potential

Some South Americans see Mercosur as giving the capability to combine resources to balance the activities of other global economic powers, especially the NAFTA and the European Union.[citation needed] The organization could also potentially pre-empt the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA);[citation needed] however, over half of the current Mercosur member countries rejected the FTAA proposal at the IV Cumbre de las Américas (IV Summit of the Americas) in Argentina in 2005. However, development of the Union of South American Nations seems to suggest that the countries of South America are not opposed to regional integration but merely wary of the United States-backed FTAA. Nafta or NAFTA may refer to: an acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement an acronym for the New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement the town/Tokyo of Nafta, Tunisia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The FTAA logo. ... The tourist resort of Mar del Plata, 400 kilometers southeast of the Argentine capital Buenos Aires, is the venue of the Fourth Summit of the Americas, which will gather the leaders of all the countries of the Western Hemisphere, except Cuba. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...  Full member states  Observer States Political centres Brasília[1] Quito Cochabamba Bogota , Largest city São Paulo Official languages 4 Dutch English Portuguese Spanish Ethnic groups (2007) 7 White (46%) Mulatto (21%) Mestizo (21%) Amerindian (6%) Black (4%) Mixed (<1%) Other (2%) Demonym South American Member states 12 Argentina... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The development of Mercosur was arguably weakened by the collapse of the Argentine economy in 2001 and it has still seen internal conflicts over trade policy, between Brazil and Argentina, Argentina and Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil, etc. The free movement of individuals has been a matter of practical controversy,[citation needed] as Argentina unilaterally charges a 5 Pesos fee from Mercosur citizens going through the country.[citation needed] In addition, many obstacles are to be addressed before the development of a common currency in Mercosur[3].


In December 2004 it signed a cooperation agreement with the Andean Community trade bloc (CAN) and they published a joint letter of intention for a future negotiations towards integrating all of South America. The prospect of increased political integration within the organization, as per the European Union and advocated by some, is still uncertain. States of CAN The Andean Community of Nations (in Spanish: Comunidad Andina de Naciones, abbreviated CAN) is a trade bloc comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. ...


The bloc comprises a population of more than 263 million people, and the combined Gross Domestic Product of the full-member nations is in excess of 2.78 trillion dollars a year (PPP) according to IMF numbers, making Mercosur the fifth largest economy in the World. GDP redirects here. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... IMF redirects here. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ...


FTA with third parties

Mercosur summit, 2006
Mercosur summit, 2006

Recently, with the new cooperation agreement with Mercosur, the Andean Community gained four new associate members: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. These four Mercosur members were granted associate membership by the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers meeting in an enlarged session with the Commission (of the Andean Community) on 7 July 2005. This move reciprocates the actions of Mercosur which granted associate membership to all the Andean Community nations by virtue of the Economic Complementarity Agreements (Free Trade Agreements) signed between the CAN and individual Mercosur members. [4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... States of CAN The Andean Community of Nations (in Spanish: Comunidad Andina de Naciones, abbreviated CAN) is a trade bloc comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


On 30 December 2005 Colombian president Álvaro Uribe signed a law that ratifies an FTA with Mercosur and gives Colombian products preferential access to a market of 230 million people. Colombian entrepreneurs will also be able to import materials and capital goods from Mercosur at lower costs due to reduced tariffs resulting from the agreement.[citation needed] is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Álvaro Uribe Vélez (born July 4, 1952) is the 56th President of Colombia, whose first term ran from 2002 to 2006 and is currently serving his second term from 2006 to 2010. ...


The agreement's asymmetry clauses favor Colombia because it allows the gradual and progressive reduction of tariffs and likewise gives Colombia the opportunity to gradually reform its production system to adapt it to the requirements of the future negotiations within the scheme of Mercosur and the Union of South American Nations.  Full member states  Observer States Political centres Brasília[1] Quito Cochabamba Bogota , Largest city São Paulo Official languages 4 Dutch English Portuguese Spanish Ethnic groups (2007) 7 White (46%) Mulatto (21%) Mestizo (21%) Amerindian (6%) Black (4%) Mixed (<1%) Other (2%) Demonym South American Member states 12 Argentina...


On December 18, 2007, Mercosur signed a free trade agreement with Israel in Uruguay. [5] [6] is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Venezuela

Venezuela applied for membership, but its entry hasn't been ratified by Paraguay nor Brazil, although it was ratified by Argentina and Uruguay.[7] In May 2007, the Brazilian Senate asked Venezuela to reconsider the non-renewal of RCTV's license, an oppositionist television network. President Hugo Chávez responded accusing the Brazilian Congress of being subservient to interests of the United States. [8] The leader of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party in the Senate, senator Arthur Virgílio, stated that the party will try to prevent Venezuela's entry in Mercosur. Radio Caracas Televisión Internacional (RCTV Internacional) is a Venezuelan cable television network headquartered in the Caracas neighborhood of Quinta Crespo. ... The Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira, PSDB) is a political party in Brazil. ...


Members

The following countries are full members, in the process of becoming full members, associate members or observers.[9]


Full Members

Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ...

Becoming Full Members

Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ...

Associate Members

Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ...

Observers

Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ...

See also

States of CAN The Andean Community of Nations (in Spanish: Comunidad Andina de Naciones, abbreviated CAN) is a trade bloc comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. ... The Central American Common Market (abbreviated CACM - in Spanish: Mercado Común Centroamericano, abbreviated MCCA) is an economic trade organization between five nations of Central America. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... The Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (Spanish: Alternativa Bolivariana para las Américas or ALBA - which also means dawn in Spanish) is a political, social and economic cooperation and complementation vision of integration between the Latin American countries, proposed by the government of Venezuela as an alternative to the Free... The FTAA logo. ... A trade bloc is a large free trade area or free trade area formed by one or more tax, tariff and trade agreements. ...  Full member states  Observer States Political centres Brasília[1] Quito Cochabamba Bogota , Largest city São Paulo Official languages 4 Dutch English Portuguese Spanish Ethnic groups (2007) 7 White (46%) Mulatto (21%) Mestizo (21%) Amerindian (6%) Black (4%) Mixed (<1%) Other (2%) Demonym South American Member states 12 Argentina...

Further reading

The Chicago Journal of International Law is a semiannual, student-edited law review published by the University of Chicago Law School. ...

References

  1. ^ Official Site of the Argentinian Subsecretary for Political and Commercial Management (Spanish)
  2. ^ http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N14171666.htm
  3. ^ Hardman Reis, T. "Aspectos Jurídicos da Criação de um sistema monetário para o Mercosul", Hardman Reis e Gomes Eduardo (Coord.) Globalização e Comércio Internacional no Direito da Integração, 2005, São Paulo, Ed. Lex/Aduaneiras, p. 235
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ "Mercosur signs first out of region trade accord with Israel", Mercopress. Retrieved on 2007-12-21. Archived from the original on 2007-12-21. 
  6. ^ "Mercosul-Israel Free Trade Agreement", Brazilian Embassy in Washington. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  7. ^ Bragon, Ranier (2007-09-22), “Folha de São Paulo”, A Chávez, governo prevê aprovação neste ano, São Paulo, São Paulo: Folha da Manhã S.A., p. A10 
  8. ^ Bragon, Ranier (2007-09-22), “Folha de São Paulo”, Congresso brasileiro reage a fala de Chávez, São Paulo, São Paulo: Folha da Manhã S.A., p. A10 
  9. ^ Mercosur summit ends, commits to Venezuela membership, reducing asymmetry, People's Daily Online, 2007-12-19 
  10. ^ Osava, Mario; Marcela Valente (Argentina), David Vargas (Paraguay), Darío Montero (Uruguay) and Humberto Márquez (Venezuela). "CHALLENGES 2007-2008: Mercosur Limps Slowly Along", Inter Press Service, 2008-01-04. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. Archived from the original on 2008-01-04.  "But Venezuela’s entry ... is still awaiting ratification by the Brazilian and Paraguayan parliaments. The general elections scheduled in Paraguay for April 2008 are an additional factor of uncertainty."

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The newspaper Folha de São Paulo represents the development of the communication media in Brazil. ... The newspaper Folha de São Paulo represents the development of the communication media in Brazil. ... Inter Press Service (abbreviated: IPS) is a global news agency. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Mercosur Official Website
  • Radio Mercosur - News and Radio online
  • BBC - S America Creates Single Market
  • Mercosur on SICE/OAS site
  • Council on Foreign Relations: Mercosur: South America’s Fractious Trade Bloc

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
European Commission - External Trade - Trade Issues (697 words)
The Mercosur was created in 1991 and encompasses four Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay Venezuela were accepted as full member in 2006 and is currently in the process of integration into Mercosur.
The EU is the 2nd trading partner of Mercosur, representing 17.5% of total Mercosur trade and its first source of direct investment in 2005.The Mercosur ranks 8th among EU trading partners, accounting for 2,7% of total EU trade in 2006.
Negotiations for an inter-regional Association Agreement between the EU and the Mercosur began in April 2000.
Mercosur - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (549 words)
Mercosur or Mercosul (Spanish: Mercado Común del Sur, Portuguese: Mercado Comum do Sul, English: Southern Common Market) is a customs union between Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Venezuela, founded in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción, which was later amended and updated by the 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto.
The development of Mercosur was arguably weakened by the collapse of the Argentine economy in 2002 and it has still seen internal conflicts over trade policy, between Brazil and Argentina, for example.
These four Mercosur members were granted associate membership by the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers meeting in an enlarged session with the Commission (of the Andean Community) on 7 July 2005.
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