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Encyclopedia > Mercenary

A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and "is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that promised or paid to combatants of similar ranks and functions in the armed forces of that Party".[1][2] The word mercenary refers to a number of different things: A mercenary is a soldier who fights for money, regardless of ideological, national or political considerations. ...


As a result of the assumption that a mercenary is essentially motivated by money, the term "mercenary" carries negative connotations[citation needed]. There is a blur in the distinction between a "mercenary" and a "foreign volunteer", when the primary motive of a soldier in a foreign army is uncertain. For instance the French Foreign Legion and the Gurkhas are not mercenaries under the laws of war, since although they may meet many of the requirements of Article 47 they are exempt under clauses 47(a)(c)(d)(e)&(f), but some journalists do describe them as mercenaries.[3][4] This page discusses foreign volunteers who are serving in forces of a country other than their own, but who are not primarily motivated by personal profit. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) The Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective term for British Army units that are composed of Nepalese soldiers. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ...

Contents

Laws of war

See also: Laws of war

While the United States and many other countries are not signatories to the Protocol Additional GC 1977 (APGC77), it provides the most widely accepted international definition of a mercenary, albeit one not universally accepted. In the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977 it is stated: The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Protocol I: Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...

Art 47. Mercenaries

1. A mercenary shall not have the right to be a combatant or a prisoner of war.
2. A mercenary is any person who:
(a)  is specially recruited locally or abroad in order to fight in an armed conflict;
(b)  does, in fact, take a direct part in the hostilities;
(c)  is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that promised or paid to combatants of similar ranks and functions in the armed forces of that Party;
(d)  is neither a national of a Party to the conflict nor a resident of territory controlled by a Party to the conflict;
(e)  is not a member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict; and
(f)  has not been sent by a State which is not a Party to the conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces.

All the criteria (a - f) must be met, according to the Geneva Convention, for a combatant to be described as a mercenary.


According to the GC III, a captured soldier must be treated as a lawful combatant, and, therefore, is a Protected Person, with Prisoner of War (PoW) status until facing a competent tribunal (GC III Art 5). That tribunal may decide that the soldier is a mercenary using criteria in APGC77 or some equivalent domestic law. At that juncture, the mercenary soldier becomes an unlawful combatant, but still must be "treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial", because they are still covered by GC IV Art 5. The only exception to GC IV Art 5 is if he is a national of the authority imprisoning him, but, in which case, he would not be a mercenary soldier as defined in APGC77 Art 47.d. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Third Geneva Convention The Third Geneva Convention (or GCIII) of 1949, one of the Geneva Conventions, is a treaty agreement that primarily concerns the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs), and also touched on other topics. ... A combatant (also referred to as an enemy combatant) is a soldier or guerrilla member who is waging war. ... Competent Tribunal is a term used article five of the third Geneva Convention, which states: Should any doubt arise as to whether persons, having committed a belligerent act and having fallen into the hands of the enemy, belong to any of the categories enumerated in Article 4, such persons shall... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes a person denied the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions; one to whom protection is recognised as due is a lawful or privileged combatant. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Fourth Geneva Convention The Fourth Geneva Convention (or GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. ...


If after a regular trial, a captured soldier is found to be a mercenary, then he can expect treatment as a common criminal and may face execution. As mercenary soldiers are not PoWs, they cannot expect repatriation at war's end. The best known post-World War II example of this was on June 28, 1976 when at the end of the Luanda Trial an Angolan court sentenced three Britons and an American to death, and nine other mercenaries to prison terms ranging from 16 to 30 years. The four mercenaries sentenced to death were shot by a firing squad on July 10, 1976[5]. is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Luanda Trial was a trial held in Luanda by the MPLA, recently victorious in the Angolan Civil War to try thirteen foreign mercenaries who had fought for its rival, the FNLA. Guilty verdicts for all or some of 130 separate offenses, released on June 28, 1976, resulted in the... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The legal status of civilian contractors depends upon the nature of their work and their nationalities with respect to that of the combatants. If they have not "in fact, taken a direct part in the hostilities" (APGC77 Art 47.b) they are not mercenaries but civilians who have non-combat support roles and are entitled to protection under the Third Geneva Convention (GCIII 4.1.4).


On 4 December 1989 the United Nations passed resolution 44/34 the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries. It entered into force on 20 October 2001 and is usually known as the UN Mercenary Convention[6]. Article 1 contains the definition of a mercenary. Article 1.1 is similar to Article 47 of Protocol I, however Article 1.2 broadens the definition to include an non national recruited to overthrow a "Government or otherwise undermining the constitutional order of a State; or Undermin[e] the territorial integrity of a State;" and "Is motivated to take part therein essentially by the desire for significant private gain and is prompted by the promise or payment of material compensation..." — under Article 1.2 a person does not have to take a direct part in the hostilities in a planned coup d'état to be a mercenary. is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... At the 72nd plenary meeting on 4 December 1989 the United Nations General Assembly passed resolution 44/34, the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries. ... Coup redirects here. ...


Critics have argued that the convention and APGC77 Art. 47 are designed to cover the activities of mercenaries in post colonial Africa, and do not address adequately the use of private military companies by sovereign states[7]. This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ...


The situation during the Iraq War and the continuing occupation of Iraq after the United Nations Security Council sanctioned hand over of power to the Iraqi government shows the difficulty in defining what is a mercenary soldier. While the United States governed Iraq, any U.S. citizen working as an armed guard could not be defined a mercenary, because he was a national of a Party to the conflict (APGC77 Art 47.d). With the hand-over of power to the Iraqi government, if one does not consider the Coalition forces to be a continuing Parties to the conflict in Iraq, but that their soldiers are sent by a State which is not a Party to the conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces (APGC77 Art 47.f), then unless U.S. citizens working as an armed guards declare themselves residents in Iraq, i.e. a resident of territory controlled by a Party to the conflict (APGC77 Art 47.d), if they are involved in a fire-fight in the continuing conflict they are mercenary soldiers. However, those who acknowledge the United States and other coalition forces to still be Parties to the conflict would insist that U.S. armed guards cannot be called mercenaries (APGC77 Art 47.d). In such cases, if no trial of accused mercenaries occurs, allegations evaporate in the heat of accusations, counter-accusations and denials. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Combatants New Iraqi Army Kurdish Army Coalition: United States United Kingdom Australia Poland Other Coalition forces Baath Party Loyalists Mahdi Army al-Qaeda in Iraq Other Insurgent groups Commanders Nouri al-Maliki Massoud Barzani George W. Bush Tommy Franks Ricardo Sanchez George Casey David Petraeus Tony Blair Gordon Brown Brian... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council at its 4987th meeting, on 8 June 2004. ...


See also privateer, Letter of marque, private military contractor. For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... For the Patrick OBrian novel, see The Letter of Marque. ... A private military contractor (PMC) is a corporation that provides armed forces trained in combat, private military, for other corporations, organizations, individuals and state military forces. ...


Municipal law

The municipal laws of some countries forbid their citizens fighting in foreign wars unless they are under the control of their own national armed forces. Municipal law is an international law term used to denote the national, domestic, or internal law of a state. ...

Austria

In Austria, anyone who voluntarily serves in the armed forces of another country automatically loses Austrian citizenship.[citation needed]

France

In 2003, France criminalized mercenary activities, as defined by the protocol to the Geneva convention for French citizens, permanent residents and legal entities. (Penal Code, L436-1, L436-2, L436-3, L436-4, L436-5). Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Italy

In Italy, it is illegal to recruit Italians on Italian soil for fighting in behalf of a foreign government without the approval of the Italian government.[citation needed]

Switzerland

In 1927, Switzerland banned its nationals from serving as mercenaries, except for being the Vatican Swiss Guards.[citation needed] Swiss Guards have been Swiss who fought for various European powers from the 15th century until the 19th century, called up from the separate Swiss cantons and placed at the disposal of various foreign powers by treaties (the capitulations), in return for money payments. ...

South Africa

In 1998 South Africa passed the "Foreign Military Assistance Act" that banned citizens and residents from any involvement in foreign wars, except in humanitarian operations, unless a government committee approved its deployment. In 2005, the legislation was reviewed by the government because of South African citizens working as security guards in Iraq during the American Iraq occupation and the consequences of the mercenary soldier sponsorship case against Mark Thatcher for the "possible funding and logistical assistance in relation to an alleged attempted coup in Equatorial Guinea" organized by Simon Mann.[8] Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... ... Sir Mark Thatcher, 2nd Baronet (born 15 August 1953) is the only son of Sir Denis Thatcher and Baroness Thatcher, the former British Prime Minister, and twin brother of Carol Thatcher. ... Simon Mann (1953) is a security expert, mercenary and former British Army officer, now holding South African citizenship. ...

United Kingdom

United Kingdom of Great Britain passed the Foreign Enlistment Act in the late 18th century, making it illegal for British subjects to join the armed forces of any state warring with another state at peace with Great Britain. In the Greek War of Independence British volunteers fought with the Greek rebels, which could have been illegal; it was unclear whether or not the Greek rebels were a "state" per the Foreign Enlistment Act, but the law was clarified, saying that the rebels were a state. The government considered using the Act against British subjects fighting for the International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War and the FNLA in the Angolan Civil War (see above); nothing happened. Union Flag (1606-1800 The united Kingdom of Great Britain, also sometimes known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was created by the merger of the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England under the 1707 Act of Union to create a single kingdom encompassing the whole of... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Blason of the International Brigades The International Brigade was the name given to the band of volunteers and mercenaries who travelled to Spain to fight against the Nationalist forces led by General Franco and helped by Nazi German and Mussolini Italian forces, and defend the legitimate Spanish Republic government in... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... External links Party website Categories: Politics stubs | Angolan political parties ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the...


The existence of the Atholl Highlanders, apparently Europe's only legal, private army. By a quirk of history, this is a Scottish regiment, not part of the British Army, commanded by the Duke of Atholl; today it is a primarily ceremonial uniformed force. The Atholl Highlanders is a Scottish regiment. ... The title Duke of Atholl, named after Atholl in Scotland, was created several times in British history. ...

United States

The Anti-Pinkerton Act of 1893 (5 USC 3108) forbade the US Government from using Pinkerton National Detective Agency employees, or similar private police companies. In 1977, the US Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals interpreted this statute as forbidding the US Government's employing companies offering mercenary, quasi-military forces for hire. United States ex rel. Weinberger v. Equifax, 557 F.2d 456, 462 (5th Cir. 1977), cert. denied, 434 U.S. 1035 (1978). There is a disagreement over whether or not this proscription is limited to the use of such forces as strikebreakers, because it is stated thus: Pinkerton guards escort strikebreakers in Buchtel, Ohio, 1884 The Pinkerton National Detective Agency was a private U.S. security guard and detective agency established by Allan Pinkerton in 1850. ... The John Minor Wisdom U.S. Courthouse, home of the Fifth Circuit, New Orleans. ...

The purpose of the Act and the legislative history reveal that an organization was "similar" to the Pinkerton Detective Agency only if it offered for hire mercenary, quasi-military forces as strikebreakers and armed guards. It had the secondary effect of deterring any other organization from providing such services lest it be branded a "similar organization." The legislative history supports this view and no other.

In the June 7, 1978 Letter to the Heads of Federal Departments and Agencies, the Comptroller General interpreted this decision in a way that carved out an exemption for "Guard and Protective Services."


A US Department of Defense interim rule (effective 16 June 2006) revises DoD Instruction 3020.41 to authorize contractors, other than private security contractors, to use deadly force against enemy armed forces only in self-defense. 71 Fed. Reg. 34826. Per that interim rule, private security contractors are authorized to use deadly force when protecting their client's assets and persons, consistent with their contract's mission statement. [One interpretation is that this authorizes contractors to engage in combat on behalf of the US Government.] It is the combatant commander's responsibility to ensure that private security contract mission statements do not authorize performance of inherently Governmental military functions, i.e. preemptive attacks or assaults or raids, et cetera. is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Otherwise, civilians with US Armed Forces lose their law of war protection from direct attack, if and for such time as they directly participate in hostilities. On 18 August 2006, the US Comptroller General rejected bid protest arguments that US Army contracts violated the Anti-Pinkerton Act by requiring that contractors provide armed convoy escort vehicles and labor, weapons, and equipment for internal security operations at Victory Base Complex, Iraq. The Comptroller General reasoned the act was unviolated, because the contracts did not require contractors to provide quasi-military forces as strikebreakers.[9] Yet, on 1 June 2007, the Washington Post reported: "A federal judge yesterday ordered the military to temporarily refrain from awarding the largest security contract in Iraq. The order followed an unusual series of events set off when a U.S. Army veteran, Brian X. Scott, filed a protest against the government practice of hiring what he calls mercenaries, according to sources familiar with the matter".[10] is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ...


The contract, worth about $475 million, calls for a private company to provide intelligence services to the US Army and security for the Army Corps of Engineers on reconstruction work in Iraq. The case, which is being heard by the US Court of Federal Claims, puts on trial one of the most controversial and least understood aspects of the Iraq war: the outsourcing of military security to an estimated 20,000 armed contractors who operate with little oversight.<[10]


Gurkhas and Foreign Legionnaires

The better-known combat units in which foreign nationals serve in another country's armed forces are the Gurkha regiments of the British and Indian armies, and the French Foreign Legion. Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ...


Gurkhas in the British Army swear allegiance to the British monarch, operate in formed units of the British Army and abide the rules and regulations under which all British soldiers serve;[11] similar rules apply to Gurkhas of the Indian Army. French Foreign Legionnaires are formed units of the French Foreign Legion, which deploys and fights as an organized unit of the French Army. This means that as members of the armed forces of Britain, India, and France these soldiers are not mercenary soldiers per APGC77 Art 47.e and APGC77 Art 47.f. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ...


Private Military Companies (PMCs)

The Private military company (PMC) is the contemporary strand of the mercenary trade, providing logistics, soldiers, military training, and other services. Thus, PMC contractors are civilians (in governmental, international, and civil organizations) authorized to accompany an army to the field; hence, the term civilian contractor. Nevertheless, PMCs may use armed force, hence defined as: legally established enterprises that make a profit, by either providing services involving the potential exercise of [armed] force in a systematic way and by military means, and/or by the transfer of that potential to clients through training and other practices, such as logistics support, equipment procurement, and intelligence gathering.[12] A private military company (PMC) provides specialised expertise or services of a military nature, sometimes called or classified as mercenary (soldiers for hire).[1] Such companies are equally known as Private Security Contractors (PSCs), Private Military Corporations, Private Military Firms, Military Service Providers, and generally as the Private Military Industry. ... A private military company (PMC) provides specialised expertise or services of a military nature, sometimes called or classified as mercenary (soldiers for hire).[1] Such companies are equally known as Private Security Contractors (PSCs), Private Military Corporations, Private Military Firms, Military Service Providers, and generally as the Private Military Industry. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Private paramilitary forces are functionally mercenary armies, not security guards or advisors; however, national governments reserve the right to control the number, nature, and armaments of such private armies, arguing that, provided they are not pro-actively employed in front-line combat, they are not mercenaries. That said, PMC "civilian contractors" have poor repute among professional government soldiers and officers — the US Military Command have questioned their war zone behavior. In September 2005, Brigadier General Karl Horst, deputy commander of the Third Infantry Division charged with Baghdad security after the 2003 invasion, said of DynCorp and other PMCs in Iraq: These guys run loose in this country and do stupid stuff. There's no authority over them, so you can't come down on them hard when they escalate force... They shoot people, and someone else has to deal with the aftermath. It happens all over the place.[13] Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... A security officer guards a construction site in the Peoples Republic of China. ... DynCorp International is a U.S.-based private military contractor (PMC). ...


If PMC employees participate in pro-active combat, the press call them mercenaries, and the PMCs mercenary companies. In the 1990s, four news media-identified mercenary companies, and the wars were:

In 2004 the PMC business was boosted, because the US and Coalition governments hired them for security in Iraq. In March 2004, four Blackwater USA employees escorting food supplies and other equipment were attacked and killed in Fallujah, in a videotaped attack; the killings and subsequent dismemberment were a cause for the First Battle of Fallujah.[14] Afghan war operations also boosted the business, many PMC employees are bodyguards for heads of state such as Hamid Karzai.[citation needed] Executive Outcomes logo. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Sandline International was a private security (military) company based in London, established in the early 1990s. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... DynCorp International (IPA: )[1] is a United States-based private military contractor (PMC) and aircraft maintenance company. ... Blackwater USA is an international security contractor founded in 1997 by Erik Prince and Al Clark. ... Fallujah skyline before November 2004 battle Fallujah (Arabic: ; sometimes transliterated as Falluja or Fallouja) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69 km (43 miles) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. ... Combatants United States Iraqi insurgents Commanders James T. Conway Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Strength 1,200[1] 3,000 - 6,000 Casualties 83 KIA , WIA 90+ (U.S) [1] 615 military and civilian KIA Operation Vigilant Resolve, sometimes referred to as the First Battle of/for Fallujah was an abortive... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ...


In 2006, a U.S. congressional report listed a number of PMCs and other enterprises that have signed contracts to carry out anti-narcotics operations and related activities as part of Plan Colombia. DynCorp was among those contracted by the State Department, while others signed contracts with the Defense Department. Other companies from different countries, including Israel, have also signed contracts with the Colombian Defense Ministry to carry out security or military activities.[15] Plan Colombia is a controversial initiative aimed at resolving the ongoing, fifty-year civil war in Colombia. ... DynCorp International is a U.S.-based private military contractor (PMC). ...


The United Nations disapprove of PMCs (still, the UN hired Executive Outcomes for African logistic support work). Controversy arose elsewhere, Dyncorp's pedophiliac sex trafficking in Bosnia during the Balkan war of the 1990s. The question is whether or not PMC soldiers are as accountable for their war zone actions as are the Bosniak armed forces. A common argument for using PMCs (used by the PMCs themselves; Sandline's Corp's whitepapers), is that PMCs may be help combat genocide and civilian slaughter where the UN are unwilling or unable to intervene.[16] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


In February 2002, a British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) report about PMCs noted that the military service demands of the UN and international civil organizations might mean that it is cheaper to pay PMCs than use soldiers. Yet, then, after considering using PMCs to support UN operations, the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan, decided against it.[17] The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, seen from St. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


In October 2007 the United Nations released a two year study that stated, that although hired as "security guards", private contractors were performing military duties. The report found that the use of contractors such as Blackwater was a "new form of mercenary activity" and illegal under International law; however the United States is not a signatory to the 1989 UN Mercenary Convention banning the use of mercenaries.[18] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


History

Africa

Ancient Egypt

An early recorded use of foreign auxiliaries dates back to Ancient Egypt, the thirteenth century BC, when Pharaoh Ramesses II used 11,000 mercenaries during his battles. A long established foreign corps in the Egyptian forces were the Medjay - a generic term given to tribal scouts and light infantry recruited from Nubia serving from the late period of the Old Kingdom through that of the New Kingdom. Other warriors recruited from outside the borders of Egypt included Libyan, Syrian and Canaanite contingents under the New Kingdom and Sherdens from Sardinia who appear in their distinctive horned helmets on wall paintings as body guards for Ramesses II. [19] The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ... The Medjai were an ancient people of Nubia. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ...


20th century

In the 20th century, mercenaries have been mostly involved in conflicts on the continent of Africa and in several cases brought about a swift end to bloody civil war by comprehensively defeating the rebel forces. There have been a number of unsavory incidents in the brushfire wars of Africa, some involving recruitment of naïve European and American men "looking for adventure" and thrusting them into combat situations where they would not survive to get paid.


Many of the adventurers in Africa who have been described as mercenaries were in fact ideologically motivated to support particular governments, and would not fight "for the highest bidder". A good example of this would be the British South Africa Police (BSAP), a paramilitary, mounted infantry force formed by the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes in 1889/1890 that evolved and continued until 1970. BSAPolice Flag 1949 - 1960 The British South Africa Police (BSAP) was the police force of the British South Africa Company (BSAC) of Cecil Rhodes which became the national police force of Southern Rhodesia and its successor after 1965, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). ... The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ...


Notorious mercenaries include:

Thomas Michael Hoare 1920- is a mercenary leader known for his exploits in Africa and the Indian Ocean. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Colonel Bob Denard, known in Arabic as Said Mustapha Mahdjoub (born April 7, 1929 in Bordeaux, France as Gilbert Bourgeaud) is perhaps the most famous and influential mercenary in the last fifty years. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Simon Mann (1953) is a security expert, mercenary and former British Army officer, now holding South African citizenship. ... Executive Outcomes logo. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Congo Crisis

The Congo Crisis (1960-1965) was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence from Belgium and ended with the seizing of power by Joseph Mobutu. During the crisis mercenaries were employed by various factions, and also at times helped the United Nations and other peace keepers. Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku wa za Banga (or Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga; October 14, 1930 - September 7, 1997) was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) from 1965 to 1997. ...


In 1960 and 1961 Mike Hoare worked as a mercenary commanding a unit called "4 Commando" supporting a faction in Katanga, a province trying to break away from the newly independent Congo. Thomas Michael Hoare 1920- is a mercenary leader known for his exploits in Africa and the Indian Ocean. ... Capital Lubumbashi Created June 1960 Dissolved January 1963 Demonym Katangan Currency Katanga franc Katanga is the southern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, regional capital Lubumbashi (formerly Elizabethville). ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ...


In 1964. Congolese Prime Minister Moïse Tshombe hired "Colonel" Mike Hoare to lead a military unit called "5 Commando" made up of about 300 men most of whom were from South Africa. The unit's mission was to fight a breakaway rebel group called Simba. Later Hoare and his mercenaries worked in concert with Belgian paratroopers, Cuban exile pilots, and CIA hired mercenaries who attempted to save 1,600 civilians (mostly Europeans and missionaries) in Stanleyville from the Simba rebels in Operation Dragon Rouge. This operation saved many lives.[20] An American USMC Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Kisangani, formerly Stanleyville, (population 500,000) is a city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. ... (You may be looking for the First Congo War, 1996-7, or the Second Congo War, 1998- ) The Congo Crisis (1960-1965) was a period of turmoil in the First Republic of the Congo that began with national independence from Belgium and ended with the seizing of power by Joseph...


Biafra

Mercenaries fought for the Biafrans in the Fourth Commando Brigade during the Nigerian Civil War, (1967-1970).[21] Other mercenaries flew aircraft for the Biafrans. In October 1966, for example, a Royal Air Burundi DC-4M Argonaut, flown by mercenary Heinrich Wartski, also known as Henry Wharton, crashlanded in Cameroon with military supplies destined for Biafra.[22] National motto: Peace, Unity, Freedom Official language English Capital Enugu Head of State Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu Area ?- Total ?- % water Population;- Total 13,500,000 (1967) Currency Biafran pound (BIAP) Created May 30, 1967 Dissolved January 15, 1970 Demonym Biafran The Republic of Biafra was a short-lived secessionist state in... Combatants Nigerian federal government Republic of Biafra Commanders Yakubu Gowon Odumegwu Ojukwu Casualties 200,000 soldiers and civilians Estimated 1,000,000 soldiers and civilians The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Biafran War, July 6, 1967 – January 13, 1970, was a political conflict caused by the attempted secession...


In May 1969, Carl Gustaf von Rosen formed a squadron of five light aircraft known as the "Babies of Biafra", which attacked and destroyed Nigerian jet aircraft on the ground.[23] Count Carl Gustaf Ericsson von Rosen (1909–1977) was a Swedish pioneer aviator, son of the explorer Eric von Rosen (1879–1948) and nephew of Karin Göring, wife of Hermann Göring. ...


Angola

In the mid-1970s John Banks, a Briton, recruited mercenaries to fight for the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in the civil war that broke out when Angola gained independence from Portugal in 1975. When captured, John Derek Barker's role as a leader of mercenaries in Northern Angola led the judges to send him to face the firing squad. Nine others were imprisoned. Three more were executed: American Daniel Gearhart was sentenced to death for advertising himself as a mercenary in an American newspaper; Andrew McKenzie and Costas Georgiou (the self styled "Colonel Callan"), who had both served in the British army, were sentenced to death for murder.[5] The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... External links Party website Categories: Politics stubs | Angolan political parties ... The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... // Costas Georgiou (Grk. ...


Executive Outcomes employees fought on behalf of the MPLA against UNITA in the 1990s in violation of the Lusaka Protocol.[citation needed] Executive Outcomes logo. ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, commonly known by the acronymn, UNITA, derived from its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, is an Angolan political faction and a former rebel force. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The Lusaka Protocol, signed in Lusaka, Zambia on October 31, 1994, attempted to end the Angolan Civil War by integrating and disarming UNITA and national reconciliation. ...


Sierra Leone

American Robert C. MacKenzie was killed in the Malal Hills in February 1995, while commanding Gurkha Security Guards (GSG) in Sierra Leone. GSG pulled out soon afterwards and was replaced by Executive Outcomes. Both were employed by the Sierra Leone government as military advisers and to train the government soldiers. It has been alleged that the firms provided soldiers who took an active part in the fighting against the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). Robert Callen MacKenzie (1948 - February 24, 1995) was a American professional soldier whose career included service as an infantryman in the United States Army during the Vietnam War, the C Squadron 22 (Rhodesian) SAS, the South African Defense Force, and the Transkei Defence Force. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Executive Outcomes logo. ... The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was a rebel army that fought a failed ten-year insurrection in Sierra Leone, starting in 1991 and ending in 2002. ...


Equatorial Guinea
Main article: 2004 Equatorial Guinea coup d'état attempt

A fictional portrait of mercenary operations in the 1970s is Frederick Forsyth's book, The Dogs of War, which was set on the island of Malabo - renamed "Zangaro" in the novel - and given a platinum deposit. Since the discovery of oil there in the mid-1990s, it does not need a fictional platinum deposit for it to be of interest to financiers and mercenaries. In August 2004 there was a plot, which later became known as the "Wonga Coup",[24] to overthrow the government of Equatorial Guinea in Malabo. Currently eight South African apartheid-era soldiers (the leader of whom is Nick du Toit) and five local men are in Black Beach prison on the island. They are accused of being an advanced guard for a coup to place Severo Moto in power.[25] [26]. Six Armenian aircrew, also convicted of involvement in the plot, were released in 2004 after receiving a presidential pardon. CNN reported on August 25, that: Frederick Forsyth, CBE (born August 25, 1938) is an English author and occasional political commentator. ... The Dogs of War is a 1974 novel by Frederick Forsyth and a 1981 film, based on the novel, directed by John Irvin. ... Location of Malabo in Equatorial Guinea Malabo is the capital city of Equatorial Guinea, located on the northern coast of Bioko Island (formerly Fernando Póo). ... Location of Malabo in Equatorial Guinea Malabo is the capital city of Equatorial Guinea, located on the northern coast of Bioko Island (formerly Fernando Póo). ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Nick du Toit is an arms dealer implicated in the plot to overthrow Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea. ... Severo Moto Nsá (November 6, 1943) is the most notable opposition politician in Equatorial Guinea, and leader of the Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Defendant Nick du Toit said he was introduced to Thatcher in South Africa last year by Simon Mann, the leader of 70 men arrested in Zimbabwe in March suspected of being a group of mercenaries heading to Equatorial Guinea.[27]

It was planned, it is alleged, by Simon Mann (a founder of Executive Outcomes) a former SAS officer. On 27 August 2004 he was found guilty in Zimbabwe of purchasing arms, allegedly for use in the plot. (He admitted trying to procure dangerous weapons, but said that they were to guard a diamond mine in DR Congo.) It is alleged that there is a paper trail from him which implicates Sir Mark Thatcher, Lord Archer and Ely Calil (a Lebanese-British oil trader).[28] Nick du Toit is an arms dealer implicated in the plot to overthrow Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jeffrey Howard Archer, Baron Archer of Weston-super-Mare (born 15 April 1940) is an English author and former politician. ... Ely Calil (born 8th December 1945 in Kano, Nigeria) is a Lebanese businessman holding British citizenship. ...


The BBC reported in an article entitled "Q&A: Equatorial Guinea coup plot": For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

The BBC's Newsnight television programme saw the financial records of Simon Mann's companies showing large payments to Nick du Toit and also some $2m coming in - though the source of this funding they say is largely untraceable.[29]

The BBC reported on 10 September 2004 that in Zimbabwe: is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

[Simon Mann], the British leader of a group of 67 alleged mercenaries accused of plotting a coup in Equatorial Guinea has been sentenced to seven years in jail... The other passengers got 12 months in jail for breaking immigration laws while the two pilots got 16 months...The court also ordered the seizure of Mann's $3m Boeing 727 and $180,000 found on board.[30]

Asia

15th and 16th centuries

The Saika mercenary group[31] of the Kii Province, Japan, played a significant role during the Siege of Ishiyama Hongan-ji that took place between August 1570 to August 1580. The Saikashuu were famed for the support of Ikko Buddhist sect movements and greatly impeded the advance of Oda Nobunaga's forces. Kii (紀伊国; -no kuni) or Kishu (紀州 kishū) was a province of Japan in the part of Honshu that is today Wakayama and the southern part of Mie Prefecture. ... Combatants Forces of Oda Nobunaga Ikko-ikki Commanders Oda Nobunaga, Akechi Mitsuhide, Araki Murashige Abbot Kosa, Shimotsuma Nakayuki Strength at least 30,000 at least 15,000 The Siege of the Ishiyama Hongan-ji was the longest siege in Japanese history, lasting eleven years. ... The Ikko-shu (一向宗, ikkoushuu) is often mistakenly viewed as a small, militant, offshoot from Jodo Shinshu Buddhism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


20th century

In the warlord period of China, many American and English mercenaries thrived such as Homer Lea, Philo Norton McGriffin,[32], Morris Cohen, and Francis Arthur "One Armed Sutton".[33] A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Homer Lea (1876 – November 1, 1912), was a general in the army of Sun Yat-sen and a writer of several books of geopolitics. ... There are a couple of known Morris Cohens: Morris Two-Gun Cohen (1887-1970) was a British-born adventurer who became a bodyguard for Sun Yat-sen. ...


During the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War (before Pearl Harbor) America did not want to become overtly involved in the conflict (due to a non-aggression pact with Japan), yet felt an obligation to assist the Chinese in stopping Japanese aggression. So the United States sent Claire Chennault to assist China and created the American Volunteer Group (AVG), better known as Flying Tigers. The pilots earned roughly $600-700 basic pay per month, plus an extra $500 per confirmed Japanese aircraft that was shot down, courtesy of the then Chinese President Chiang Kai-shek.[34] Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Maj. ... Flying Tigers was the nickname of the 1st American Volunteer Group (AVG), a group of United States Army (USAAF), Navy (USN), and Marine Corps (USMC) pilots and ground crew, recruited under a secret Presidential sanction by Claire Chennault. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ...


Europe

Classic era

Many Greek mercenaries fought for the Persian Empire during the early classic era. For example: Persia redirects here. ...

  • Xerxes I, king of Persia, who invaded Greece in 484 BC employed Greek mercenaries. The best remembered is Demaratus, for his warning to Xerxes not to underestimate the Spartans before the Battle of Thermopylae.
  • In Anabasis, Xenophon recounts how Cyrus the Younger hired a large army of Greek mercenaries (the "Ten Thousand") in 401 BC to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Though Cyrus' army was victorious at the Battle of Cunaxa, Cyrus himself was killed in battle and the expedition rendered moot. Stranded deep in enemy territory, the Spartan general Clearchus and most of the other Greek generals were subsequently killed by treachery. Xenophon played an instrumental role in encouraging "The Ten Thousand" Greek army to march north to the Black Sea in an epic fighting retreat.
  • Memnon of Rhodes (380333 BC): was the commander of the Greek mercenaries working for the Persian King Darius III when Alexander the Great of Macedonia invaded Persia in 334 BC and won the Battle of the Granicus River. Alexander also employed Greek mercenaries during his campaigns. These were men who fought for him directly and not those who fought in city-state units attached to his army.
  • Carthage contracted Balearic Islands shepherds as slingshooters during the Punic wars against Rome. The vast majority of the Carthaginian military - except the highest officers, the navy, and the home guard - were mercenaries.
  • Members of independent Thracian tribes such as the Bessi and Dii often joined the ranks of large organized armies as mercenaries.
  • The Sons of Mars were Italian mercenaries used by the Greek kings of Syracuse until after the Punic Wars.
  • Celtic mercenaries were a staple of many ancient armies. The king of Bythnia hired Galatians to his armies and gave them a parcel of land, which became Galatia, after their defeat, brought on by their raids and warfare against the various cities in the regions. There were also the semi-mythic amsaig, noted foremost as the mercenaries of Cu Chullain, but the term advanced later as a term for various Gaelic mercenaries.[citation needed] Another figure in oral legend, Milesius was given the princess Scota after conducting a successful campaign for Ancient Egypt.

In the late Roman Empire, it became increasingly difficult for Emperors and generals to raise military units from the citizenry for various reasons: lack of manpower, lack of time available for training, lack of materials, and, inevitably, political considerations. Therefore, beginning in the late 4th century, the empire often contracted whole bands of barbarians either within the legions or as autonomous foederati. The barbarians were Romanized and surviving veterans were established in areas requiring population. The Varangian Guard of the Byzantine Empire is the best known formation made up of barbarian mercenaries. (see next section) Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC 482 BC... Demaratus, king of Sparta from 515 until 491 BC of the Eurypontid line, successor to his father Ariston. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... The Persian Expedition, Penguin Classics edition of Xenophons Anabasis, translated by Rex Warner Anabasis Aνάβασις is the most famous work of the Greek writer Xenophon. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general. ... The Ten Thousand were a group of mercenary units, mainly Greek, drawn up by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Their march to the Battle of Cunaxa and back to Greece (401 BC-399 BC) was recorded by... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC - 401 BC - 400 BC 399 BC... Artaxerxes II (c. ... For the fictional princedom named Cunaxa, see Places of Dragon Prince. ... Clearchus (Greek: Κλέαρχος), the son of Rhamphias, was a Spartan general and mercenary. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Memnon of Rhodes (380 – 333 BC) was the commander of the Greek mercenaries working for the Persian king Darius III when Alexander the Great of Macedonia invaded Persia in 334 BC and won the Battle of the Granicus River. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 385 BC 384 BC 383 BC 382 BC 381 BC 380 BC 379 BC 378 BC 377... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC - 333 BC - 332 BC 331 BC 330... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Events Alexander the Great crosses the Bosporus, invading Persia. ... The Battle of the Granicus River in May, 334 BC was the first major victory of Alexander the Great against the Persian Empire. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Balearic is the Catalan variant spoken in the Balearic Islands (Spanish las Islas Baleares), Spain. ... Home-made sling. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ... The Sacred Band of Carthage was the elite military force guarding the city of Carthage itself. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... The Bessi were an independent Thracian tribe who lived in a territory ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in southern Thrace, but are often mentioned as dwelling about Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace. ... For other meanings of DII, including the UKs Defence Information Infrastructure DII see the disambiguation page. ... The Mamertines (Mamertini sons of Mars) were mercenaries of Italian origin who had been hired from their home in Campania by Agathocles, the king of Syracuse. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ... This article is about the European people. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Amsaig were mercenaries of Cúchulainn. ... In Irish mythology Míl Espáine (Latin Miles Hispaniae, Soldier of Spain) is the ancestor of the final inhabitants of Ireland, the sons of Míl or Milesians, who represent the Goidelic Celts. ... Scota, in Irish mythology and pseudohistory, was an Egyptian princess to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry, explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... Legion redirects here. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Medieval warfare

Byzantine Emperors followed the Roman practice and contracted foreigners especially for their personal corps guard called the Varangian Guard. They were chosen among war-prone peoples, of whom the Varangians (Vikings) were preferred. Their mission was to protect the Emperor and Empire and since they did not have links to the Greeks, they were expected to be ready to suppress rebellions. One of the most famous guards was the future king Harald III of Norway, also known as Harald Hardrada ("Hardreign"), who arrived in Constantinople in 1035 and was employed as a Varangian Guard. He participated in eighteen battles and became Akolythos, the commander of the Guard, before returning home in 1043. He was killed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066 when his army was defeated by an English army commanded by King Harold Godwinson. This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... This article is about a military unit. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – September 25, 1066), later surnamed Harald Hardråde (Old Norse: Haraldr harðráði, roughly translated as stern counsel or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1047[1] until 1066. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... // Events Edward the Confessor crowned King of England at Winchester Cathedral. ... Combatants Norwegians, Northumbrian rebels, Scots Anglo-Saxon England, the Þingalið Commanders Harald Hardråde(Harald Hadrada)† Tostig Godwinson† Harold Godwinson Strength Around 7,500 Around 7,000 Casualties Unknown, around 7,000 Unknown, around 2,000 The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England took place on September 25, 1066, shortly... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ...


In England at the time of the Norman Conquest, Flemings (natives of Flanders) formed a substantial mercenary element in the forces of William the Conqueror with many remaining in England as settlers under the Normans. Contingents of mercenary Flemish soldiers were to form significant forces in England throughout the time of the Norman and early Plantagenet dynasties (11th and 12th centuries). A prominent example of these were the Flemings that fought during the English civil wars, known as the Anarchy or the Nineteen-Year Winter (AD 1135 to 1154), under the command of William of Ypres, who was King Stephen's chief lieutenant from 1139 to 1154 and who was made earl of Kent by Stephen.[citation needed] The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ... William of Ypres styled count of Flanders,(circa 1090 – 24 January 1164/5[1]),[2][3] was King Stephen of Englands chief lieutenant, during the English civil wars of 1139-54 known as the Anarchy. ... Stephen (1096 - October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin (or, as the gossip of the time had it, his natural son) Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings. ...


In Italy, the condottiero was a military chief offering his troops, the condottieri, to city-states. During the ages of the Taifa kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula, Christian knights like El Cid could fight for some Muslim ruler against his Christian or Muslim enemies. The Almogavars originally fought for Catalonia and Aragon, but as the Catalan Company, they followed Roger de Flor in the service of the Byzantine Empire. Spanish (Catalan) and German mercenaries also had prominent role in the Serbian victory over Bulgarians in the Battle of Velbuzd 1330. Condottieri (singular condottiere (in English) or condottiero (in Italian)) were mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states from the late Middle Ages until the mid-sixteenth century. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ... The Almogavars (Aragonese: Almogabars, Catalan: Almogàvers, Spanish: Almogávares, from Arabic: Al-Mugavari) were a class of Aragonese and Catalan soldiers, well-known during the Christian reconquista (reconquest) of the Iberian peninsula. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... The Catalan Company,[1] short name for the Catalan Company of the East (Companyia Catalana dOrient in Catalan), was a free company of mercenaries founded by Roger de Flor in early 14th-century Europe. ... Roger de Flor, also known as Rutger von Blum (1266 in Brindisi - April 4, 1306 in Adrianople), a military adventurer of the 13th and 14th century, was the second son of a German falconer named Richard Blum (Blum means flower in German) in the service of the Holy Roman Emperor... Byzantine redirects here. ...


During the later Middle Ages, Free Companies (or Free Lances) were formed, consisting of companies of mercenary troops. Nation-states lacked the funds needed to maintain standing forces, so they tended to hire free companies to serve in their armies during wartime. Such companies typically formed at the ends of periods of conflict, when men-at-arms were no longer needed by their respective governments. The veteran soldiers thus looked for other forms of employment, often becoming mercenaries. Free Companies would often specialize in forms of combat that required longer periods of training that was not available in the form of a mobilized militia. The White Company[35] commanded by Sir John Hawkwood is the best known English Free Company of the 14th Century. A Welshman Owain Lawgoch (Owain of the Red Hand) formed a free company and fought for the French against the English during the Hundred Years War, before being assassinated by a Scot by the name of Jon Lamb under the orders of the English Crown in 1378 during the siege of Mortagne[36]. The White Company was a famous 14th Century Italian mercenary company, led by John Hawkwood. ... Sir John Hawkwood (1320-1394) was an English mercenary or condottiere in the 14th century Italy. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Owain Lawgoch, (English: Owain of the Red Hand, French: Yvain de Galles), full name Owain ap Thomas ap Rhodri (c. ...


See also: Bertrand du Guesclin, Scottish clan. Statue of Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan Bertrand du Guesclin at the Saint-Denis Basilica, near Paris Bertrand du Guesclin (c. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which...


15th and 16th centuries

Pier Gerlofs Donia, a legendary folk hero, freedom fighter and warrior annex pirate, lead a group of highly trained mercenaries , the Arumer Black Heap. They fought (mainly), against other mercenaries such as the Count of Nychlenborch, a Frisian nobleman, Burgundian-vassal and warrior by trade. Swiss mercenaries were sought after during the late 15th and early 16th centuries as being an effective fighting force, until their somewhat rigid battle formations became vulnerable to arquebuses and artillery being developed at about that period. See Swiss Guard. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A legend (Latin, legenda, things to be read) is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. ... A folk hero is type of hero, real or mythological. ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established organization that is thought to be oppressive. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... The Burgundian party was a political allegiance in France that formed during the reign of Charles VI during the latter half of the Hundred Years War. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // A warrior is a person habitually engaged in combat. ... Swiss mercenaries crossing the Alps (Luzerner Schilling) Swiss mercenaries were soldiers notable for their service in foreign armies, especially the armies of the Kings of France, throughout the Early Modern period of European history, from the Later Middle Ages into the Age of the European Enlightenment. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus or hackbut) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Papal Swiss Guards in traditional uniforms Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). ...


It was then that the German landsknechts, colorful mercenaries with a redoubtable reputation, took over the Swiss forces' legacy and became the most formidable force of the late 15th and throughout the 16th century, being hired by all the powers in Europe and often fighting at opposite sides. St Thomas More in his Utopia advocated the use of mercenaries in preference to citizens. The barbarian mercenaries employed by the Utopians are thought to be inspired by the Swiss mercenaries. Landsknecht. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ...


At approximately the same period, Niccolò Machiavelli argued against the use of mercenary armies in his masterpiece The Prince. His rationale was that since the sole motivation of mercenaries is their pay, they will not be inclined to take the kind of risks that can turn the tide of a battle, but may cost them their lives. He also noted that a mercenary who failed was obviously no good, but one who succeeded may be even more dangerous. He astutely pointed out that a successful mercenary army no longer needs its employer if it is more militarily powerful than its supposed superior. This explained the frequent, violent betrayals that characterized mercenary/client relations in Italy, because neither side trusted the other. He believed that citizens with a real attachment to their home country will be more motivated to defend it and thus make much better soldiers. Machiavelli redirects here. ... This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ...


17th and 18th centuries

During the 17th and 18th century extensive use was made of foreign recruits in the now regimented and highly drilled armies of Europe, beginning in a systematised way with the Thirty Years' War. After the signing of the Treaty of Limerick (1691) the soldiers of the Irish Army who left Ireland for France took part in what is known as the Flight of the Wild Geese. Subsequently, many made a living from working as mercenaries for continental armies, the most famous of whom was Patrick Sarsfield, who, having fallen mortally wounded at the Battle of Landen fighting for the French, said "If this was only for Ireland".[37] Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange. ... The Flight of the Wild Geese refers to the departure of an Irish army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on October 3, 1691, following the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites. ... Patrick Sarsfield, 1st Earl of Lucan Patrick Sarsfield (b. ... The Battle of Landen (or Neerwinden), in the current Belgian province of Flemish Brabant, was a battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought in the Netherlands on July 29, 1693 between the French army of Marshal Luxembourg and the Allied army of King William III of England. ...


About a third of the infantry regiments of the French Royal Army prior to the French Revolution were recruited from outside France. The largest single group were the twelve Swiss regiments (including the Swiss Guard). Other units were German and one Irish Brigade (the "Wild Geese") had originally been made up of Irish volunteers. By 1789 difficulties in obtaining genuinely Irish recruits had led to German and other foreigners making up the bulk of the rank and file. The officers however continued to be drawn from long established Franco-Irish families. During the reign of Louis XV there were also a Scottish (Royal-Écossais), a Swedish (Royal-Suédois), an Italian (Royal-Italien) and a Walloon (Horion-Liegeois) regiments recruited outside the borders of France. The foreign infantry regiments comprised about 20,000 men in 1733, rising to 48,000 at the time of the Seven Years' War and being reduced in numbers thereafter. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Papal Swiss Guards in traditional uniforms Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). ... The Irish Brigade was a brigade in the French army composed of Irish exiles. ... The Flight of the Wild Geese refers to the departure of an Irish army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on October 3, 1691, following the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites. ... Standards of the Royal Suédois The Royal Suédois (English: The Royal Swedes) was a regiment in the French Army during the Ancien Régime. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ...


The Spanish Army also made use of permanently established foreign regiments. These comprised three Irish regiments (Irlanda, Hiberni and Ultonia); one Italian (Napoles) and five Swiss (Wimpssen, Reding, Betschart, Traxer and Preux). In addition one regiment of the Royal Guard was recruited from Walloons. The last of these foreign regiments was disbanded in 1815, following recruiting difficulties during the Napoleonic Wars. One complication arising from the use of non-national troops occurred at the Battle of Bailén in 1808 when the "red Swiss" (so-called from their uniforms) of the invading French Army clashed bloodily with "blue Swiss" in the Spanish service. The Flight of the Wild Geese refers to the departure of an Irish army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on October 3, 1691, following the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Pierre Dupont Francisco Castaños Strength 24,000 regulars 33,000 regulars and militia Casualties 2,200 dead, 400 wounded, 17,600 captured 240 dead, 730 wounded The Battle of Bailén was contested between the Spanish regular army, led by Generals...


Mercenaries in popular culture

Like piracy, the mercenary ethos resonates with idealized adventure, mystery and danger. Mercenaries in popular culture. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ...


See also

The Mercenary War was a uprising of mercenaries in the employ of Carthage in the 3rd century BC. The revolt was a consequence of delays in payment following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War. ... The designation C: (sometimes C: ) is the drive letter that refers to the main partition (or portion of an hard drive) on an MS-DOS or Windows personal computer. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 245 BC 244 BC 243 BC 242 BC 241 BC - 240 BC - 239 BC 238 BC... Polybius (c. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... The International Peace Operations Association (IPOA) is a non-governmental trade association committed to promoting high operational and ethical standards of firms active in the Peace and Stability Industry; engaging in a constructive dialogue with policy-makers about the growing and positive contribution of these firms to the enhancement of... A private defense agency (PDA) is a hypothetical agency that provides defense voluntarily through the free market. ... The term unlawful combatant (also unlawful enemy combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent) denotes a person denied the privileges of prisoner of war (POW) designation, in accordance with the Geneva Conventions; one to whom protection is recognised as due is a lawful or privileged combatant. ... Shadow Company is a documentary directed by Nick Bicanic and Jason Bourque. ...

References

  • Bernales-Ballesteros, Enrique; UNHCHR: Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on use of mercenaries
  • Bodin J; Les Suisses au Service de la France; Editions Albion Michael, 1988. ISBN 2-226-03334-3
  • Chartrand, Rene; "Louis XV's Army - Foreign Infantry"; Osprey 1997. ISBN 1-85532-623-X
  • Chartrand, Rene; " Spanish Army of the Napoleonic Wars 1793-1808"; Osprey 1998. ISBN 1-1-85532-763-5
  • Milliard, Todd S.; Overcoming post-colonial myopia: A call to recognize and regulate private military companies(PDF), in Military Law Review Vol 173, June 2003. At the time of publication Major Milliard was a Judge Advocate in the Judge Advocate General's Corps, U.S. Army.

Judge Advocate Generals Corps, also known as JAG, can refer to the judicial arm of any of the United States armed forces, consisting of autonomous departments in the Air Force, Army, United States Coast Guard and Navy. ... The Judge Advocate Generals Corps of the United States Army is composed of Army officers who are also lawyers and who provide legal services to the Army at all levels of command. ...

Further reading

General
PMCs
  • Pelton, Robert Young; Licensed to Kill: Hired Guns in the War on Terror, Crown, (2006), ISBN 1400097819
  • Mercenary / Private Military Companies (PMCs): Links for mercenary related articles
  • José Alvear Restrepo Lawyers' Collective; Private Security Transnational Enterprises in Colombia February, 2008
Other

Bruce Kennedy (1938 -June 28, 2007) was a businessman best known for his work as Chief Executive Officer of Alaska Airlines between 1979 and 1991 where he presided over the expansion of the airline. ... Jeremy Scahill is an American investigative journalist. ... For other uses, see February (disambiguation). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1) Article 47
  2. ^ "mercenary" in Websters Dictionary. "one that serves merely for wages; especially a soldier hired into foreign service."
  3. ^ Hall, Macer. Student joins Foreign Legion for his gap year Sunday Telegraph, 19 March 2000
  4. ^ McLynn, Frank. Killer elite New Statesman 17 January
  5. ^ a b 1976: Death sentence for mercenaries BBC On this day June 28
  6. ^ International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries A/RES/44/34 72nd plenary meeting 4 December 1989 (UN Mercenary Convention) Entry into force: 20 October 2001
  7. ^ Milliard References Page 5. Paragraph 1
  8. ^ Reuters South Africa to review mercenary law, targets Iraq February 2005
  9. ^ Brian X. Scott B-298370; B-298490, August 18, 2006,
  10. ^ a b Alec Klein and Steve Fainaru. Judge Halts Award Of Iraq Contract Washington Post, 2 June, 2007; Page D01
  11. ^ Gurkha terms and conditions of service
  12. ^ What is a Private Military Company or PMC? Web article cites Ortiz, Carlos. Regulating Private Military Companies: States and the Expanding Business of Commercial Security Provision, in L. Assassi, D. Wigan and K. van der Pijl (eds). Global Regulation. Managing Crises After the Imperial Turn. Houndmills / New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, p. 206.
  13. ^ Jonathan Finer Security Contractors in Iraq Under Scrutiny after Shootings Washington Post September 10, 2005.(a backup site)
  14. ^ Spencer E. Ante and Stan Crock. The Other U.S. Military: The private contractor biz is hot, vast, and largely unregulated. Is it out of control?, Business Week, May 31, 2004
  15. ^ Private Security Transnational Enterprises in Colombia José Alvear Restrepo Lawyers' Collective February, 2008.
  16. ^
  17. ^ Dogs of war into doves of peace BBC 11 November 2002
  18. ^ Higgins Alexander G.US rejects UN mercenary report USA Today, October 17, 2007 (syndicated article by Associated Press)
  19. ^ Healy, Mark; New Kingdom Egypt; ISBN 185532-208-0; Page ??
  20. ^ "Changing Guard", Time Magazine, 19 December 1965. Retrieved on 2007-06-06. 
  21. ^ The Mercenaries in Time Magazine October 25, 1968
  22. ^ Tom Cooper Civil War in Nigeria (Biafra), 1967-1970 November 13, 2003. Second paragraph.
  23. ^ Gary Brecher. Biafra: Killer Cessnas and Crazy Swedes 15 October 2004.
  24. ^ Adam Roberts The Wonga Coup, Profile Books Ltd, ISBN 1861979347.
  25. ^ How oil brought the dogs of war back to Malabo The Independent September 2 2004
  26. ^ Allan Laing "'Scratcher' and the battle for Guinea" Glasgow Herald 26 August 2004
  27. ^ CNN MALABO, Equatorial Guinea (Reuters) Nick du Toit said he was introduced to Thatcher in South Africa last year by Simon Mann, 25 August 2004:
  28. ^ BBC Mann guilty of purchasing weapons 27 August 2004
  29. ^ BBC Q&A: Equatorial Guinea coup plot 13 January, 2005
  30. ^ BBC Zimbabwe jails UK 'coup plotter' 10 September, 2004
  31. ^ 雑賀衆, saikashuu
  32. ^ Davis, Richard Harding Real Soldiers of Fortune (1906)
  33. ^ Drage, Charles General of Fortune (1954)
  34. ^ Pamela Feltus Claire Chennault and the Flying Tigers of World War II on the U.S. Government web site of U.S Centennial of Flight Commission.
  35. ^ Project Gutenberg e-text of The White Company by Arthur Conan Doyle
  36. ^ Owain Lawgoch (English:Owain of the Red Hand, French:Yvain de Galles)
  37. ^ Patrick Sarsfield Wild Geese Heritage Museum and Library
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Mercenary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5289 words)
Mercenaries fought for the Biafrans in the 4th Commando Brigade during the Nigerian Civil War, (1967-1970).
Swiss mercenaries were sought after during the late 15th and early 16th centuries as being an effective fighting force, until their somewhat rigid battle formations became vulnerable to arquebuses and artillery being developed at about that period.
It was then that the German landsknechts, colorful mercenaries with a redoubtable reputation, took over the Swiss forces' legacy and became the most formidable force of the late 15th and throughout the 16th century, being hired by all the powers in Europe and often fighting at opposite sides.
Mercenary (computer game) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1216 words)
Mercenary is the first in a series of computer games, published on a number of 8-bit and 16-bit platforms from the mid 1980s to the early 1990s, by Novagen Software.
In Mercenary the player crash lands into an ongoing conflict and is able to play the warring factions off against one another to their own advantage.
It was initially released on the Atari 800 XL/XE in 1985 and later converted to the Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, Atari ST and Commodore Amiga platforms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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