FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Mercenaries" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mercenaries
For other uses, see The word mercenary refers to a number of different things: A mercenary is a soldier who fights for money, regardless of ideological, national or political considerations. Mercenaries: Playground of Destruction, an Xbox and PlayStation 2 video game released in 2005. Mercenary, a computer game released by Novagen Software Ltd in... Mercenary (disambiguation).

A mercenary is a A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. In most countries, the term... soldier who fights, or engages in warfare primarily for For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). Moneys is an agreement within a community, to use something as a medium of exchange, which acts as an intermediary market good. It can be traded and exchanged for other goods. The agreement can either be explicit or implicit, freely chosen, or coerced. Money... money, usually with little regard for ideological, national or political considerations. However, when the term is used to refer to a soldier in a regular national army, it is usually considered an insult, epithet or pejorative.

Contents

Mercenaries and the laws of war

See also The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. Contents // 1 Sources of the laws of war 2 Purposes of the laws 3 Conduct of... laws of war.


In the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions (GC) of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977 it is stated:


Art 47. Mercenaries

A mercenary is any person who:
(a)  is specially recruited locally or abroad in order to fight in an armed conflict;
(b)  does, in fact, take a direct part in the hostilities;
(c)  is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that promised or paid to combatants of similar ranks and functions in the armed forces of that Party;
(d)  is neither a national of a Party to the conflict nor a resident of territory controlled by a Party to the conflict;
(e)  is not a member of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict; and
(f)  has not been sent by a State which is not a Party to the conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces.

It should be noted that many countries including the U.S. are not signatory to the Protocol Additional GC 1977 (APGC77). So APGC77 art 47 can best be seen as a guide to what a mercenary is. However without an agreed international definition it is the best around.


Under The Third Geneva Convention (GCIII) regarded the treatment of prisoners of war. It was adopted in 1929 as an extension to the rights guaranteed by the Hague Convention of 1907. It was revised in 1949, with the modified form adopted on August 12, 1949 by the Diplomatic Conference for the... GC III if a soldier is captured by an enemy, he must be treated as a A combatant (also referred to as an enemy combatant) is a soldier or guerrilla member who is waging war. Under the Geneva Conventions, persons waging war must have the following four characteristics to be protected by the laws of war: In uniform: Wear distinctive clothing making them recognizable as soldiers... lawful combatant and therefore a Protected Person which for a soldier is as a Prisoner of War (POW) until the soldier has faced a competent tribunal (GC III Art 5). That tribunal may decide that the person is a mercenary using criteria in APGC77 or some domestic law equivalent. At that point the mercenary becomes an Unlawful combatant (also illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant) describes a person who engages in combat without meeting the requirements for a lawful belligerent according to the laws of war as specified in the Third Geneva Convention. Countries that identify such unlawful combatants may not necessarily accord them the rights of... unlawful combatant but they must still be "treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial", because they are still covered by The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. This should not be confused with the more common Third Geneva Convention which deals with the treatment of Prisoners of war... GC IV Art 5. The only exception to GC IV Art 5 is if they are a national of the authority which is holding them but in which case they would not be a mercenary under APGC77 Art 47.d.


If after a regular trial, a captured soldier is found to be a mercenary, then they can expect to be treated as common criminals and may face execution. As they are not POWs they can not expect repatriation at the end of the war. The best known, post-World War II, example of this was on This article is in need of attention. Please improve it (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=June_28&action=edit) in any way you see fit. (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. See Talk:August_1. The correct dates for such events need... June 28, 1976 is a This is a calendar for any leap year starting on Thursday (dominical letter DC), e.g. 2004. January February March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 1 2 3... 1976 when an Angolan court sentenced four mercenaries to death and nine others to prison terms ranging from 16 to 30 years. The three Britons and an American were shot by a firing squad on July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. July Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... July 10, 1976 is a This is a calendar for any leap year starting on Thursday (dominical letter DC), e.g. 2004. January February March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 1 2 3... 1976.


The legal status of civilian contractors depends upon the nature of their work and their nationality in respect of the combatants. But if they have not in fact, taken a direct part in the hostilities (APGC77 Art 47.b) they are not mercenaries and are entitled to the protection of the Geneva Conventions.


The situation during the This article deals with the post-invasion period in Iraq and its occupation. For other uses of the term Iraq War, see Iraq war (disambiguation) Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 . The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led... Occupation of Iraq 2003 – shows how difficult it is to define what a mercenary is. While the United States governed the country, any U.S. citizen who worked as a armed guard could not be called a mercenary because they were a national of a Party to the conflict (APGC77 Art 47.d). With the handover of power to the interim Iraqi government it could be argued that unless they declare that they are a resident in Iraq i.e. a resident of territory controlled by a Party to the conflict (APGC77 Art 47.d), they are now mercenaries. If no trial of the people accused of being mercenaries takes place, then the allegations tend to evaporate in a spiral of accusations, denials and counter-accusations. It should be noted that Coalition soldiers in Iraq who are supporting the interim Iraqi government are not mercenaries, because either they are part of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict or they have been sent by a State which is not a Party to the conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces (APGC77 Art 47.f).


See also This article is about the concept in naval history. The term is also used in motorsport — see Privateer (motorsport). A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government to attack and seize cargo from another countrys ships. Contents // 1 Overview 2 Privateers... privateer, A letter of marque and reprisal was an official warrant or commission from a national government authorizing the designated agent to search, seize, or destroy specified assets or personnel belonging to a party which had committed some offense under the laws of nations against the assets or citizens of the... Letter of marque, L. Paul Bremer flanked by private military contractors Private military contractors or private military companies (PMCs) are companies that provide logistics, manpower, and other expenditures for a military force. Contractors are civilians authorized to accompany a force in the field and, generally, cannot be the intentional object of military attack... private military contractor.


Gurkhas and French Foreign Legionnaires are not mercenaries

The two best known units in which nationals of a country serve in another nation's armed forces are the British Gurkha Soldiers (1896) The Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective term for British Army units that are composed of Nepalese soldiers. They are famous for their ever-present kukri blade. The first Gurkhas volunteered as mercenaries in the service of the British East India Company after the war in Nepal... Brigade of Gurkhas and the The French Foreign Legion (F. Légion Étrangère) has been a military unit of the French Army since 1831. Contents // 1 History 1.1 Mexico 1.2 Franco-Prussian War 1.3 The World Wars 1.4 Indochina 2 Membership 3 Composition 4 Current Deployments 5 Notable Members of... French Foreign Legion. Soldiers who serve in these two elite units are not mercenaries.


British Gurkhas are fully integrated soldiers of the The British Army is the land armed forces of the United Kingdom. It numbers 99,400 fully trained and professional regulars (as of April 2004). In contrast to the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force, the British Army does not include royal in its title, because of its roots... British Army. They operate in formed units of the Brigade of Gurkhas and abide by the rules and regulations under which all British soldiers serve, [1] (http://www.army.mod.uk/brigade_of_gurkhas/gurkha_employment/tacos/index.htm). (Similar rules apply for Gurkhas serving in the The Indian Army is the army of the Republic of India. See the British Indian Army for the pre-independence Indian Army. The Indian Army is headed by the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), and is modelled on the British ranking system. The highest rank in the Indian Army is... Indian Army.) French Foreign Legionnaires are in formed units of the The French Foreign Legion (F. Légion Étrangère) has been a military unit of the French Army since 1831. Contents // 1 History 1.1 Mexico 1.2 Franco-Prussian War 1.3 The World Wars 1.4 Indochina 2 Membership 3 Composition 4 Current Deployments 5 Notable Members of... French Foreign Legion which is deployed and fights as an organized unit of the The French Army (Armée de Terre, Ground Army) is one component in the Military of France. Contents // 1 Divisions 2 Weapons 3 Combat vehicles 4 Artillery 5 Non-combat vehicles 6 Helicopters 7 See also Divisions The army is divided into the following armes: Marine troops, composed of: Marine... French Army. This means that as member of the armed forces of Britain or France then under APGC77 Art 47.e and APGC77 Art 47.f they cannot be mercenaries.


Mercenaries and domestic law

Some countries try to stop their citizens fighting in conflicts unless they are under the control of their own armed forces:

  • In 2003 is a This is the calendar for a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E), e.g. 2003. (A common year is a year with 365 days — in other words, not a leap year.) January Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4... 2003, The French Republic or France ( French (Français) Spoken in: The French Republic or France ( French (Fran ais) Spoken in: France and 53 other countries Region: Europe Total speakers: 128 million Ranking: 11 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Italic   Romance    Italo-Western   ... France criminalized mercenary activities as defined by the protocol to the Geneva convention for French citizens, permanent residents and legal entities. (Penal Code, L436-1 (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/WAspad/UnArticleDeCode?code=CPENALLL.rcv&art=436-1), L436-2 (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/WAspad/UnArticleDeCode?code=CPENALLL.rcv&art=436-2), L436-3 (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/WAspad/UnArticleDeCode?code=CPENALLL.rcv&art=436-3), L436-4 (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/WAspad/UnArticleDeCode?code=CPENALLL.rcv&art=436-4), L436-5 (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/WAspad/UnArticleDeCode?code=CPENALLL.rcv&art=436-5)).
  • In 1998 is a This is the calendar for any common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D). (A common year is a year with 365 days -- in other words, not a leap year.) January February March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa... 1998 The Republic of South Africa (listen) is a republic at the southern tip of the African continent. It is bordered to the north by Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe and to the north-east by Mozambique and Swaziland. Lesotho is contained entirely inside the borders of South Africa. South Africa is... South Africa passed the "Foreign Military Assistance Act" which banned citizens, or residents, from any involvement in foreign conflicts except in humanitarian operations unless a government commitee gave its approval for a deployment. In 2005 the legislation was being reviewed by the government because of South African citizens working as security guards in The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia. It shares borders with Kuwait and Saudi-Arabia to the south, Jordan to the west, Syria to the north-west, Turkey to the north, and Iran to the east. Its current leadership... Iraq during the Post-invasion Iraq, 2003-2005 ... Iraq occupation and the fallout of the case against Coat of arms of Sir Mark Thatcher The Honourable Sir Mark Thatcher, 2nd Baronet (born August 15, 1953), is the son of Sir Denis Thatcher and Margaret Thatcher, the former British Prime Minister. In 1987, Mark Thatcher married Diane Burgdorf, a daughter of a millionaire car dealer. The family moved... Mark Thatcher for the "possible funding and logistical assistance in relation to an alleged attempted coup in The Republic of Equatorial Guinea is a nation of Central Africa. It borders on Cameroon, Gabon, and the Gulf of Guinea. The capital is Malabo. República de Guinea Ecuatorial République de la Guinée Équatoriale (In Detail) (Full size) National motto: Unidad, Paz, Justicia (Spanish: (Unity, Peace, Justice... Equatorial Guinea" organised by Simon Mann is a security expert, mercenary and former British Army officer, now holding South African citizenship. He has been accused of planning to overthrow the government of Equatorial Guinea by leading a mercenary force into the capital Malabo in an effort to kidnap or kill president Teodoro Obiang Nguema... Simon Mann.
  • Under This article is on the country in North America. For other uses, see United States may refer to: The United States of America, a country in North America. The SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. The USS United States, a never-built aircraft carrier. The United Mexican... United States law (the "Neutrality Act"), an American citizen who participates in an armed conflict to which the United States is neutral may be subject to criminal penalties.
  • The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογο... Switzerland banned its nationals from serving as mercenaries in 1927 with the one exception being the Swiss Guards have been Swiss who fought for various European powers from the 15th century until the 19th century, called up from the separate Swiss cantons and placed at the disposal of various foreign powers by treaties (the capitulations), in return for money payments. Today, they serve only Vatican City... Vatican Swiss Guards.

Mercenary operations

It is known that mercenaries have been hired to fight in the conflicts in former Yugoslavia. Many of these were ex-Eastern Bloc soldiers who had no employment opportunities after the fall of the Soviet Union.


Private military company (PMC)

L. Paul Bremer flanked by private military contractors Private military contractors or private military companies (PMCs) are companies that provide logistics, manpower, and other expenditures for a military force. Contractors are civilians authorized to accompany a force in the field and, generally, cannot be the intentional object of military attack... Private military companies are companies that provide Logistics is the art and science of managing and controlling the flow of goods, energy and information. The term logistics have envolved from militarys need of sparepart supply, but is now widely accepted to include activities like purchasing, transport, warehousing, organizing and planning of these activities. In business, logistics... logistics, manpower, and other expenditures for a military force. Their contractors are civilians authorized to accompany a force in the field.


It can be argued that A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. Paramilitary groups can serve many different functions. Some are created by governments as internal security forces. Some are formed as revolutionary groups, or engage in guerilla warfare, and may fight against opposing government paramilitaries. Some are... paramilitary forces under private control are functionally mercenaries instead of A security guard is a private person who is employed to protect property and people. Usually security guards are uniformed and act to protect property by observing (either directly, through patrols, or by watching alarm systems or video cameras) for signs of crime, fire or disorder; then reporting any incidents... security guards or advisors. However, national governments reserve the right to strictly regulate the number, nature and armaments of such private forces and argue that providing they are not employed in frontline pro-active military activities that they are not mercenaries.


If employees of PMCs are involved in pro-active military activities they are likely to be defined as mercenaries and their employers will be called mercenary companies. Three companies which the mass media called mercenary companies in the 1990s were:

  • Executive Outcomes(EO) was a private military company, or mercenary company, founded by Eeben Barlow in 1989 and ceasing to exist in 1999. Most of EOs employees were former South African Defense Force soldiers with special operations training. The US Army item listed as the first external reference below... Executive Outcomes Angola, Sierra Leone (closed 31 December 1998)
  • Sandline International is a private security (military) company based in London, established in the early 1990s. It has been involved in conflicts in Papua New Guinea in 1997 (having a contract with the government under Julius Chan, causing the Sandline affair) and in Liberia in 2003 (in a rebel attempt... Sandline International, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone (closed 16 April 2004)
  • Gurkha Security Guards Ltd, Sierra Leone.

In 2004 the industry was given a huge boost because PMCs were employed by the US and other coalition members to do security work in Iraq. An example of which is:

  • Blackwater USA is a private military contractor and security firm, describing itself as providing support to military, government agencies, law enforcement and civilian entities in training, targets and range operations. Blackwater USA consists of five companies: Blackwater Training Center Blackwater Target Systems Blackwater Security Consulting, Moyock, NC Blackwater Canine Blackwater... Blackwater USA Moyock, North Carolina, USA


Private military companies tend to be frowned upon by the This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN may stand for: the United Nations the IATA code for Transaero Airlines This page expands a two-letter combination or a three-letter abbreviation/acronym (TLA). It aims to include all uses. This is a disambiguation... United Nations (even so, the UN hired Executive Outcomes(EO) was a private military company, or mercenary company, founded by Eeben Barlow in 1989 and ceasing to exist in 1999. Most of EOs employees were former South African Defense Force soldiers with special operations training. The US Army item listed as the first external reference below... Executive Outcomes to do some logistic support in Africa). Nevertheless, PMCs may be useful in combatting Genocide has been defined as the deliberate killing of people based on their ethnicity, nationality, race, religion, or (sometimes) politics, as well as other deliberate actions leading to the physical elimination of any of the above categories. There is disagreement over whether the term genocide ought to be used for... genocides and slaughters in situations where the UN is unwilling or unable to intervene.


Mercenaries in Africa

20th century

In the 20th century, mercenaries have been mostly involved in conflicts on the continent of Africa. There have been a number of unsavory incidents in the brushfire wars of Africa, some involving recruitment of naïve European and American men "looking for adventure" and thrusting them into combat situations where they would not survive to get paid.


Many of the adventurers in Africa who have been described as mercenaries were in fact ideologically motivated to support particular governments, and would not fight "for the highest bidder."


Particularly notorious mercenaries include:

  • Thomas Michael Hoare was born in Dublin, Ireland in 1920. Hoare served in North Africa as an armor officer in the British military during World War II, and achieved the rank of Captain. After the war, he emigrated to Durban, South Africa, where among other employment, he ran safaris. Hoare... Mike Hoare was involved in the This article is part of the History of DR Congo series Precolonial period (-1867) Colonisation (1867-1885) Congo Free State (1885-1908) Belgian Congo (1908-1960) 1st Republic Congo Crisis (1960-1965) 2nd Republic Zaïre (1965-1996) First Congo War (1996-1998) Second Congo War (1998-) (You may be... Congo Crisis in the early 1960s and a The Republic of Seychelles (Creole: Repiblik Sesel) is an island nation in the Indian Ocean, some 1,600 km east of mainland Africa, northeast of the island of Madagascar. Other nearby island countries and territories include Mauritius and Réunion to the south, Comoros to the southwest, and the Maldives... Seychelles failed A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. It is different from a revolution, which is staged by a larger group and radically changes the political system. The term is... coup in 1978.
  • Colonel Bob Denard, known in Arabic as Said Mustapha Mahdjoub (born April 7, 1929 as Gilbert Bourgeaud in Bordeaux, France) is perhaps the most famous and influential mercenary in the last fifty years. Denard served with the French forces in Indochina and then in Morocco before going private in the... Bob Denard was involved in numerous African campaigns in many countries often with the covert support of France. However his particular speciality was intervening in the The Union of Comoros (until 2002 the Islamic Federal Republic of the Comoros) is an independent country at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean, between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique. The country consists of three volcanic islands: Grande Comore, Moheli and Anjouan, while the nearby... Comoros. The last time was in 1995 was a This is the calendar for any common year starting on Sunday (dominical letter A). (A common year is a year with 365 days -- in other words, not a leap year.) January February March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa... 1995, when he staged a coup which failed (the military of the French Government intervened to oust Denard).
  • Simon Mann is a security expert, mercenary and former British Army officer, now holding South African citizenship. He has been accused of planning to overthrow the government of Equatorial Guinea by leading a mercenary force into the capital Malabo in an effort to kidnap or kill president Teodoro Obiang Nguema... Simon Mann was involved with Executive Outcomes ventures in Angola and Sierra Leone (see below). In 2004 he was found guilty in Zimbabwe of "attempting to buy weapons" (BBC August 27) allegedly for a coup in Equatorial Guinean (see below).

Mercenaries fought for the Biafrans in the 4th Commando Brigade during the The Nigerian Civil War, 1967 – 1970, was an ethnic and political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the South-eastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra. The war became notorious for the starvation in some of the besieged war-bound regions, and the consequent... Nigerian Civil War, (1967–1970). Other mercenaries flew aircraft for the Biafrans. In October 1966, for example, a Royal Air Burundi DC-4M Argonaut, flown by a mercenary Heinrich Wartski also known as Henry Wharton, crashlanded in The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central ... World map showing location of Africa Download high resolution version (741x800, 113 KB) This image page contains items that originally came from a NASA website or publication. All works created by NASA are in the public domain, with the exception... Cameroon with military supplies destined for Biafra.


In the mid- These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. The individual century pages contain lists of decades and years. See history for different organizations of historical events. See Calendar and List of calendars for other groupings of years. For earlier time periods see cosmological timeline, geologic timescale, evolutionary timeline, pleistocene... 1970s John Banks, a Briton, recruited mercenaries to fight for the National Front for the Liberation of Angola External links Party website (http://www.fnla-angola.org/english/index.htm) Categories: Politics stubs | Angolan political parties ... FNLA against the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola ( Politics of Angola Politics of Angola Political parties in Angola MPLA - UNITA Elections in Angola The MPLA flag The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimiento Popular de Libertação de Angola) is an Angolan political party that has ruled the country since independence in 1975. MPLA was founded... MPLA) in the civil war that broke out when Angola gained independence from Portugal in 1975. When captured, John Derek Barker's role as a leader of mercenaries in Northern Angola led the judges to send him to face the firing squad. Nine others were imprisoned. Three more were executed: American Daniel Gearhart was sentenced to death for advertising himself as a mercenary in an American newspaper; Andrew McKenzie and Costas Georgiou (Grk. Κώστας Γιώργιου,also Anglicized as Kostas Giorgiou; alias Colonel Callan) Mercenary executed on July 10, 1976 following the Luanda Trial for activities during the civil war phase of the Angolan War of Independence. Contents // 1... Costas Georgiou (the self styled "Colonel Callan"), who had both served in the British army, were sentenced to death for murder.


American Bob MacKenzie was killed in the Malal Hills in February 1995 was a This is the calendar for any common year starting on Sunday (dominical letter A). (A common year is a year with 365 days -- in other words, not a leap year.) January February March Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa... 1995 while commanding Gurkha Security Guards (GSG) in The Republic of Sierra Leone is a country in West Africa, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. The country is bordered by Guinea in the north and Liberia in the southeast. Republic of Sierra Leone (In Detail) (Full size) National motto: Unity - Freedom - Justice Official language English Capital Freetown... Sierra Leone. GSG pulled out soon afterwards and was replaced by Executive Outcomes(EO) was a private military company, or mercenary company, founded by Eeben Barlow in 1989 and ceasing to exist in 1999. Most of EOs employees were former South African Defense Force soldiers with special operations training. The US Army item listed as the first external reference below... Executive Outcomes. Both were employed by the Sierra Leone government as military advisers and to train the government soldiers. It has been alleged that the firms provided solders who to an active part in the fighting against the Politics of Sierra Leone Politics of Sierra Leone Political parties in Sierra Leone Elections in Sierra Leone The Revolutionary United Front, or RUF, was a rebel army that fought a failed ten-year insurrection in Sierra Leone starting in 1991 and ending in 2002. The war is estimated to have... Revolutionary United Front (RUF).


A fictional portrait of mercenary operations in the 1970s is Frederick Forsyth (born August 25, 1938) is a British author and occasional political commentator. He is best known for thrillers such as The Day of the Jackal, The Dogs of War, The Odessa File, Icon and The Fist of God. Born in Ashford, Kent, Forsyth was educated at Tonbridge School... Frederick Forsyth's book, The Dogs of War is a 1974 novel by Frederick Forsyth and a 1981 film, based on the novel, directed by John Irvin. It follows a company of European mercenary soldiers who are hired by a British industrialist to overthrow the government of a fictitious African nation of Zangaro. The... The Dogs of War, which was set on the island of Malabo - renamed "Zangaro" in the novel - and given a platinum deposit. Since the discovery of oil there in the mid-1990s, it does not need a fictional platinum deposit for it to be of interest to financiers and mercenaries. In August 2004 there was the a plot to overthrow the government of The Republic of Equatorial Guinea is a nation of Central Africa. It borders on Cameroon, Gabon, and the Gulf of Guinea. The capital is Malabo. República de Guinea Ecuatorial République de la Guinée Équatoriale (In Detail) (Full size) National motto: Unidad, Paz, Justicia (Spanish: (Unity, Peace, Justice... Equatorial Guinea in Malabo is the capital city of Equatorial Guinea, located on the northern coast of Bioko Island (formerly Fernando Poo). It has a population of approximately 38,000. The city was first founded by the British in 1827, who leased the island from Spain during the colonial period. Named Port Clarence... Malabo. Currently eight South African Apartheid ( This article is about the alphabet officially used in linguistics. The NATO phonetic alphabet (alpha bravo) had informally been called the International Phonetic Alphabet. The International Phonetic Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet used by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or... apartheid-era soldiers (the leader of whom is Nick du Toit), six Armenian aircrew and five local men are in Black Beach prison on the island. They are accused of being an advanced guard for a coup to place Severo Moto in power. CNN reported on August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. August Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... August 25, that:

Defendant Nick du Toit said he was introduced to Thatcher in South Africa last year by Simon Mann, the leader of 70 men arrested in Zimbabwe in March suspected of being a group of mercenaries heading to Equatorial Guinea.

It was planned, it is alleged, by Simon Mann (a founder of Executive Outcomes) a former SAS officer. On 27 August 2004 he was found guilty in Zimbabwe of purchasing arms, allegedly for use in the plot. (He admitted trying to procure dangerous weapons, but said that they were to guard a diamond mine in DR Congo.) It is alleged that there is a paper trail from him which implicates Sir Mark Thatcher, Lord Archer and Ely Calil (a Lebanese-born oil trader).


The This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. See links below for a list of other BBC articles available on Wikipedia. For other meanings of BBC, see BBC (disambiguation). The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was established by a Royal Charter in 1927... BBC reported in an article entitled "Q&A: Equatorial Guinea coup plot":

The BBC's Newsnight television programme saw the financial records of Simon Mann's companies showing large payments to Nick du Toit and also some $2m coming in - though the source of this funding they say is largely untraceable.

The BBC reported on September 10, 2004 that in Zimbabwe:

[Simon Mann], the British leader of a group of 67 alleged mercenaries accused of plotting a coup in Equatorial Guinea has been sentenced to seven years in jail... The other passengers got 12 months in jail for breaking immigration laws while the two pilots got 16 months...The court also ordered the seizure of Mann's $3m Boeing 727 and $180,000 found on board.

With the current crises in Zimbabwe, a Boeing 727 will be a useful addition to the state's national airline and the $180,000 should be more than enough to cover the expense of keeping the men in prison.


Ancient Egypt

The first recored use of mercenaries dates back to Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. Contents // 1 History 2 Language 3... Ancient Egypt, (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... 1500 BC, when This article refers to the historical Pharaoh. For Pharaoh in the Book of Abraham, see Pharaoh (Book of Abraham). Pharaoh Pr-Aa in hieroglyphs Pharaoh (פַּרְעֹה, Standard Hebrew Parʿo, Tiberian Hebrew Parʿōh) is a title used to refer... Pharaoh Razmez II used 10,000 mercenaries during his battles.


Mercenaries in European history

Mercenaries in the classic era

Many The word Greek has a number of meanings relating to Greece, including: Architecture of Ancient Greece Art in Ancient Greece Greek alphabet Greek colonies Cuisine of Greece Ethnic Greek Greco-Turkish relations Greece Hellenes History of Greece History of Mycenaean Greece History of Ancient Greece History of Hellenistic Greece History... Greek mercenaries fought for the Persian empire during the early classic era. For example:

  • Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. Xerxes is the Greek attempt to spell the Persian throne name Khshayarsha or Khsha-yar-shan, meaning ruler of heroes.. In some versions of the Bible Xerxes... Xerxes I, king of Persia, who invaded For other uses, see Greece may be: Ancient Greece Greece, country in southeast Europe, also known as Hellas or Ellas Greece (CDP), New York Greece (town), New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an... Greece in Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC 482 BC... 484 BC employed Greek mercenaries. The best remembered is Demartus, king of Sparta from 515 until 491 BC of the Eurypontid line, successor to his father Ariston. As King he is known chiefly for his opposition to his colleague the other Spartan king Cleomenes I. When Cleomenes attempted to make Isagoras tyrant in Athens, Demartus tried unsucessfully to frustrate... Demaratus, for his warning to Xerxes not to underestimate the This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. For other uses see: Sparta (disambiguation) Prefecture: Laconia Province: Province of Lacedaemonia Location: 37.07/37°415 N lat. 22.425/22°2533 E long. Population: (2001) 16,473 Elevation: (center... Spartans before the Battle of Thermopylae Conflict Persian Wars Date August, 480 BC Place Thermopylae Result Persian pyrrhic victory Combatants Greek city_states Persia Commanders Leonidas† Xerxes I Strength About 7000 Herodotus claims a total strength of 3.4 million; todays estimates range from 250,000 to 300,000 Casualties At least... Battle of Thermopylae.
  • In Anabasis is the most famous work of the Greek writer Xenophon. The journey it narrates is his best known accomplishment. Xenophon accompanied a large army of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger, who intended to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Though Cyrus army was... Anabasis, Xenophon (circa 427-355 B.C.) was an Athenian citizen, an associate of Socrates, a Philodorian and is known for his writings on Hellenic history and culture. While a young man, Xenophon participated in the expedition led by Cyrus the Younger against his older brother, the emperor Artaxerxes II of... Xenophon recounts how Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general. The time of his birth is unknown, but he died in 401 BC. He was born after the accession of his father in 424 BC. When, after the victories of Alcibiades, Darius II decided to... Cyrus the Younger hired a large army of Greek mercenaries (the "Ten Thousand") in Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC - 401 BC - 400 BC 399 BC... 401 BC to seize the throne of Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. (http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/frye.htm) Example of a modern Persian Miniature (http://www.iranchamber.com/art/articles/history_iranian_miniature.php) by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name... Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II (c. 436 - 358 BC) was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated and killed at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC, and against a revolt of the provincial governors, the Satraps (366... Artaxerxes II. Though Cyrus' army was victorious at the The Battle of Cunaxa was fought in 401 BC between Cyrus the Younger and his elder brother Arsaces, who had seized the Persian throne as Artaxerxes II in 404 BC. Cyrus gathered an army of Greek mercenaries under the Spartan general Clearchus, and met Artaxerxes at Cunaxa on the left... Battle of Cunaxa, Cyrus himself was killed in battle and the expedition rendered moot. Stranded deep in enemy territory, the Spartan general Clearchus, the son of Rhamphias, was a Spartan general and mercenary. Born about the middle of the 5th century BC, Clearchus was sent with a fleet to the Hellespont in 411 and became governor of Byzantium, of which town he was proxenus. His severity, however, made him unpopular, and in... Clearchus and most of the other Greek generals were subsequently killed by treachery. Xenophon played an instrumental role in encouraging "The Ten Thousand" Greek army to march north to the Download high resolution version (1300x1000, 315 KB)Satellite image of the Black Sea Source: http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/viewrecord?25334 Copyright info: http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/help.html This image page contains items that originally came from a NASA website or publication. All works created by NASA are... Black Sea in an epic fighting retreat.
  • Memnon of Rhodes (380–333 BC) was the commander of the Greek mercenaries working for the Persian King Darius III when Alexander the Great of Macedonia invaded Persia in 334 BC and won the Battle of the Granicus River. Memnon died during the siege of Mytilene in August 333... Memnon of Rhodes ( Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 385 BC 384 BC 383 BC 382 BC 381 BC 380 BC 379 BC 378 BC 377... 380 Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC - 333 BC - 332 BC 331 BC 330... 333 BC): was the commander of the Greek mercenaries working for the Persian King Darius III or Codomannus (c. 380 - 330 BC), was the last king of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC. He was deposed after Alexander the Greats conquest. After the ambitious chiliarch Bagoas murdered King Artaxerxes III of Persia in 338 BC, and his son... Darius III when Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. For other Alexanders, see Alexander (disambiguation) Alexander III, in Greek ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ (late July, 356 BC–June 10, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336 BC-323 BC... Alexander the Great of For other uses, see Macedon (disambiguation). Macedon (aka. Macedonia from Gk. ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΙΑ) was the ancient Greek state of Macedonia in the central-northern part of ancient Greece bordering with the ancient Greek state of Epirus on the west and the ancient region... Macedonia invaded Persia in Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC - 334 BC - 333 BC 332 BC 331... 334 BC and won the Battle of the Granicus Conflict Wars of Alexander the Great Date May, 334 BC Place At modern Biga Cay Result Macedonian victory Combatants Macedon Greek allies Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Unknown Strength 5000 cavalry 26 000 infantry 15 000 cavalry 12 000 Persian infantry 4-5000 Greek mercenaries Casualties... Battle of the Granicus River. Alexander also employed Greek mercenaries during his campaings. These were men who fought for him directly and not those who fought in city-state units attached to his army.
  • This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. For other uses of the word, see Carthage (disambiguation). Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Carthage (near modern Tunis). Map also shows Italy and the islands Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Carthage (from the Phoenician Kart... Carthage contracted Balearic is the Catalan variant spoken in the Balearic Islands (Spanish Illes Balears), Spain. Some features of Balearic variant: Part of Balearic preserves a vocalic system of 8 stressed vowels /a,@,E,e,i,O,o,u/. In particular: Majorca system has 8 stressed vowels /a,@,E,e,i,O... Balearic Islands shepherds as A sling is a projectile weapon typically used to throw blunt missiles at the enemy. There are two kinds of sling, the shepherds sling, and the stave sling. The shepherds sling is almost certainly the one used by David to slay Goliath. It is the easiest to construct... slingshooters during the History -- Military History -- War The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and the Phoenician city of Carthage. They are known as the Punic Wars because Romes name for Carthaginians was Punici (older Poenici, due to their Phoenician ancestry). The First Punic War (264 BC... Punic wars against Rome. The vast majority of the Carthaginian military - except the highest officers, the navy, and the home guard - were mercenaries.
  • The The Marmertines (Mamertini sons of Mars) were mercenaries of Italian origin who had been in the service of Agathocles, the king of Syracuse. Agathocles died before he could go through with his campaign to expand his citys boarders and left many of these mercenaries to do nothing in Sicily... Sons of Mars were Italian mercenaries used by the Greek kings of Syracuse, Italy Syracuse, New York Syracuse is the name of two major cities in the world. The original Syracuse, Italy on the Italian island of Sicily The city Syracuse, New York in the United States There are also six small municipalities in the United States by this name: Syracuse, Indiana... Syracuse until after the History -- Military History -- War The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and the Phoenician city of Carthage. They are known as the Punic Wars because Romes name for Carthaginians was Punici (older Poenici, due to their Phoenician ancestry). The First Punic War (264 BC... Punic Wars.

In the late The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman... Roman Empire, it became increasingly difficult for Emperors and generals to raise military units from the citizenry for various reasons: lack of manpower, lack of time available for training, lack of materials, and, inevitably, political considerations. Therefore, beginning in the late 4th century, the empire often contracted whole bands of Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. The word expressed with mocking duplication (bar-bar) alleged attempts by outsiders to speak a real language. A barbarism in language, especially... barbarians either within the Legion can refer to: A See also Legion software and Legion forummer. The Roman legion (from the Latin legio, meaning levy) was the basic military unit of ancient Rome. It consisted of about 5,000 to 6,000 (later 8,000) infantry soldiers and several hundred cavalrymen. Legions were named... legions or as autonomous Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. The Latini were considered blood allies... foederati. The barbarians were A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. Methods of romanization include transliteration, representing written text, and transcription, representing the spoken word. The latter can be subdivided into phonological... Romanized and surviving veterans were established in areas requiring population. The This article is part of the Scandinavia series Viking Age Ting Kalmar Union Denmark-Norway Sweden-Norway Monetary Union Defense union Languages Mountains Peninsula Varangian Viking History of Sweden History of Norway History of Denmark The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. Promoting trade... Varangian Guard of the Eastern Roman Empire otherwise known as the The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The... Byzantine Empire is the best known formation made up of barbarian mercenaries. The future king Harald III Haardraade (1015 — September 25, 1066) was the king of Norway from around 1040 together with the son of Olav Haroldsson (St. Olav), Magnus the Noble. After King Magnuss death in 1047, Harold became the sole king. In 1066 he was killed in a battle against King... Harald III of Norway, also known as Harald Hardrada ("Hardreign"), who arrived in Constantinople in Years: 1032 1033 1034 - 1035 - 1036 1037 1038 Decades: 1000s 1010s 1020s - 1030s - 1040s 1050s 1060s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century 1035 state leaders Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. Magnus I becomes king of Norway. William II (the future William I of England) becomes duke of Normandy... 1035, was employed as a Varangian Guard. He participated in eighteen battles and became Akolythos, the commander, of the Guard before returning home in Years: 1040 1041 1042 - 1043 - 1044 1045 1046 Decades: 1010s 1020s 1030s - 1040s - 1050s 1060s 1070s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century 1043 state leaders Events Births Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, commonly known as The Cid Deaths Categories: 1043 ... 1043. He was killed at the The Battle of Stamford Bridge Conflict Viking invasion of England Date Monday, September 25, 1066 Place Stamford Bridge, East Yorkshire Result Decisive English victory Combatants Norwegian Vikings England Commanders Harald Hardråde Harold Godwinson Strength Casualties The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England, which is generally considered to mark the... Battle of Stamford Bridge by the army of King Harold II Name Harold Godwinson Lived c. 1022—October 14, 1066 Reigned 1066 Parents Godwin, Earl of Wessex Gytha Thorkelsdóttir Predecessor Edward the Confessor Successor Edgar Ætheling Wives Ealdgyth Swan-neck (handfast marriage, not approved by the Church) Edith Place of Birth Wessex, England Buried Waltham Abbey, body... Harold Godwinson of England in Years: 1063 1064 1065 - 1066 - 1067 1068 1069 Decades: 1030s 1040s 1050s - 1060s - 1070s 1080s 1090s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. Tostig Godwinson and Harald Hardraada of Norway invade England. September... 1066.


Mercenaries in medieval warfare

The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The... Byzantine Emperors followed the Roman practise and contracted foreigners especially for their personal This article is about a military unit. For alternate meanings see Corps (disambiguation). A corps (a word that immigrated from the French language, but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body; plural same as singular) is a large military unit or formation. In many armies, it refers to a... corps guard called the This article is part of the Scandinavia series Viking Age Ting Kalmar Union Denmark-Norway Sweden-Norway Monetary Union Defense union Languages Mountains Peninsula Varangian Viking History of Sweden History of Norway History of Denmark The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. Promoting trade... Varangian Guard. They were chosen among war-prone peoples, of whom the This article is part of the Scandinavia series Viking Age Ting Kalmar Union Denmark-Norway Sweden-Norway Monetary Union Defense union Languages Mountains Peninsula Varangian Viking History of Sweden History of Norway History of Denmark The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. Promoting trade... Varangians (Vikings) and The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. Contents // 1 Origins of the word 2 The Anglo_Saxon Invasions 3 Controversies regarding the nature of the arrival of the... Anglo-Saxons were preferred. Their mission was to protect the Emperor and Empire and since they did not have links to the Greeks, they were expected to be ready to suppress rebellions. One of the most famous guards was the future king Harald III Haardraade (1015 — September 25, 1066) was the king of Norway from around 1040 together with the son of Olav Haroldsson (St. Olav), Magnus the Noble. After King Magnuss death in 1047, Harold became the sole king. In 1066 he was killed in a battle against King... Harald III of Norway, also known as Harald Hardrada ("Hardreign"), who would die years after he had returned to Norway, at the The Battle of Stamford Bridge Conflict Viking invasion of England Date Monday, September 25, 1066 Place Stamford Bridge, East Yorkshire Result Decisive English victory Combatants Norwegian Vikings England Commanders Harald Hardråde Harold Godwinson Strength Casualties The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England, which is generally considered to mark the... Battle of Stamford Bridge in Years: 1063 1064 1065 - 1066 - 1067 1068 1069 Decades: 1030s 1040s 1050s - 1060s - 1070s 1080s 1090s Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. Tostig Godwinson and Harald Hardraada of Norway invade England. September... 1066 when his army was defeated by an English army commanded by King Harold II Name Harold Godwinson Lived c. 1022—October 14, 1066 Reigned 1066 Parents Godwin, Earl of Wessex Gytha Thorkelsdóttir Predecessor Edward the Confessor Successor Edgar Ætheling Wives Ealdgyth Swan-neck (handfast marriage, not approved by the Church) Edith Place of Birth Wessex, England Buried Waltham Abbey, body... Harold Godwinson.


In Italy, the condottiero was a military chief offering his troops, the Condottieri were mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states from the late Middle Ages until the mid-fifteenth century. Portrait, called the Condottiere, by Antonello da Messina, dated 1475 (Louvre) In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Italian city-states were becoming enriched by their trade with the Orient. These cities... condottieri, to A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. City-states were common in the ancient period. A city state was sovereign, although many cities were joined in formal or informal leagues under a high king. Many historical empires or leagues were formed by the right of conquest... city-states.


During the ages of the The term taifa in the history of Iberia refers to an Islamic independent city-state with its supporting surrounding region, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in Al-Andalus after the final collapse of the Umayyad caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. On two occasions, the... Taifa kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula, Christian knights like Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (c. 1044–July 1099), nicknamed El Cid Campeador, was a Castilian military and political leader in medieval Spain. Born of the minor nobility, El Cid was educated in the royal Castilian court and became an important general and administrator, fighting against the Moors in... the Cid could fight for some Muslim ruler against his Christian or Muslim enemies.


The Almogávares (in Spanish) or Almogàvers (in Catalan) (from the Spanish soldiers, well known during the Christian reconquest of Spain, and much employed as mercenaries in Italy and the Levant, during the 13th and 14th centuries. The Almogávares (the plural of Almogavar) came originally from the Pyrenees, and... Almogavares fought for Comunidad Aut noma de Arag n Capital Zaragoza Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 4th 47 719 km 9,4% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 11th 1 217 514 2,9% 25,51/km Demonym  - English  - Spanish Aragonese aragon s Statute of... Aragon but in The Oriental Catalan Company, or the Grand Company, was founded by Roger de Flor (who inspired the medieval tale of Tirant lo Blanc) after the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302 had left jobless the soldiers from Catalonia and French dynasty of French in 1282. In 1303 Roger de Flor offered... their expedition to Orient, they followed Roger de Flor, a military adventurer of the 13th and 14th century, was the second son of a German falconer surnamed Blum (flower) in the service of the emperor Frederick II, who fell at Tagliacozzo (1268). At eight years old he was sent to sea in a galley belonging to... Roger de Flor in the service of the Byzantine Empire.


During the later middle ages, Free Companies (or Free Lances) were formed, consisting of companies of mercenary troops. Nation-states lacked the funds needed to maintain standing forces, so they tended to hire free companies to serve in their armies during wartime. Such companies typically formed at the ends of periods of conflict, when men-at-arms were no longer needed by their respective governments. The veteran soldiers thus looked for other forms of employment, often becoming mercenaries. Free Companies would often specialize in forms of combat that required longer periods of training that was not available in the from of a mobilized militia.


See also: Bertrand du Guesclin (c. 1320 – 1380) was constable of France from 1370 to 1380. He is often considered as one of the greatest French soldiers of his time and one of the important figures of the Hundred Years War (1337-1453). Du Guesclin was born in Motte-Broons, near... Bertrand Duguesclin, White Company, Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans give a sense of Scottish Highland identity and shared descent both to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which controls the... Scottish clan.


Mercenaries in the modern age

The History of Switzerland Early history up to 1291 Old Confederacy 1291 - 1513 Reformation 16th century Ancien Régime 1648 - 1798 Napoleonic era 1798 - 1847 Federal state 1848 - 1914 World Wars 1914 - 1945 Modern history since 1945 1550 illustration for the Sempacherbrief of 1393, one of the major alliance contracts... Swiss mercenaries were sought after during the latter half of the (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Renaissance affects philosophy, science and art... 15th century as being an effective fighting force, until their somewhat rigid battle formations became vulnerable to The Arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus or hackbut) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. Like its successor, the musket, it was a smoothbore firearm although somewhat smaller than its predecessors, which made it easier to carry. It was a forerunner of the rifle and other longarm... arquebuses and For the thrash metal band, see Artillery (band) Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. The term also describes ground-based troops with the primary function of manning such weapons. Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution The word as used in the... artillery being developed at about that period. See Swiss Guards have been Swiss who fought for various European powers from the 15th century until the 19th century, called up from the separate Swiss cantons and placed at the disposal of various foreign powers by treaties (the capitulations), in return for money payments. Today, they serve only Vatican City... Swiss Guard.


It was then that the This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) A comprehensive collection of continental features is found in Europe, albeit on a smaller scale than elsewhere. Mountain ranges, peninsulas, islands and more arid or cold regions can be seen in this satellite composite image of Europe Europe... European Landsknechts (German, Land land, country + Knecht servant: i. e. originally a soldier of the German empire as opposed to a Swiss mercenary; plural sometimes also Landsknechte in English publications; French lansquenet) were European, most often German, mercenary pikemen and foot soldiers from the late 15th to the early 17th century... landsknechts, colorful mercenaries with a redoubtable reputation, took over the Swiss forces' legacy and became the most formidable force of the late 15th and throughout the (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age... 16th century, being hired by all the powers in This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the... Europe and often fighting at opposite sides.


St Portrait of Sir Thomas More by Hans Holbein the Younger Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478–6 July 1535), posthumously known also as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, author, and politician. During his lifetime he earned a reputation as a leading humanist scholar and occupied many public... Thomas More in his See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. It has also been used to describe actual communities founded in attempts to create such a society. The adjective utopian is often used to refer to good... Utopia advocated the use of mercenaries in preference to citizens. The barbarian mercenaries employed by the Utopians are thought to be inspired by the Swiss mercenaries.


At approximately the same period, Niccolò Machiavelli argued against the use of mercenary armies in his masterpiece This article is about the book. The Prince is also an alias used by Osama bin Laden The fame of Niccolo Machiavelli rests mainly on his political treatise Il Principe (The Prince), written around 1513, but not published until 1532, five years after his death. It is not actually representative... The Prince. His rationale was that since the sole motivation of mercenaries is their pay, they will not be inclined to take the kind of risks that can turn the tide of a battle, but may cost them their lives. He believed, logically, that citizens with a real attachement to their home country will be more motivated to defend it and thus make much better soldiers.


Mercenaries in popular culture

Like This article is about sea pirates. For other uses see Pirate (disambiguation) A pirate is one who robs or plunders at sea without a commission from a recognised sovereign nation. Pirates usually target other ships, but have also attacked targets on shore. These acts are known as piracy. Unlike the... piracy, the mercenary ethos resonates with idealized adventure, mystery and danger. Examples of this are:

  • The novel Dogs of War by Frederick Forsyth and the movie (1981) with the same name, which go into some detail about an actual if fictionalized mercenary operation in Africa in the 1960s.
  • The novel The Wild Geese by Daniel Carney and the movie (1978) with the same name. The plot is that a global British financial syndicate seeks to rescue the deposed leader of a central African nation. It hires a band of mercenaries to do the job.

It is interesting to note that the both titles are derived from other sources. Cry Havoc, and let slip the dogs of war; is from Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare probably written in 1599. It portrays the conspiracy against the Roman dictator, Julius Caesar, his assassination and its aftermath. Unlike the other titular characters in Shakespeares play (e.g. Hamlet, Henry V), Caesar is not the central character in the action... Julius Caesar (III.i), a play by Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. Start the William-Shakespeare article (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William-Shakespeare&action=edit) Search for William-Shakespeare in other articles Look for William-Shakespeare in Wiktionary, our sister dictionary project. Look for William... Shakespeare. After the signing of the The Treaty of Limerick ended the Williamite war in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange. It concluded the Siege of Limerick. The treaty was signed on October 3, 1691 by Patrick Sarsfield (for king James II) and lords justice for William III. Reputedly it was... Treaty of Limerick (1691) the soldiers of the Irish Army who left Ireland for France took part in what is known as the The Flight of the Wild Geese refers to the depature of an Irish army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on October 3, 1691, following the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites. In 1607 the Flight of the... Flight of the Wild Geese. Subsequently many made a living from working as mercenaries for continental armies. The most famous of whom was Patrick Sarsfield (d. August 21, 1693), titular earl of Lucan, Irish Jacobite and soldier, belonged to an Anglo-Norman family long settled in Ireland. He was born at Lucan, but the date is unknown. His father Patrick Sarsfield married Anne, daughter of Rory (Roger) OMoore, who organized the Irish... Patrick Sarsfield, who having falling mortally wounded on a foreign field said "If this was only for Ireland".


A This article is about the magazine as a published medium. For other meanings, see magazine (disambiguation) A collection of magazines Magazines A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles on various subjects. Magazines are typically published weekly, biweekly, monthly, or quarterly, with a date on the cover... magazine ostensibly written for mercenary soldiers is Soldier of Fortune magazine is a publication ostensibly devoted to coverage of global low-intensity warfare and terrorism on behalf of the professional mercenary. In practice, SOF is read by some serving soldiers and also by so-called wanna-bes, violence junkies and pseudo-warriors. Many of its advertisers... Soldier of Fortune.


In Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. There are exceptions (or, at least, some unusual examples) to this general definition. Contents // 1 Scope 2 The Term 3 Types of science fiction... science fiction, the well-known author Jeremia Eugene Pournelle (born August 7, 1933 in Shreveport, Louisiana) is an essayist, journalist and science fiction author. He holds advanced degrees in psychology, statistics, engineering, and political science, including two PhDs. His science fiction, much of it written in collaboration with Larry Niven, frequently has strong military themes. Several... Jerry Pournelle has written several books about science-fiction mercenaries known as Falkenberg's Legion. Also, author David Drake is a successful author of science fiction and fantasy literature. He is one of the premier authors of the military science fiction subgenre. In addition to his own works, he also often contributes the military angle to many collaborative works. His co-authors include Karl Edward Wagner, Janet... David Drake has written a number of books about the fictional A U.S. Navy hovercraft attached to the Amphibious assault ship Kearsarge (LHD-3) A hovercraft is a vehicle that is supported on a cushion of air. They are able to traverse many different types of terrain on land and can also travel on water. Hovercraft are often referred to... hovercraft armored regiment Hammer's Slammers. Both series of books are brutal in their portrayal of complex low-intensity warfare despite technological advances.


In Years: 2002 is a This is the calendar for a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F), e.g. 2002, 1991, 1985, 1974, 1963... (A common year is a year with 365 days -- in other words, not a leap year.) January Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa  ... 2005, LucasArts Entertainment Company (sometimes shortened to LEC), is a video game developer and publisher. The company was famous for its line of point-and-click adventure games and today mainly produces games based on the Star Wars franchise. The company had its beginnings in 1982 in the Games Group of... LucasArts released a game for The two versions of the PS2 with an Eye Toy camera The PlayStation 2 (PS2) (Japanese: プレイステーション2) is Sonys second video game console, after the PlayStation. Its development was announced in April 1999, and it was first released in Japan... PlayStation 2 and Xbox and a Controller S The Xbox is Microsofts game console, released on November 15, 2001. It is Microsofts first independent venture into the console arena, after having collaborated with Sega in porting Windows CE to the Sega Dreamcast console. The price is currently 149 USD, 149 EUR... Xbox titled Mercenaries: Playground of Destruction, where the player controls one of three mercenaries in North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... North Korea, and is able to accept mercenary contracts from the Allies, South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. To the north, the Republic of Korea borders North Korea, with which it formed a... South Korea, This article is on the geographic and cultural entity. For other meanings, see Country China, a country in East Asia One of the two states that have China in their official title and claim sovereignty over all of China: Peoples Republic of China (governing Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau... China, and the The Russian Mafia is a name given to various groups of Organized crime is for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. According to Western jurisprudence, there must be a simultaneous concurrence of both actus reus (guilty action) and... Russian Mafia.


See also The Magnificent Seven is one of the English language titles for the Akira Kurosawa film Shichinin no samurai (1954), also called The Seven Samurai. The Magnificent Seven is a John Sturges western film of 1960, a remake of Shichinin no samurai starring: Yul Brynner (Chris Adams) Steve McQueen (Vin) Charles... The Magnificent Seven, A rōnin (Japanese: 浪人) (literally, wave man - one who is tossed about, like a wave in the sea) was a masterless samurai during the feudal period of Japan that lasted from 1185 to 1868. A samurai became masterless from the ruin or fall of his master, or... ronin, In Japanese, Yojimbo (用心棒; Yōjinbō) is a bodyguard, security person or sometimes assassin. Ronin and samurai with low salaries were sometimes hired as yojimbo. Yojimbo is also a 1961 action film by Akira Kurosawa, starring Toshiro Mifune. There is also Usagi Yojimbo (Rabbit Bodyguard), a... yojimbo, 20 Year Anniversary of BattleTech logo BattleTech (MechWarrior) is a science-fiction board game (wargame) (designed by FASA in 1984); which simulates warfare in the distant future of the 31st. Century, where humans battle in gigantic walking machines powered by fusion reactors (known as BattleMechs), tanks, spaceships and other aircraft... Battletech.


External links

  • UNHCHR: Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on use of mercenaries (http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/mercenaries/documents.htm)
  • BBC on the trial in 1976 of the Angolan merceneries (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/28/newsid_2520000/2520575.stm)
  • CNN special on merceneries (http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/17/spotlight/)
  • London Independent (Sep 2 04): How oil brought the dogs of war back to Malabo (http://news.independent.co.uk/world/africa/story.jsp?story=557402)
  • Glasgow Herald August 26 2004: "'Scratcher' and the battle for Guinea" by Allan Laing  (http://www.theherald.co.uk/news/22809.html)
  • CNN August 25, 2004:MALABO, Equatorial Guinea (Reuters) Nick du Toit said he was introduced to Thatcher in South Africa last year by Simon Mann (http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/africa/08/25/equatorial.mercenaries.reut/)
  • BBC August 27 2004; Mann guilty of purchasing weapons (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3605346.stm)
  • BBC Q&A: Equatorial Guinea coup plot (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3597450.stm)
  • BBC Report on sentencing August 2004 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3643250.stm)
  • Reuters: Feb 2005: South Africa to review mercenary law, targets Iraq (http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L1143048.htm)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mercenary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5289 words)
Mercenaries fought for the Biafrans in the 4th Commando Brigade during the Nigerian Civil War, (1967-1970).
Swiss mercenaries were sought after during the late 15th and early 16th centuries as being an effective fighting force, until their somewhat rigid battle formations became vulnerable to arquebuses and artillery being developed at about that period.
It was then that the German landsknechts, colorful mercenaries with a redoubtable reputation, took over the Swiss forces' legacy and became the most formidable force of the late 15th and throughout the 16th century, being hired by all the powers in Europe and often fighting at opposite sides.
Mercenary (computer game) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1216 words)
Mercenary is the first in a series of computer games, published on a number of 8-bit and 16-bit platforms from the mid 1980s to the early 1990s, by Novagen Software.
In Mercenary the player crash lands into an ongoing conflict and is able to play the warring factions off against one another to their own advantage.
It was initially released on the Atari 800 XL/XE in 1985 and later converted to the Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, Atari ST and Commodore Amiga platforms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m