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Encyclopedia > Mental illness
Mental illness
Classification & external resources
MeSH D001523

A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior.[1] Definitions, assessments, and classifications of mental disorders may vary, however guideline criterion listed in the ICD, DSM and other manuals are widely accepted by mental health professionals. Categories of diagnoses in these schemes may include mood or affective disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, eating disorders, developmental disorders, personality disorders, and many other categories. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Abnormality is a subjectively defined characteristic, assigned to those with rare or dysfunctional conditions. ... Emotional dysregulation (or affect dysregulation) is a term used in the mental health community to refer to an emotional response that is not well modulated. ... In psychology, a behavior or trait is adaptive when it helps an individual adjust and function well within their environment. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... A mental health professional is a person who offers services for the purpose of improving an individuals mental health and/or researches in the field of mental health. ... A mood disorder is a condition where the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... The affective spectrum is a grouping of related psychiatric and medical disorders which may accompany bipolar, unipolar, and schizoaffective disorders at statistically higher rates than would normally be expected. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration... Developmental disorders are disorders that occur at some stage in a childs development, often retarding the development. ... Personality disorders form a class of mental disorders that are characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and actions. ...


Symptoms of mental illness greatly vary dependent upon the specific disorder, but may include mild to chronic forms of depression, anxiety, emotional dysregulation, difficulties with attention, loss of cognitive abilities, or the presence of hallucinations or delusions. Causes of mental illness also vary, but may result from genetics, trauma, biological factors such as infections or toxins, or neuroplasticity resulting from psychological or anthropological factors. Mental health professionals diagnose individuals using different methodologies which may or may not include obtaining a medical or psychopathological history of a patient, performing a mental status examination, conducting psychological testing such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory or intelligence quotient tests, obtaining neuroimages through functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography scanning, or other neurophysiologic measurements such as electroencephalography. Mental health professionals will treat mental disorders differently using one or a combination of psychotherapy, psychiatric medication, case management, or other practices. Grieving Thai females. ... Emotional dysregulation (or affect dysregulation) is a term used in the mental health community to refer to an emotional response that is not well modulated. ... A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed false belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Neuroplasticity challenges the idea that brain functions are fixed in certain locations. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is an academic / applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior of humans and animals. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the comparative study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... Mental status examination, or MSE, is a medical process where a clinician working in the field of mental health (usually a social worker, psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse or psychologist) systematically examines a patients mind. ... Psychological testing or psychological assessment is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to infer generalizations about a given individual. ... The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most frequently used personality test in the mental health fields. ... “IQ” redirects here. ... Neuroimaging includes the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function, or pharmacology of the brain. ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the use of MRI to measure the haemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Girl wearing electrodes for electroencephalography Person wearing electrodes for electroencephalography Portable recording device for electroencephalography Electroencephalography is the neurophysiologic measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp or, in special cases, subdurally or in the cerebral cortex. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... Case management is a collaborative process of assessment, planning, facilitation and advocacy for options and services to meet an individuals health needs through communication and available resources to promote quality cost-effective outcomes. ...


The organization and classification of all facets of mental illness have evolved over time. Hippocrates considered the idea that mental illness may be related to biology. During the Middle Ages, and still today, many individuals thought mental illness could only be the result of demonic possession. Paracelsus used the word lunatic to describe those affected by the lunar effect, wherein phases of the moon were thought to affect behavior. From the early study of mental illness through individuals such as Philippe Pinel, Sigmund Freud, and Alois Alzheimer, much has changed in the development and understanding of mental illness and continues to change today. The existence and classifications of mental illness are still challenged by some social critics especially by those adhering to principles stemming from anti-psychiatry. However, the study, treatment, and research of mental illness and human behavior in general are widely accepted through academic, science and professional organizations including those active in the field of psychology, the medical specialty of psychiatry, and social work. Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos (ca. ... Demonic possession, in supernatural belief systems, is a form of spiritual possession whereby certain malevolent extra-dimensional entities, demons, gain control over a mortal persons body, which is then used for an evil or destructive purpose. ... Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. ... A lunatic (colloquially: loony) is commonly used term for a person who is mentally ill, dangerous, foolish or unpredictable, a condition once called lunacy. ... The lunar effect is the supposed influence of the moon, and its various phases, on human behaviour. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Aloysius Alois Alzheimer (14 June 1864, Marktbreit, Bavaria - 19 December 1915, Breslau, now Wrocław, Poland) was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin. ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ... Human behavior is the collection of activities performed by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is an academic / applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior of humans and animals. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Professional social workers are concerned with social problems, their causes, their solutions and their human impacts. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of mental illness

Many mental disturbances such as melancholy, hysteria and phobia were described in Ancient Greece and Rome. A systematic review of ancient writings did not find any descriptions matching the current diagnosis of schizophrenia.[2] Mass delusions and frenzies were recorded in medieval times, and some cases of alleged witchcraft or spiritual or demonic possession may have been due to mental illness. Conditions of "shell shock" came to be recognized in war veterans. The History of mental illness has long been a process of trial and error guided by public attitudes and medical theory with each society developing its own responses. ... Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... A phobia (from the Greek φόβος fear), is an irrational, persistent fear of certain situations, objects, activities, or persons. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A delusion is commonly defined as a false belief, and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... For other uses, see Witchcraft (disambiguation). ... Spiritual possession is a concept of many religions and tales, where it is believed that a demon, or disincarnate being, may take temporary control of a human body, resulting in noticeable changes in behaviour. ... Demonic possession, in supernatural belief systems, is a form of spiritual possession whereby certain malevolent extra-dimensional entities, demons, gain control over a mortal persons body, which is then used for an evil or destructive purpose. ... The military term combat stress reaction (CSR) comprises the range of adverse behaviours in reaction to the stress of combat and combat related activities. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The understanding and classification of mental illness has changed over time and across cultures. Hippocrates considered the idea that mental illness may be related to biology.[3][4] During the Middle Ages many individuals thought mental illness could only be the result of demonic possession.[5] Paracelsus used the word lunatic to describe those affected by the lunar effect, wherein phases of the moon were thought to affect behavior.[6] Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos (ca. ... Demonic possession, in supernatural belief systems, is a form of spiritual possession whereby certain malevolent extra-dimensional entities, demons, gain control over a mortal persons body, which is then used for an evil or destructive purpose. ... Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. ... A lunatic (colloquially: loony) is commonly used term for a person who is mentally ill, dangerous, foolish or unpredictable, a condition once called lunacy. ... The lunar effect is the supposed influence of the moon, and its various phases, on human behaviour. ...


The Persian physician Rhazes wrote the landmark texts El-Mansuri and Al-Hawi in the 10th century, which presented the first definitions, symptoms, and treatments for mental illnesses. He also ran the psychiatric ward of a Baghdad hospital. Such institutions could not exist in Europe at the time because of fear of demonic possessions. In the centuries to come, Islamic medicine would eventually spread to Europe through the Latin translations of medical Islamic texts. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ...


From the early study of mental illness through individuals such as Philippe Pinel, Sigmund Freud, and Alois Alzheimer, much has changed in the development and understanding of mental illness and continues to change today. At the start of the 20th century there were only a dozen recognized mental health conditions.[citation needed] By 1952 there were 192, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) today lists 374. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Aloysius Alois Alzheimer (14 June 1864, Marktbreit, Bavaria - 19 December 1915, Breslau, now WrocÅ‚aw, Poland) was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ...

Psychology
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Social Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is an academic / applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior of humans and animals. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Emotional redirects here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is the scientific study of human happiness. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ...

LISTS

Publications
Topics
Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... link title Headline text --Cknuth7 16:35, 3 April 2006 (UTC) This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

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Definition and terminology

The World Health Organization (WHO) and national surveys report that there is no single consensus on the definition of mental illness or mental disorder, and that the phrasing used depends on the social, cultural, economic and legal context in different societies or contexts.[7][8] The WHO's ICD-10 states that mental disorder is "not an exact term", although is generally used "...to imply the existence of a clinically recognisable set of symptoms or behaviours associated in most cases with distress and with interference with personal functions." (WHO, 1992). The American Psychiatric Association's DSM-IV (original and text revision) characterizes mental disorder as "a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual,...is associated with present distress...or disability...or with a significant increased risk of suffering." but that "...no definition adequately specifies precise boundaries for the concept of "mental disorder"...different situations call for different definitions" (APA, 1994 and 2000). There is often a criterion that a condition should not be expected to occur as part of a person's usual culture or religion. Mental illness is typically characterized as involving distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior and/or maladaptive behavior.[1][9][10][11][12] The WHO reports that there is intense debate about which conditions should be included under the concept of mental disorder; a broad definition can cover mental illness, mental retardation, personality disorder and substance dependence, but inclusion varies by country and is reported to be a complex and debated issue.[7] The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... As a three-letter acronym or abbreviation DSM or dsm can mean several things: // DSM (company), an international chemicals company based in the Netherlands Dependency Structure Matrix Deputy Stage Manager Design Structure Matrix The IATA airport code for Des Moines International Airport in Des Moines, Iowa, United States and issometimes... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Abnormality is a subjectively defined characteristic, assigned to those with rare or dysfunctional conditions. ... In psychology, a behavior or trait is adaptive when it helps an individual adjust and function well within their environment. ...


Most international clinical documents avoid the term "mental illness", preferring the term "mental disorder"[7] However, some use "mental illness" as the main over-arching term to encompass mental disorders.[13] Consumer/survivor movement organizations tend to oppose use of the term “mental illness” on the grounds that it supports the dominance of a medical model.[7] The term "serious mental illness" (SMI) is sometimes used to refer to more severe and long-lasting disorder while "mental health problems" may be used as a broader term, sometimes including to refer only to milder or more transient issues.[14][15] Confusion often surrounds the ways and contexts in which these terms are used.[16] An alternative overarching concept is that of "mental disability" or, as preferred by some consumer groups, "psychosocial disability".[7] The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO, 2001) defines disability as “an umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions” resulting from an interaction between an individual (with a health condition) and contextual factors (environmental and personal barriers or facilitators). Various other legal terms are also used in different countries, such as "mental incapacity" or "unsoundness of mind" or "insanity",[7] terms with some common usage among the general public include "madness" or "nervous breakdown"[17] The Consumer/Survivor Movement, also known as the User/Survivor Movement, refers to a diverse association of individuals (and organisations representing them) who are currently consumers (clients) of mental health services or who consider themselves survivors of mental health services. ... The Medical model describes the approach to illness which is dominant in Western medicine. ... Mental states redirects here. ... International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, also known as ICF, is a health status classification of functioning and disability due to the consequences of disease. ...


In the scientific and academic literature on the definition of mental disorder, one extreme argues that the definition is entirely a matter of value judgements (including of what is normal) while another proposes that it is or could be entirely objective and scientific (including by reference to statistical norms); other views argue that the concept refers to a "fuzzy prototype" that can never be precisely defined, or that the definition will always involve a mixture of scientific facts (e.g. that a natural or evolved function isn't working properly) and value judgements (e.g. that it is harmful or undesired).[18] Lay concepts of mental disorder vary considerably across different cultures and countries, and may refer to different sorts of individual and social problems[17] Normal may refer to: Normality in behavior Normal (mathematics) — disambiguation page for mathematics. ... In science, the ideal of objectivity is an essential aspect of the scientific method, and is generally considered by the scientific community to come about as a result of strict observance of the scientific method, including the scientists willingness to submit their methods and results to an open debate by... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with prototyping. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ...


Classification schemes

See also: List of mental illnesses

Mental disorders are commonly classified via a categorical scheme sometimes termed "neo-Kraepelinian" (after the psychiatrist Kraepelin)[19] which is intended to be atheoretical with regard to etiology (causation). An individual can be diagnosed if they simply meet a certain minimum number of a mixed set of signs and symptoms (known as "Feigner criteria"), which nearly always include a criterion of clinically significant distress or dysfunction. These diagnostic schemes have been officially codified in the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (currently ICD-10; section 5 covers mental disorders) and the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (currently DSM-IV-TR[20]) as well as other manuals such as the Chinese Society of Psychiatry's Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (currently CCMD-3) or the Latin American Guide for Psychiatric Diagnosis (GLDP).[21] The classification of mental illness is a key aspect of psychiatry and other mental health professions and an important issue for users and providers of mental health services. ... The DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual), the U.S. standard reference for psychiatry, includes over 300 different manifestations of mental illness. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... The Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP) is the largest organization for psychiatrists in China. ... The Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (CCMD), published by the Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP), is a clinical guide used in China for the diagnosis of mental disorders. ...


The guideline categories and criteria listed in the ICD and DSM], and other manuals, have been widely accepted by many mental health professionals.[22][1][23][24] The schemes have achieved much widespread acceptance in psychiatry in particular. A survey of 205 psychiatrists, from 66 different countries across all continents, found that ICD-10 was more frequently used and more valued in clincal practice and training, while the DSM-IV was more valued for research, with accessibility to either being limited, and usage by other mental health professionals, policy makers, patients and families less clear[25]. A primary care (e.g. general or family physician) version of the mental disorder section of ICD-10 has been developed (ICD-10-PHC) which has also been used quite extensively internationally.[26] The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... As a three-letter acronym or abbreviation DSM or dsm can mean several things: // DSM (company), an international chemicals company based in the Netherlands Dependency Structure Matrix Deputy Stage Manager Design Structure Matrix The IATA airport code for Des Moines International Airport in Des Moines, Iowa, United States and issometimes... A mental health professional is a person who offers services for the purpose of improving an individuals mental health and/or researches in the field of mental health. ... Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ...


The DSM states that "there is no assumption that each category of mental disorder is a completely discrete entity with absolute boundaries dividing it from other mental disorders or from no mental disorder", but other classification schemes explicitly do not use categories with cut-offs separating the ill from the healthy or the abnormal from the normal (sometimes termed "threshold psychiatry"). Classification may instead be based on broader underlying "spectra", where a spectrum may link together a range of other categorical diagnoses and nonthreshold symptomology in the general population[27] Or a scheme may be based on a set of continuously-varying dimensions, with each individual having a different profile of low or high scores across the different dimensions.[28] Another approach may be based directly on the specific complaints reported by an individual.[29] DSM-V planning committees are currently looking at moving towards a dimensional classification of some disorders, including personality disorder.[30]


Although widely accepted, questions and criticisms have also been widely raised about the schemes advanced by the ICD and DSM, both in terms of the scientific basis and utility[31] and in terms of social, economic and political factors - including over the inclusion of certain controversial categories, the influence of the pharmaceutical industry,[32] or the stigmatizing effect of being categorized or labelled. Classification schemes may not apply to all cultures - the DSM is based on predominantly American research studies and has been said to have a decidedly American outlook, meaning that differing disorders or concepts of illness from other cultures (including personalistic rather than naturalistic explanations) may be neglected or misrepresented, while Western cultural phenomena may be taken as universal.[33] Culture-bound syndromes are those hypothesized to be specific to certain cultures (typically taken to mean non-Western or non-mainstream cultures); while some are listed in an appendix of the DSM-IV they are not detailed and there remain open questions about the relationship between Western and Non-Western diagnostic categories and sociocultural factors, which are addressed from different directions by, for example, Cross-cultural psychiatry or anthropology. It has been suggested that Labelling be merged into this article or section. ... In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-specific syndrome or culture-bound syndrome is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture. ... Cross-cultural psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural and ethnic context of mental disorder and psychiatric services. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the comparative study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ...


Categories/dimensions of disorder

Notable categories of mental disorder, or mental dimensions that can be more or less disordered, include many different facets of human behavior and personality.[34][35][36] There are a number of paradigms, or over-arching theories or models, seeking to integrate and explain diverse findings on mental disorders. The field is complicated by the fact that many psychiatric disorders could still be classified as syndromes, being patterns of symptoms that do not have an accepted or consistent cause. Different disorders may require different explanations and are likely to have their own etiology (pattern of causation). A common view is that disorders tend to result from genetic vulnerabilities and environmental stressors combining to cause patterns of dysfunction or trigger disorders (Diathesis-stress model). A practical eclectic or pluralistic mixture of models may often be used to explain particular issues and disorders, but the primary paradigm of contemporary mainstream Western psychiatry has been said to be the biopsychosocial (BPS) model - incorporating or merging together biological, psychological and social factors - although this may be commonly neglected or misapplied in practice due to being too broad or relativistic.[37] and, in reality, biopsychiatry has tended to follow a biomedical model, focusing on "organic" or "hardware" pathology of the brain. Psychoanalytic theories, focused on unresolved internal and relational conflicts, have been posited as overall explanations of mental disorder, although today most psychoanalytic groups are said to adhere to the biopsychosocial model and to accept an eclectic mix of subtypes of psychoanalysis.[37] Evolutionary psychology (or more specifically evolutionary psychopathology or psychiatry) has also been proposed as an overall theory, positing that many mental disorders involve the dysfunctional operation of mental modules adapted to ancestral physical or social environments but not necessarily to modern ones.[38][39][40] Attachment theory is another kind of evolutionary-psychological approach sometimes applied in the context for mental disorders, which focuses on the role of early caregiver-child relationships, responses to danger, and the search for a satisfying reproductive relationship in adulthood.[41] An overall distinction is also commonly made between a "medical model" (also known as a biomedical or disease model) or a "social model" (also known as an empowerment or recovery model) of mental disorder and disability, with the former focusing on hypothesized disease processes and symptoms, and the latter focusing on hypothesized social constructionism and social contexts.[42] Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Since the late 1960s, the word paradigm (IPA: ) has referred to a thought pattern in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... Model may refer to more than one thing : For models in society, art, fashion, and cosmetics, see; role model model (person) supermodel figure drawing modeling section In science and technology, a model (abstract) is understood as an abstract or theoretical representation of a phenomenon,see; geologic modeling model (economics) model... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. ... The Diathesis-stress model is a psychological theory that explains behavior as both a result of biological and genetic factors (nature), and life experiences (nurture). This theory is often used to describe the pronunciation of mental disorders, like schizophrenia, that are produced by the interaction of a vulnerable hereditary predisposition... Look up Eclectic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the social sciences, pluralism is a framework of interaction in which groups show sufficient respect and tolerance of each other, that they fruitfully coexist and interact without conflict or assimilation. ... The biopsychosocial model of medicine, is a way of looking at the mind and body of a patient as two important systems that are interlinked. ... Biological psychiatry, sometimes referred to as bio-psychiatry, is a term used mainly by critics of mainstream mental health orthodoxy to describe what some believe are unproven and subjective diagnostic and treatment practices in the mental health field. ... Health science is the discipline of applied science which deals with human and animal health. ... Psychoanalysis is the revelation of unconscious relations, in a systematic way through an associative process. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A module is a self-contained component of a system, which has a well-defined interface to the other components; something is modular if it is constructed so as to facilitate easy assembly, flexible arrangement, and/or repair of the components. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor. ... Mother and child. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Social constructionism or social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge that considers how social phenomena develop in particular social contexts. ...


The state of anxiety or fear can become disordered, so that it is unusually intense or generalized over a prolonged period of time. Commonly recognized categories of anxiety disorders include specific phobia, Generalized anxiety disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Post-traumatic stress disorder. Relatively long lasting affective states can also become disordered. Mood disorder involving unusually intense and sustained sadness, melancholia or despair is know as Clinical depression (or Major depression), and may more generally be described as Emotional dysregulation. Milder but prolonged depression can be diagnosed as dysthymia. Bipolar disorder involves abnormally "high" or pressured mood states, known as mania or hypomania, alternating with normal or depressed mood. Whether unipolar and bipolar mood phenomena represent distinct categories of disorder, or whether they usually mix and merge together along a dimension or spectrum of mood, is under debate in the scientific literature.[43] This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Fear is a powerful biological feeling of unpleasant risk or danger, either real or imagined. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A phobia (from the Greek φόβος fear), is an irrational, persistent fear of certain situations, objects, activities, or persons. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Social anxiety, sometimes known as social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD), is a common form of anxiety disorder that causes sufferers to experience intense anxiety in some or all of the social interactions and public events of everyday life. ... Panic disorder is a diagnosed psychiatric mental condition that causes the sufferer to experience sporadic, intense, and often reoccurring panic attacks. ... Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder which primarily consists of the fear of experiencing a difficult or embarrassing situation from which the sufferer cannot escape. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... Affective means having to do with emotion. ... A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Emotional dysregulation (or affect dysregulation) is a term used in the mental health community to refer to an emotional response that is not well modulated. ... Dysthymia (or dysthymic disorder) is a form of the mood disorder of depression characterized by a lack of enjoyment/pleasure in life that continues for at least two years. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Mania is a severe medical condition characterized by extremely elevated mood, energy, and thought patterns. ... Hypomania is a mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elated or irritable mood, and thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state. ...


Patterns of belief, language use and perception can become disordered. Psychotic disorders centrally involving this domain include Schizophrenia and Delusional disorder. Schizoaffective disorder is a category used for individuals showing aspects of both schizophrenia and affective disorders. Schizotypy is a category used for individals showing some of the traits associated with schizophrenia but without meeting cut-off criteria. Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... Delusional disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis denoting a psychotic mental illness that involves holding one or more non-bizarre delusions in the absence of any other significant psychopathology (signs or symptoms of mental illness). ... Schizotypy is a psychological concept which describes a continuum of personality characteristics and experiences related to psychosis and in particular, schizophrenia. ...


The fundamental characteristics of a person that influence his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors across situations and time - can be seen as disordered due to being abnormally rigid and maladaptive. Categorical schemes list a number of different personality disorders, such as those classed as eccentric (e.g. Paranoid personality disorder, Schizoid personality disorder, Schizotypal personality disorder), those described as dramatic or emotional (Antisocial personality disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Histrionic personality disorder, Narcissistic personality disorder) or those seen as fear-related (Avoidant personality disorder, Dependent personality disorder, Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder). Personality disorders form a class of mental disorders that are characterized by long-lasting rigid patterns of thought and actions. ... Paranoid personality disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that denotes a personality disorder with paranoid features. ... Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is a cluster A personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, and emotional coldness. ... Schizotypal personality disorder, or simply schizotypal disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a need for social isolation, odd behaviour and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs such as being convinced of having extra sensory abilities. ... Antisocial personality disorder (abbreviated APD or ASPD) is a psychiatric diagnosis in the DSM-IV-TR recognizable by the disordered individuals disregard for social rules and norms, impulsive behavior, and indifference to the rights and feelings of others. ... Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined as a mental illness primarily characterized by emotional dysregulation, extreme black and white thinking, or splitting, and chaotic relationships. ... In psychiatry, histrionic personality disorder (HPD), or hysterical personality disorder, is a personality disorder which involves a pattern of excessive emotional expression and attention-seeking, including an excessive need for approval and inappropriate seductiveness, that usually begins in early adulthood. ... Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), a term first used by Heinz Kohut in 1971[1], is a form of pathological narcissism acknowledged in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1980, in the edition known as DSM III-TR. Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by extreme focus on oneself... Avoidant personality disorder (APD or AvPD) [1] or Anxious personality disorder (APD) [2], is a personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation and avoiding social interaction. ... Dependent personality disorder (DPD), formerly known as asthenic personality disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people. ... For other uses of the acronym OCPD, see OCPD (disambiguation). ...


There may be an emerging consensus that personality disorders, like personality traits in the normal range, incorporate a mixture of more acute dysfunctional behaviors that resolve in relatively short periods, and maladaptive temperamental traits that are relatively more stable.[44] Non-categorical schemes may rate individuals via a profile across different dimensions of personality that are not seen as cut off from normal personality variation, commonly through schemes based on the Big Five personality traits.[45] In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality discovered through empirical research (Goldberg, 1993). ...


Other disorders may involve other attributes of human functioning. Eating practices can be disordered, at least in relatively rich industrialized areas, with either compulsive over-eating or under-eating or binging. Categories of disorder in this area include Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia nervosa or Binge eating disorder. Sleep disorders such as Insomnia also exist and can disrupt normal sleep patterns. Sexual and gender identity disorders, such as Dyspareunia or Gender identity disorder. People who are abnormally unable to resist urges, or impulses, to perform acts that could be harmful to themselves or others, may be classed as having an impulse control disorder, including various kinds of Tic disorders such as Tourette's Syndrome, and disorders such as Kleptomania (stealing) or Pyromania (fire-setting). Substance-use disorders include Substance abuse disorder. Addictive gambling may be classed as a disorder. Inability to sufficiently adjust to life circumstances may be classed as an Adjustment disorder. The category of adjustment disorder is usually reserved for problems beginning within three months of the event or situation and ending within six months after the stressor stops or is eliminated. People who suffer severe disturbances of their self-identity, memory and general awareness of themselves and their surroundings may be classed as having a Dissociative identity disorder, such as Depersonalization disorder or Dissociative Identify Disorder itself (which has also been called multiple personality disorder, or "split personality".). Factitious disorders, such as Munchausen syndrome, also exist where symptoms are experienced and/or reported for personal gain. // For eat or EAT as an abbreviation or acronym, see EAT. In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming nutrition, i. ... For the symphonic black metal band, see Anorexia Nervosa (band) For other uses, see Anorexia Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes an eating disorder characterized by low body weight and body image distortion with an obsessive fear of gaining weight. ... Bulimia nervosa, commonly known as bulimia, is an eating disorder. ... It has been suggested that Binge eating be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Sleep is the state of natural rest observed in humans and throughout the animal kingdom, in all mammals and birds, and in many reptiles, amphibians, and fish. ... Sexual problems, also called sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction, are defined as difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse, due to medical or psychological causes. ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and medical doctors, is a condition in which a person has been assigned one gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex, but compare intersexuality), but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role their... A tic is a repeated, impulsive action, almost reflexive in nature, which the actor feels powerless to control or avoid. ... Tourette syndrome — also called Tourettes syndrome, Tourette Spectrum (TS), Tourettes disorder, or Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (after its discoverer, Georges Gilles de la Tourette) — is a neurological or neurochemical disorder characterized by tics — involuntary, rapid, sudden movements or vocalizations that occur repeatedly in the... Kleptomania (Greek: κλέπτειν, kleptein, to steal, μανία, mania) is an inability or great difficulty in resisting impulses of stealing. ... Property damage caused by fire Pyromania is an obsession with fire and starting fires in an intentional fashion. ... Substance abuse refers to the overindulgence in and dependence on a psychoactive leading to effects that are detrimental to the individuals physical health or mental health, or the welfare of others. ... The term gambling has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ... In psychology, adjustment disorder refers to a psychological disturbance that develops in response to a stressor. ... Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), as defined by the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, is a mental condition whereby a single individual evidences two or more distinct identities or personalities, each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment. ... Depersonalization Disorder (DD) is a dissociative disorder in which sufferers are affected by persistent feelings of depersonalization. ... A factitious disorder or FD is a mental disorder where the ill individuals symptoms are either self-induced or falsified by the patient. ... This article is about the self-inflicted factitious disorder. ...


Disorders appearing to originate in the body, but thought to be mental, are known as somatoform disorders, including Somatization disorder. There are also disorders of the perception of the body, including Body dysmorphic disorder. Neurasthenia is a category involving somatic complaints as well as fatigue and low spirits/depression, which is officially recognized by the ICD-10 but not by the DSM-IV.[46] Memory or cognitive disorders, such as amnesia or Alzheimer's disease exist. Somatization disorder (or Briquets disorder) is a type of mental illness in which a patient manifests a psychiatric condition as a physical complaint. ... Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder, which involves a disturbed body image. ... Neurasthenia was a term first coined by George Miller Beard in 1869 to describe a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety and pessimism. ... Amnesia or amnæsia (from Greek ) (see spelling differences) is a condition in which memory is disturbed. ...


Some disorders are thought to usually first occur in the context of early childhood development, although they may continue into adulthood. The category of Specific developmental disorder may be used to refer to circumscribed patterns of disorder in particular learning skills, motor skills, or communication skills. Disorder which appears more generalized may be classed as Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), including autism or Aspergers (or the autistic spectrum, Rett's Disorder and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and other types of PDD whose exact diagnosis may not be specified. Other disorders mainly or first occurring in childhood include Reactive attachment disorder; Separation Anxiety Disorder; Oppositional Defiant Disorder; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Specific developmental disorders categorizes specific learning disabilities and developmental disorders affecting coordination. ... Autism is classified by the World Health Organization and American Psychological Association as a developmental disability that results from a disorder of the human central nervous system. ... Asperger described his patients as little professors. Aspergers syndrome (AS), is a pervasive developmental disorder commonly referred to as a form of high-functioning autism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Hellers syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function, and motor skills. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Attachment disorder. ... Separation anxiety disorder (or simply separation anxiety) is a psychological condition in which an individual has excessive anxiety regarding separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (like a mother). ... Oppositional defiant disorder is a controversial psychiatric category listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders where it is described as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures that goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ...


Causes and Links

The causes of mental illness may result from several categories conditions which may or may not be connected. Genetics, human development - including pregnancy, disease, traumatic injuries, infections, individual characteristics, life experiences, society, and even culture can contribute to the development or progression of a mental disorder. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Diagnosis

Many mental health professionals, particular psychiatrists, seek to diagnosis individuals by ascertaining their particular mental disorder. Some professionals, for example some clinical psychologists, may avoid diagnosis in favor of other assessment methods such as formulation of a client's difficulties and circumstances.[47] The majority of mental health problems are actually assessed and treated by family physicians during consultations, who may refer on for more specialist diagnosis in acute or chronic cases. Routine diagnostic practice in mental health services typically involves an interview (which may be referred to as a mental status examination), where judgements are made of the interviewee's appearance and behavior, self-reported symptoms, mental health history, and current life circumstances. The views of relatives or other third parties may be taken into account. A physical examination to check for ill health or the effects of medications or other drugs may be conducted. Psychological testing is sometimes used via paper-and-pen or computerized questionnaires, which may include algorithms based on ticking off standardized diagnostic criteria, and in relatively rare specialist cases neuroimaging tests may be requested, but these methods are more commonly found in research studies than routine clinical practice.[48][49] Time and budgetary constraints often limit practicing psychiatrists from conducting more thorough diagnostic evaluations.[50] It has been found that most clinicians evaluate patients using an unstructured, open-ended approach, with limited training in evidence-based assessment methods, and that inaccurate diagnosis may be common in routine practice.[51] A mental health professional is a person who offers services for the purpose of improving an individuals mental health and/or researches in the field of mental health. ... In general, a diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Mental status examination, or MSE, is a medical process where a clinician working in the field of mental health (usually a social worker, psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse or psychologist) systematically examines a patients mind. ... Psychological testing or psychological assessment is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to infer generalizations about a given individual. ... Flowcharts are often used to represent algorithms. ...


Treatment

Mental health professionals treat mental disorders differently using one or a combination of psychotherapy, psychiatric medication, case management, or other practices.[1][52] The major treatment options for mental disorders are psychiatric medication (notably antidepressants, anxiolytics and antipsychotics) and psychotherapy (notably cognitive behavioral therapy and variants, psychodynamic approaches, and systemic/psychosocial interventions). There are also physical treatments used for some disorders, notably ECT. Lifestyle adjustments and supportive measures may also be used.[citation needed] Treatment of mental illness refers to various treatments (therapies) for mental illness used in psychiatry: Somatotherapy (type of pharmacotherapy; biology-based treatment) Psychiatric medications (psychoactive drugs used in psychiatry) Antianxiety drugs (anxiolytics) Antidepressant drugs Antipsychotic drugs Mood stabilizers Electroconvulsive therapy Psychosurgery Leukotomy (prefrontal lobotomy; no longer practiced) Cingulotomy Deep brain... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... Case management is a collaborative process of assessment, planning, facilitation and advocacy for options and services to meet an individuals health needs through communication and available resources to promote quality cost-effective outcomes. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... An antidepressant is a medication used primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying everyday thoughts and behaviors, with the aim of positively influencing emotions. ... ECT may be an abbreviation for Electroconvulsive therapy European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas, in Trento, Italy, www. ...


Prognosis

The course of disorders varies, and many can be either mild or severe or anything in between. Symptoms can vary over time, including from severe to complete remission and back. Relapses may be triggered by stress and other factors. With chronic mental health conditions, the chances of the symptoms recurring will be affected by a number of factors. While one in four Americans lives with a mental disorder in any given year, half of people with severe symptoms of a mental health condition received no treatment in the past 12 months.[53] Fear of disclosure, rejection by friends, and ultimately discrimination are just a few reasons why people with mental health conditions don't seek help.[citation needed] Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ...


Prevalence and Incidence

Numerous large-scale surveys of the prevalence of mental disorders in adults in the general population have been carried out since the 1980s based on self-reported symptoms assessed by standardized structured interviews, usually carried out over the phone. Mental disorders have been found to be common, with over a third of people in most countries reporting sufficient criteria at some point in their life.[54] The World Health Organization is currently undertaking a global survey of 26 countries in all regions of the world, based on ICD and DSM criteria.[1] The first published figures on the 14 country surveys completed to date, indicate that, of those disorders assessed, anxiety disorders are the most common in all but 1 country (prevalence in the prior 12-month period of 2.4% to 18.2%) and mood disorders next most common in all but 2 countries (12-month prevalence of 0.8% to 9.6%), while substance disorders (0.1%-6.4%) and impulse-control disorders (0.0%-6.8%) were consistently less prevalent. The United States, Colombia, the Netherlands and Ukraine tended to have higher prevalence estimates across most classes of disorder, while Nigeria, Shanghai and Italy were consistently low, and prevalence was lower in Asian countries in general. Cases of disorder were rated as mild (prevalence of 1.8%-9.7%), moderate (prevalence of 0.5%-9.4%) and serious (prevalence of 0.4%-7.7%).[55] In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... As a three-letter acronym or abbreviation DSM or dsm can mean several things: // DSM (company), an international chemicals company based in the Netherlands Dependency Structure Matrix Deputy Stage Manager Design Structure Matrix The IATA airport code for Des Moines International Airport in Des Moines, Iowa, United States and issometimes...


A review that pooled surveys in different countries up to 2004 found overall average prevalence estimates for any anxiety disorder of 10.6% (in the 12 months prior to assessment) and 16.6% (in lifetime prior to assessment), but that rates for individual disorders varied widely. Women had generally higher prevalence rates than men, but the magnitude of the difference varied.[56] A review that pooled surveys of mood disorders in different countries up to 2000 found 12-month prevalence rates of 4.1% for major depressive disorder (MDD), 2% for dysthymic disorder and 0.72% for bipolar 1 disorder. The average lifetime prevalence found was 6.7% for MDD (with a relatively low lifetime prevalence rate in higher-quality studies, compared to the rates typically highlighted of 5%-12% for men and 10%-25% for women), and rates of 3.6% for dysthymia and 0.8% for Bipolar 1.[57]


Previous widely cited large-scale surveys in the United States were the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) survey and subsequent National Comorbidity Survey (NCS). The NCS was replicated and updated between 2000 and 2003 and indicated that, of those groups of disorders assessed, nearly half of Americans (46.4%) reported meeting criteria at some point in their life for either a DSM-IV anxiety disorder (28.8%), mood disorder (20.8%), impulse-control disorder (24.8%) or substance use disorders (14.6%). Half of all lifetime cases had started by age 14 years and 3/4 by age 24 years.[58] In the prior 12-month period only, around a quarter (26.2%) met criteria for any disorder - anxiety disorders 18.1%; mood disorders 9.5%; impulse control disorders 8.9%; and substance use disorderes 3.8%. A substantial minority (23%) met criteria for more than two disorders. A minority (22.3%) of cases were classed as serious, 37.3% as moderate and 40.4% as mild.[59][60]


A 2004 cross-European study found that approximately one in four people reported meeting criteria at some point in their life for one of the DSM-IV disorders assessed, which included mood disorders (13.9%), anxiety disorders (13.6%) or alcohol disorder (5.2%). Approximately one in ten met criteria within a 12-month period. Women and younger people of either gender showed more cases of disorder[61]


A 2005 review of prior surveys in 46 countries on the prevalence of schizophrenic disorders, including a prior 10-country WHO survey, found an average (median) figure of 0.4% for lifetime prevalence up to the point of assessment and 0.3% in the 12-month period prior to assessment. A related figure not given in other studies (known as lifetime morbid risk), reported to be an accurate statement of how many people would theoretically develop schizophrenia at any point in life regardless of time of assessment, was found to be “about seven to eight individuals per 1,000.” (0.7/0.8%). The prevalence of schizophrenia was consistently lower in poorer countries than in richer countries (though not the incidence) but the prevalence did not differ between urban/rural areas or men/women (although incidence did).[62] In optics one considers angles of incidence. ...


Studies of the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) have been fewer and smaller-scale, but a broader Norwegian survey found a similar overall prevalence of almost 1 in 7 (13.4%), based on meeting personality criteria over the prior five year period. Rates for specific disorders ranged from 0.8% to 2.8%, with rates differing across countries, and by gender, educational level and other factors[63] A US survey that incidentally screened for personality disorder found an overal rate of 14.79%.[64]


Approximately 7% of a preschool pediatric sample were given a psychiatric diagnosis in one clinical study, and approximately 10% of 1- and 2-year-olds receiving developmental screening have been assessed as having significant emotional/behavioral problems based on parent and pediatrician reports.[65]


Professions and fields

A number of professions have developed that specialise in the treatment of mental disorders, including the medical speciality of psychiatry (including psychiatric nursing)[66][67][68], the division of psychology known as clinical psychology[69], Social Work[70], as well as Mental Health Counselors, Marriage and Family Therapists, Psychotherapists, Counselors and Public Health professionals. Those with personal experience of using mental health services are also increasingly involved in researching and delivering mental health services and working as mental health professionals.[71][72][73][74] The different clinical and scientific perspectives draw on diverse fields of research and theory, and different disciplines may favor differing models, explanations and goals.[42] A mental health professional is a person who offers services for the purpose of improving an individuals mental health and/or researches in the field of mental health. ... A profession is a specialized work function within society, generally performed by a professional. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is an academic / applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior of humans and animals. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Professional social workers are concerned with social problems, their causes, their solutions and their human impacts. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques intended to improve or cure mental health, emotional or behavioral issues in individuals, who are often called the client. ... A Counselor (or counsellor) is a general definition for a person who advises. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...


Movements

The Consumer/Survivor Movement (also known as user/survivor movement) is made up of individuals (and organizations representing them) who are clients of mental health services or who consider themselves "survivors" of mental health services. The movement campaigns for improved mental health services and for more involvement and empowerment within mental health services, policies and wider society.[75][76][77] Patient advocacy organizations have expanded with increasing deinstitutionalization in developed countries, working to challenge the stereotypes, stigma and exclusion associated with psychiatric conditions. An antipsychiatry movement fundamentally challenges mainstream psychiatric theory and practice, including the reality or utility of psychiatric diagnoses of mental illnesses.[78][79] [80] The Consumer/Survivor Movement, also known as the User/Survivor Movement, refers to a diverse association of individuals (and organisations representing them) who are currently consumers (clients) of mental health services or who consider themselves survivors of mental health services. ... Patient advocacy refers to speaking on behalf of a patient in order to protect their rights and help them obtain needed information and services. ... Deinstitutionalisation is the practice of moving people (especially those with developmental disability) from mental institutions into community-based or family-based environments. ... In modern usage, a stereotype is a simplified mental picture of an individual or group of people who share a certain characteristic (or stereotypical) qualities. ... Look up stigma on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ...


Laws and policies

Three quarters of countries around the world have mental health legislation. Compulsory admission to mental health facilities (also known as Involuntary commitment or sectioning), is reported to be a controversial topic because it can impinge on personal liberty and the right to choose, and carry the risk of abuse for political, social and other reasons, but is also said to potentially prevent harm to self and others, and assist some people in attaining their right to healthcare when unable to decide in their own interests.[7] All human-rights orientated mental health laws are said to hold that there should be proof of the presence of a mental disorder as defined by internationally accepted standards, but that the type, severity and degree of a mental disorder qualifying for involuntary admission is reported to vary in different jurisdictions. The two most often utilized grounds are said to be serious likelihood of immediate or imminent danger to self or others, and the need for treatment. Laws usually stipulate that independent medical practitioners or other accredited mental health practitioners must examine the patient separately and independently, although this is not possible in all countries. The legal processes should include provision for regular, time-bound review by an independent review body.[7] Applications for someone to be involuntarily admitted may come from a mental health practitioner, a family member, a close relative, or a guardian. Laws regarding involuntary treatment generally additionally stipulate that a patient must be shown to lack the capacity to give or withhold informed consent (i.e. to understand treatment information and its implications). Proxy consent (also known as substituted decision-making) may be given to a personal representative, a family member or a legally appointed guardian, or patients may have been able to enact an advance directive as to how they wish to be treated.[7] The right to supported decision-making may also be included in legislation.[81] Involuntary commitment is the practice of using legal means or forms as part of a mental health law to commit a person to a mental hospital, insane asylum or psychiatric ward without their informed consent, against their will or over their protests. ... The British Mental Health Act 1983 has a number of sections that provide powers for involuntary detention, hospitalization or other medical treatment for people affected by mental illness. ... A Living Will, also called Will to Live, Advance Health Directive, or Advance Health Care Directive, is a specific type of power of attorney or health care proxy or advance directive. ...


Involuntary treatment laws may be extended to those living in the community, for example Community Treatment Orders (CTOs) are used in New Zealand, Australia and 38 states in the US and are being planned in the UK.[82]


The World Health Organization reports that in many instances national mental health legislation takes away the rights of persons with mental disorders rather than protecting rights, and is often outdated.[7] In 1991, the United Nations adopted the Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care, which established minimum human rights standards of practice in the mental health field. In 2006 the UN formally agreed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to protect and enhance the rights and opportunities of disabled people, including those with psychosocial disabilities[83] The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


The term insanity, sometimes used colloquially as a synonym for mental illness, is often used technically as a legal term. Inmates at Bedlam Asylum, as portrayed by William Hogarth Insanity, or madness, is a general term for a semi-permanent, severe mental disorder. ... Look up Colloquialism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ...


Perception and discrimination

Media

Media coverage of mental illness comprises predominantly negative depictions, for example, of incompetence, violence or criminality, with far less coverage of positive issues such as accomplishments or human rights issues.[84][85][86] Such negative depictions, including in children's cartoons, are thought to contribute to stigma and negative attitudes in the public and in those with mental health problems themselves, although more sensitive or serious cinematic portrayals have increased in prevalence.[87][88] Mental illness has often been featured in art and literature. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Look up stigma on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


General public

The general public have been found to hold a strong stereotype of dangerousness and desire for social distance from individuals described as mentally ill.[89] Japan has been reported to have more negative attitudes than Australia, although stigma appears common in both countries.[90]


Violence

The public fear of violence due to mental illness is a contentious topic. One US national survey indicated that a far higher percentage of Americans rated individuals described as displaying the characteristics of a mental disorder (for example Schizophrenia or Substance Use Disorder) as "likely to do something violent to others" compared to those described as being 'troubled'.[91] Research indicates, on balance, a higher than average number of violent acts by some individuals with certain diagnoses, notably antisocial or psychopathic personality disorders, but conflicting findings about specific symptoms (for example links between psychosis and violence in community settings) - but the mediating factors of such acts are most consistently found to be mainly socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as being young, male, of lower socio-economic status and, in particular, substance abuse (including alcohol).[92][93][42] Findings consistently indicate that it is many times more likely that people diagnosed with a serious mental illness living in the community will be the victim rather than the perpetrator of violence.[92][94] Violence by or against individuals with mental illness typically occurs in the context of complex social interactions (including in atmosphere of mutually high "expressed emotion"), including within a family setting,[95] as well as being an issue in healthcare settings[96] and the wider community.[97] Expressed emotion (EE), a qualitative measure of the amount of emotion displayed, typically in the family setting, usually by a family or group. ...


Employment

Employment discrimination is reported to play a significant part in the high rate of unemployment among those with a diagnosis of mental illness[98] Schemes to combat stigma have been prioritized by global and national psychiatric organizations, but their methods and outcomes have been criticized as counterproductive.[99] Employment discrimination refers to employment practices that are prohibited by law such as bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, compensation, and various types of harassment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up stigma on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also

Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Mental states redirects here. ... Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

References

Image File history File links Mental_illness. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ...

Further reading

  • Hockenbury, Don and Sandy (2004). Discovering Psychology. Worth Publishers. ISBN 0-7167-5704-4. 
  • Roy Porter, Madness. A Brief History, Oxford University Press 2003
  • Wiencke, Markus (2006) Schizophrenie als Ergebnis von Wechselwirkungen: Georg Simmels Individualitätskonzept in der Klinischen Psychologie. In David Kim (ed.), Georg Simmel in Translation: Interdisciplinary Border-Crossings in Culture and Modernity (pp. 123-155). Cambridge Scholars Press, Cambridge, ISBN 1-84718-060-5

Roy Porter (31 December 1946 to 3 March 2002) was a British historian noted for his work on the history of medicine. ...

Notes

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External links

List of mental illnesses Edit
Acute stress disorder | Adjustment disorder | Agoraphobia | alcohol and substance abuse | alcohol and substance dependence | Amnesia | Anxiety disorder | Anorexia nervosa | Antisocial personality disorder | Asperger syndrome | Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder | Autism | Autophagia | Avoidant personality disorder | Bereavement | Bibliomania | Binge eating disorder | Bipolar disorder | Body dysmorphic disorder | Borderline personality disorder | Brief psychotic disorder | Bulimia nervosa | Childhood disintegrative disorder | Circadian rhythm sleep disorder | Conduct disorder | Conversion disorder | Cyclothymia | Delirium | Delusional disorder | Dementia | Dependent personality disorder | Depersonalization disorder | Depression | Disorder of written expression | Dissociative fugue | Dissociative identity disorder | Down syndrome | Drapetomania | Dyspareunia | Dysthymic disorder | Erotomania | Encopresis | Enuresis | Exhibitionism | Expressive language disorder | Factitious disorder | Female and male orgasmic disorders | Female sexual arousal disorder | Fetishism | Folie à deux | Frotteurism | Ganser syndrome | Gender identity disorder | Generalized anxiety disorder | General adaptation syndrome | Histrionic personality disorder | Hyperactivity disorder | Primary hypersomnia | Hypoactive sexual desire disorder | Hypochondriasis | Hyperkinetic syndrome | Hysteria | Intermittent explosive disorder | Joubert syndrome | Kleptomania| Mania | Male erectile disorder | Munchausen syndrome | Mathematics disorder | Narcissistic personality disorder | Narcolepsy | Nightmares | Obsessive-compulsive disorder | Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder | Oneirophrenia | Oppositional defiant disorder | Pain disorder | Panic attacks | Panic disorder | Paraphilias | Paranoid personality disorder | Parasomnia | Pathological gambling | Pedophilia | Perfectionism | Pervasive Developmental Disorder | Pica | Postpartum Depression | Post-traumatic stress disorder | Premature ejaculation | Primary insomnia | Lysp | Psychotic disorder | Pyromania | Reading disorder | Reactive attachment disorder | Retts disorder | Rumination disorder | Schizoaffective disorder | Schizoid | Schizophrenia | Schizophreniform disorder | Schizotypal personality disorder | Seasonal affective disorder | Self Injury | Separation anxiety disorder | Sexual Masochism and Sadism | Shared psychotic disorder | Sleep disorder | Sleep terror disorder | Sleepwalking disorder | Social phobia | Somatization disorder | Specific phobias | Stereotypic movement disorder | Stuttering | Suicide | Tourette syndrome | Transient tic disorder | Transvestic Fetishism | Trichotillomania | Vaginismus

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