FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Menstruation" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Menstruation

See also "Mensuration", a term sometimes used to describe Measurement, particularly in the context of forestry. Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ...

Menstrual cycle.
Menstrual cycle.

Menstruation is the shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium). It occurs on a regular basis in reproductive age females of certain mammal species. Overt menstruation (where there is bleeding from the vagina) is found primarily in humans and close evolutionary relatives such as chimpanzees.[1] The females of other placental mammal species have estrous cycles, in which the endometrium is reabsorbed by the animal (covert menstruation) at the end of its reproductive cycle. Many zoologists regard this as different from a "true" menstrual cycle. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (794 × 1123 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Menstruation Menstrual cycle ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (794 × 1123 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Menstruation Menstrual cycle ... The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Orders[1] Bobolestes Eomaia Maelestes Montanalestes Murtoilestes Prokennalestes Placentalia Superorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ...

Contents

Overview

Eumenorrhea denotes normal, regular menstruation that lasts for a few days (usually 3 to 5 days, but anywhere from 2 to 7 days is considered normal).[2] The average blood loss during menstruation is 35 millilitres with 10-80 mL considered normal;[3] many females also notice shedding of the endometrium lining that appears as tissue mixed with the blood. (Sometimes this is erroneously thought to indicate an early-term miscarriage of an embryo.) An enzyme called plasmin — contained in the endometrium — tends to inhibit the blood from clotting. Because of this blood loss, premenopausal women have higher dietary requirements for iron to prevent iron deficiency. Many women experience uterine cramps, also referred to as dysmenorrhea, during this time, caused largely by the contractions of the uterine muscle as it expels the endometrial blood from the woman's body. A vast industry has grown to provide drugs to aid in these cramps, as well as sanitary products to help manage menses. (Redirected from 1 E-5 m3) To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists volumes between 10-5 cubic metres and 10-4 cubic metres (10 cubic centimetres and 100 cubic centimetres). ... The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. ... Human glyoxalase I. Two zinc ions that are needed for the enzyme to catalyze its reaction are shown as purple spheres, and an enzyme inhibitor called S-hexylglutathione is shown as a space-filling model, filling the two active sites. ... Plasmin is an important degrading enzyme (EC 3. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Fe redirects here. ... For a more specific and detailed discussion of anemia caused by iron deficiency, see the Wikipedia article iron deficiency anemia. ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... Dysmenorrhea (or dysmenorrhoea) is a medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation. ...


As part of the menstrual cycle

Main article: Menstrual cycle

Menstruation is the most visible phase of the menstrual cycle. Menstrual cycles are counted from the first day of menstrual bleeding, because the onset of menstruation corresponds closely with the hormonal cycle. Menstrual cycle In the female reproductive system, the menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive-age females. ...


During pregnancy and for some time after childbirth, menstruation is normally suspended; this state is known as amenorrhoea, i.e. absence of the menstrual cycle. Amenorrhoea can be extended by continued lactation; this may be done intentionally as birth control (lactational amenorrhea method). This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Parturition redirects here. ... Amenorrhoea (BE), amenorrhea (AmE), or amenorrhœa, is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ... Natural family planning (NFP), sometimes described as periodic abstinence, is a form of birth control that involves recognizing the natural signs in a womans fertility. ...


Evolution

All placental mammals have a uterine lining that builds up when the animal is fertile, but is dismantled (menstruated) when the animal is infertile. Some anthropologists have questioned the energy cost of rebuilding the endometrium every fertility cycle. However, anthropologist Beverly Strassmann has posited that the energy savings of not having to continuously maintain the uterine lining more than offsets energy cost of having to rebuild the lining in the next fertility cycle, even in species such as humans where much of the lining is lost through bleeding (overt menstruation) rather than reabsorbed (covert menstruation).[1][4] However, even in humans, much of it is reabsorbed. Orders[1] Bobolestes Eomaia Maelestes Montanalestes Murtoilestes Prokennalestes Placentalia Superorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ...


Many have questioned the evolution of overt menstruation in humans and related species, speculating on what advantage there could be to losing blood associated with dismantling the endometrium rather than absorbing it, as most mammals do. The ancient writer Hippocrates considered that menstruation was intended to cleanse the body of "evil humours", and modern evolutionary biologist Margie Profet contends that the primary function of menstruation is to remove sperm-borne pathogens from the uterus. In support of this hypothesis, she has pointed to the relatively high levels of macrophages in menstrual blood.[5][4] For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... Margie Profet holds bachelors degrees from both Harvard and the University of California, Berkeley, she was a Visiting Scientist at the University of Washington from 1994-1997, Seattle. ... Macrophages (Greek: big eaters) are cells found in tissues that are responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens, dead cells and cellular debris. ...


Beginning in 1971, some research suggested that menstrual cycles of co-habiting human females became synchronized. A few anthropologists hypothesized that in hunter-gatherer societies, males would go on hunting journeys whilst the females of the tribe were menstruating, speculating that the females would not have been as receptive to sexual relations while menstruating.[6][7] However, there is currently significant dispute as to whether menstrual synchrony exists.[8] The McClintock effect (also known as Menstrual Synchrony) is the observed phenomenon that the menstrual cycles of women who live together (such as in prisons, convents, bordellos, dormitories, etc. ...


Humans do, in fact, reabsorb about two-thirds of the endometrium each cycle. Strassmann asserts that overt menstruation occurs not because it is beneficial in itself. Rather, the fetal development of these species requires a more developed endometrium, one which is too thick to completely reabsorb. Strassman correlates species that have overt menstruation to those that have a large uterus relative to the adult female body size.[1]


Culture and menstruation

Common usage refers to menstruation and menses as a period. Aside from its biological purpose, this bleeding serves as a sign that a woman has not become pregnant. (However, this cannot be taken as certainty, as sometimes there is some bleeding in early pregnancy, and some women have irregular cycles.) During the reproductive years, failure to menstruate may provide the first indication to a woman that she may have become pregnant. A woman might say that her "period is late" when an expected menstruation has not started and she might have become pregnant. The relationship between culture and menstruation is expressed in many ways. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Diverse women. ...


Many religions have menstruation-related traditions. These may be bans on certain actions during menstruation (such as intercourse in orthodox Judaism and Islam), or rituals to be performed at the end of each menses (such as the mikvah in Judaism and the ghusl in Islam). Some traditional societies sequester females in residences ("menstrual huts") that are reserved for that exclusive purpose until the end of their menstrual period. Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ...


Since the late 1960s, some women have chosen to prevent menstruation with long-acting hormonal birth control. Injections such as depo-provera became available in the 1960s, progestogen implants such as Norplant in the 1980s and extended cycle combined oral contraceptive pills in the early 2000s. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... This article is about the contraceptive injection. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... Norplant is a form of birth control released in 1991 by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, consisting of a set of six small, silicone capsules filled with levonorgestrel, a synthetic progestin used in many birth control pills. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... Extended cycle combined oral contraceptive pills are COCPs packaged to reduce or eliminate the withdrawal bleeding that occurs once every 28 days in traditionally packaged COCPs. ... This article is about the decade of 2000-2009. ...


Characteristics

Physical experience

See also: Premenstrual Syndrome

In many women, various intense sensations brought about by the involved hormones and by cramping of the uterus can precede or accompany menstruation. Stronger sensations may include significant menstrual pain (dysmenorrhea), abdominal pain, migraine headaches, depression, emotional sensitivity, feeling bloated, and changes in sex drive. Breast discomfort caused by premenstrual water retention or hormone fluctuation is very common. The sensations experienced vary from woman to woman and from cycle to cycle. PMS links to this article. ... This article is about muscular pain. ... Dysmenorrhea (or dysmenorrhoea) is a medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... Premenstrual water retention is a common phenomenon associated with the menstrual cycle. ...


Emotional reactions

Some women may experience emotional side-effects. These range from the irritability popularly associated with Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), to tiredness, or "weepiness" (i.e. tears of emotional closeness). A similar range of emotional effects and mood swings is associated with pregnancy. PMS links to this article. ... A mood swing is an extreme change in mood. ...


Flow

The normal menstrual flow follows a "crescendo-decrescendo" pattern; that is, it starts at a moderate level, increases somewhat, and then slowly tapers. Sudden heavy flows or amounts in excess of 80 mL (hypermenorrhea or menorrhagia) may stem from hormonal disturbance, uterine abnormalities, including uterine leiomyoma or cancer, and other causes. Doctors call the opposite phenomenon, of bleeding very little, hypomenorrhea. Menorrhagia is an abnormally heavy and prolonged menstrual period at regular intervals. ... A leiomyoma (plural is leiomyomata) is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Duration

The typical woman bleeds for two to seven days at the beginning of each menstrual cycle. Prolonged bleeding (metrorrhagia, also meno-metrorrhagia) no longer shows a clear interval pattern. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is hormonally caused bleeding abnormalities, typically anovulation. All these bleeding abnormalities need medical attention; they may indicate hormone imbalances, uterine fibroids, or other problems. As pregnant patients may bleed, a pregnancy test forms part of the evaluation of abnormal bleeding. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB) is the most common cause of functional abnormal uterine bleeding, which is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable organic pathology. ... In medicine, anovulation is absence of ovulation when it would be normally expected (in a post-menarchal, premenopausal woman). ... A modern pregnancy test A pregnancy test is a test to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant. ...


Menstrual products

Further information: Menstrual product

Most women use something to absorb or catch their menses. There are a number of different methods available. A menstrual product is a feminine hygiene product used to collect menstrual discharge, for instance a tampon or sanitary napkin. ...


Disposable items:

  • Sanitary napkins (Sanitary towels) or pads — Somewhat rectangular pieces of material worn in the underwear to absorb menstrual flow, often with "wings," pieces that fold around the panties, and/or an adhesive backing to hold the pad in place. Disposable pads may contain wood pulp or gel products, usually with a plastic lining and bleached. Some sanitary napkins, particularly older styles, are held in place by a belt-like apparatus, instead of adhesive or wings.
  • Tampons — Disposable cylinders of treated rayon/cotton blends or all-cotton fleece, usually bleached, that are inserted into the vagina to absorb menstrual flow.
  • Padettes — Disposable wads of treated rayon/cotton blend fleece that are placed within the inner labia to absorb menstrual flow.
  • Disposable menstrual cups — A firm, flexible cup-shaped device worn inside the vagina to catch menstrual flow. Disposable cups are made of soft plastic.

Reusable items: Wingless type (left) and winged type (right) of disposable sanitary napkin. ... Underwear redirects here. ... International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ... In optical filters and theatrical lighting a color gel is a transparent or translucent colored panel used to change the color of transmitted light. ... For the commune of Réunion, see Le Tampon. ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... A menstrual cup is a type of cup or barrier worn by a female inside the vagina during menstruation to collect menstrual fluid. ...

  • Reusable cloth pads are made of cotton (often organic), terrycloth, or flannel, and may be handsewn (from material or reused old clothes and towels) or storebought.
  • Menstrual cups — A firm, flexible bell-shaped device worn inside the vagina to catch menstrual flow. Reusable versions include rubber or silicone cups.
  • Sea sponges — Natural sponges, worn internally like a tampon to absorb menstrual flow.
  • Padded panties — Reusable cloth (usually cotton) underwear with extra absorbent layers sewn in to absorb flow.
  • Blanket, towel — (also known as a draw sheet) — large reusable piece of cloth, most often used at night, placed between legs to absorb menstrual flow.

In addition to products to contain the menstrual flow, pharmaceutical companies likewise provide products — commonly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) — to relieve menstrual cramps. Some herbs, such as dong quai, raspberry leaf and crampbark, are also claimed to relieve menstrual pain, however there is no documented scientific evidence.[9] Cloth menstrual pads are a reusable alternative to disposable sanitary napkins. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... Terry cloth. ... A young man wearing a tartan flannel shirt. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Underwear redirects here. ... For other uses, see Blanket (disambiguation). ... A towel is a piece of absorbent fabric or paper used for drying or wiping. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Binomial name Angelica sinensis (Oliv. ... Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ...


Further reading

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Strassmann BI (1996). "The evolution of endometrial cycles and menstruation". Q Rev Biol 71 (2): 181–220. doi:10.1086/419369. PMID 8693059. 
  2. ^ The National Women's Health Information Center (April 2007). What is a typical menstrual period like?. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on 2005-06-11.
  3. ^ David L Healy (2004-11-24). Menorrhagia Heavy Periods - Current Issues. Monash University.
  4. ^ a b Kathleen O'Grady (2000). "Is Menstruation Obsolete?". . The Canadian Women's Health Network Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  5. ^ Profet M (1993). "Menstruation as a defense against pathogens transported by sperm". Q Rev Biol 68 (3): 335–86. doi:10.1086/418170. PMID 8210311. 
  6. ^ Desmond Morris (1997). "The Human Sexes". . Cambridge University Press
  7. ^ Chris Knight (1991). Blood relations: menstruation and the origins of culture. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06308-3. 
  8. ^ Adams, Cecil (2002-12-20). Does menstrual synchrony really exist?. The Straight Dope. The Chicago Reader. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  9. ^ Herbs For Premenstrual Syndrome. HerbalRemedies.com (2004). Retrieved on 2006-08-08.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Cecil Adams is a name, generally assumed to be a pseudonym, which designates the unknown author or authors of The Straight Dope, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader since 1973. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... Sexual reproduction is characterized by processes that pass a combination of genetic material to offspring, resulting in diversity. ... -1... The male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside of the body and around the pelvic region of a male. ... The human females reproductive system. ... Menstrual cycle In the female reproductive system, the menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiologic changes that occurs in reproductive-age females. ... The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ... Menstrual cycle The follicular phase (or proliferative phase) is the phase of the estrous cycle, (or, in humans and great apes, the menstrual cycle) during which follicles in the ovary mature. ... Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ... The luteal phase is the latter phase of the estrous cycle in animals. ... Gametogenesis is the creation of gametes by meiotic division of gametocytes into various gametes. ... Cross section of the epithelium of a seminiferous tubule showing various stages of spermatocyte development Spermatogenesis is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. ... A Spermatogonium (plural: spermatogonia) is an intermediary male gametogonium (a kind of germ cell) in the production of spermatozoa. ... Spermatogenesis refers to the creation, or genesis, of sperm cells, which occurs in the male gonads or testes. ... The term spermatid refers to the haploid male germ cell that results from secondary spermatocyte division. ... For other uses, see Sperm (disambiguation). ... Oogenesis or rarely oögenesis is the creation of an ovum (egg cell). ... An oogonium is a female gametogonium. ... An oocyte or ovocyte is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. ... An ootid is a female gametid, as opposed to a male spermatid. ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... A germ cell is part of the germline and is involved in the reproduction of organisms. ... A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετης; translated gamete = wife, gametes = husband) is a cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ... Ejaculation is the ejecting of semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm. ... An orgasm (sexual climax) is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and may be experienced by both males and females. ... Insemination is the introduction of semen into the genital tract of a female. ... This article is about fertilisation in animals and plants. ... Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. ... Masturbation is the manual excitation of the sexual organs, most often to the point of orgasm. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about prenatal development in humans. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... This article is about the development of sexual dimorphisms in humans. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Menarche (IPA: ) is the first menstrual period, or first menstrual bleeding in the females of human beings. ... Adrenarche refers to a stage of maturation of the cortex of the human adrenal glands. ... Graph showing increased risk of Down Syndrome over time The maternal age effect describes the exponentially increasing risks of chromosomal abnormalities as a prospective mother ages. ... The paternal age effect describes the influence that a fathers age has on the chances of conferring a genetic defect to his offspring. ... The word menopause literally means the permanent physiological, or natural, cessation of menstrual cycles, from the Greek roots meno (month) and pausis (a pause, a cessation). ... Andropause is a medical phenomenon, similar to the female menopause, that can affect men between the ages of 40 and 55. ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother. ... Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mothers body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. ... Poa alpina, a grass which shows vivipary: the seeds germinate while still attached to the mother plant. ... Reproductive endocrinology (RE) is a medical subspecialty that addresses hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. ... Andrology (from the Greek andros, man) is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Talking to Your Child About Menstruation (2132 words)
During the menstrual cycle, hormones are released from different parts of the body to help control and prepare the body for pregnancy.
In addition to understanding how menstruation works, girls need to be familiar with feminine-hygiene supplies (sanitary pads and tampons) and they should know that sometimes periods may cause cramps when the muscles of the uterus contract.
Having cramps for a day or two each month is common, but signs of dysmenorrhea — severely painful menstruation that interferes with a girl's ability to attend school or study or sleep — or other menstrual problems should be discussed with your child's doctor.
Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle (1462 words)
Menstruation is a woman's monthly bleeding, also called a period.
Menstrual blood flows from the uterus through the small opening in the cervix, and passes out of the body through the vagina.
Menstruation is part of the menstrual cycle, which prepares your body for pregnancy each month.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m