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Encyclopedia > Menorah
Yarmulke and Menorah from the Harry S Truman collection
Yarmulke and Menorah from the Harry S Truman collection

The menorah (Hebrew: מנורה), is a seven branched candelabrum lit by olive oil in the Tabernacle and the Temple in Jerusalem. The menorah is one of the oldest symbols of the Jewish people. It is said to symbolize the burning bush as seen by Moses on Mount Sinai (Exodus 25). A nine branched Chanukkiyah lit during Hanukkah The Chanukkiyah or Hanukiah, (Hebrew: ) is a nine branched candelabrum lit during the eight-day holiday of hanukkah. ... Yarmulke and Menorah from the Harry S. Truman collection Skullcap: Jewish yarmulke or kippah with Hebrew lettering. ... Yarmulke and Menorah from the Harry S. Truman collection Skullcap: Jewish yarmulke or kippah with Hebrew lettering. ... A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... A candlestick or candelabrum is a decorative holder for one or more candles, often shaped as a column or pedestal. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Burning bush at St. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Moses with the Ten Commandments by Rembrandt (1659) Biblical Mount Sinai refers to the place where, according to the Hebrew Bible (Exod. ...


The Bible (Exodus 25:31-40) lists the instructions for the construction of the menorah used in the temple: This article is about the second book in the Torah. ...

31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, shall be of one piece with it. 32 And there shall be six branches going out of the sides thereof: three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candle-stick out of the other side thereof; 33 three cups made like almond-blossoms in one branch, a knop and a flower; and three cups made like almond-blossoms in the other branch, a knop and a flower; so for the six branches going out of the candlestick. 34 And in the candlestick four cups made like almond-blossoms, the knops thereof, and the flowers thereof. 35 And a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, for the six branches going out of the candlestick. 36 Their knops and their branches shall be of one piece with it; the whole of it one beaten work of pure gold. 37 And thou shalt make the lamps thereof, seven; and they shall light the lamps thereof, to give light over against it. 38 And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of pure gold. 39 Of a talent of pure gold shall it be made, with all these vessels. 40 And see that thou make them after their pattern, which is being shown thee in the mount.

The construction of the temple menorah was considered a religious order in Judaism.

Contents

Hanukkah

Main article: Chanukah

The Menorah is also a symbol closely associated with the Jewish holiday of Chanukah. According to the Talmud, after the desecration of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, there was only enough sealed (and therefore not desecrated by idolatry) consecrated olive oil left to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days which was enough time to get new oil as well as finish rebuilding the Temple. The Chanukah menorah therefore has not seven, but nine candle holders. The eight side branches represent the eight-day celebration of the miracle of oil, while the central branch, called the "Shamash", is used to light the others. While this type of menorah is called a "chanukiah" in Modern Hebrew, it is also often called a "menorah" by non-Israeli Jews. Chanukah (חנכה ḥănukkāh, or חנוכה ḥănūkkāh) is a Jewish holiday, also known as the Festival of lights. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Yarmulke and Menorah from the Harry S. Truman collection A menorah (sometimes capitalized) is a branched candelabrum with seven candle-holders. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


Origin

The Torah states that God revealed the design for the menorah to Moses. According to some readings, Maimonides stated that the menorah in the Temple had straight branches, not rounded as is often depicted.[1] Jewish depictions of the menorah dating back to Temple times, along with the depiction on the Arch of Titus showing the Romans taking the looted Menorah to Rome after the Temple's destruction, contradict this claim. Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Arch of Titus This article deals with the main arch of Titus on the Via Sacra. ...

Depiction of the Menorah on the Arch of Titus
Depiction of the Menorah on the Arch of Titus

sack of jerusalem on inside wall ot arch of titus in rome, italy This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... sack of jerusalem on inside wall ot arch of titus in rome, italy This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Fate

The fate of the menorah used in the Second Temple is recorded by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, who states that it was brought to Rome and carried along during the triumph of Vespasian and Titus. A depiction of this event is preserved on the Arch of Titus that still stands today in Rome. Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... The Arch of Titus This article deals with the main arch of Titus on the Via Sacra. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The menorah probably remained in the Temple of Peace in Rome until the city was sacked. The first sacking was by the Visigoths under Alaric I in 410 CE. Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ...


Alternatively, the menorah may have been looted by the Vandals in 455 CE, taken to their capital, Carthage.[citation needed] The Byzantine army under General Belisarius may have taken it back in 533 and brought it to Constantinople.[citation needed] According to Procopius, it was carried through the streets of Constantinople during Belisarius' triumphal procession. Procopius adds that the object was later sent back to Jerusalem. This may be a pious legend. [citation needed] Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... The Byzantine Army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine Navy. ... // Flavius Belisarius (505(?) – 565) was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history. ... Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Modern use

Many synagogues display either a menorah or an artistic representation of a menorah. In addition, synagogues feature a continually-lit lamp in front of the Ark, where the Torah scroll is kept. Called the ner tamid, this lamp represents the continually-lit menorah used in Temple times. A menorah appears in the Coat of arms of the State of Israel. A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogē, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... The Ark in a synagogue (Jewish house of worship) is known as the Aron Kodesh amongst Ashkenazim and as Hekhál amongst most Sefardim. ... Sefer Torah being read during weekday service. ... A ner tamid hanging over the ark in a synagogue Contemporary blown glass and bronze ner tamid (eternal flame) by artist David Ascalon A ner tamid (נר תמיד), usually translated as eternal flame, hangs or stands in front of the ark in every Jewish synagogue. ... The coat of arms of Israel shows a menorah surrounded by an olive branch on each side, and the writing ישראל (Hebrew for Israel) below it. ...


In other cultures

The kinara is a seven-branch candleholder associated with the African American festival of Kwanzaa. One candle is lit on each day of the week-long celebration, in a similar manner as the menorah during Hanukkah. A woman lights kinara candles on a table decorated with the symbols of Kwanzaa. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Menorah
  1. ^ The shape of the Menorah of the Temple (Avodah Mailing List. Volume 12: Number 065. Friday, December 26 2003)

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

See also

Jewish symbolism refers to any forms or types of symbolism in Judaism; a symbol in this sense is defined as some kind of visible representation of an object or an idea. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ...

External links

  • A collection of articles regarding the menorah in the temple on chabad.org
  • Menorah at Livius.Org

  Results from FactBites:
 
Biblical Menorah, Temple Menorah, Hanukiah (1281 words)
The menorah (Hebrew: מנורה;), is a seven branched candelabrum lit by olive oil in the Tabernacle and the Temple in Jerusalem.
A menorah used in the Tabernacle (the portable sanctuary used by the Jews) and later in its successor, the Temple in Jerusalem, was beaten from a single piece of gold.
Depiction of the Menorah on the Arch of Titus.
Hanukkah, Dreidel & Menorah Guide | Unique Hanukkah Gifts | MenorahCenter.com (535 words)
The instructions for the ritual Menorah, which would light the Holy of Holies in the Ark of the Tabernacles, were part of a variety of holy objects, all to be made "in one piece from the purest gold".
The seven branch Menorah is not to be confused with the eight branched Hanukiah (Chanukkiah) or Hanukkah Menorah which symbolizes the victory of the Jews over their Greek oppressors in the second century BCE.
The eight branches of the Hanukkah Menorah is meant to relate to the miracle of the oil which rededicated the Temple and burnt for eight days.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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