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The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496-1561), though his teachings were a relatively minor influence on the group. As one of the historic peace churches, Mennonites are committed to nonviolence, nonviolent resistance/reconciliation, and pacifism. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek... Menno Simons - wood engraving by Christoffel van Sichem 1610 Menno Simons (1496–1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands). ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ...


There are about 1.5 million Mennonites worldwide as of 2006[1]. Mennonite congregations worldwide embody the full scope of Mennonite practice from old fashioned 'plain' people to those who are indistinguishable in dress and appearance from the general population. With a few notable exceptions, Mennonite experience in Europe and North America has been, and continues to be, predominantly rural. The largest population of Mennonites is in Africa, but Mennonites can also be found in tight-knit communities in at least 51 countries on six continents or scattered amongst the populace of those countries. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Mennonites have an international distinction among Christian denominations in disaster relief and place a strong theological emphasis on voluntary service. Mennonite Disaster Service,[1] based in North America, provides both immediate and long-term responses to hurricanes, floods, and other disasters. Mennonite Central Committee provides disaster relief around the world alongside their long-term international development programs. Other programs offer a variety of relief efforts and services throughout the world. Emergency operations or Emergency preparedness is a set of doctrines to prepare civil society to cope with natural or man-made disasters. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... Mennonite Central Committee logo. ...


In the last few decades some Mennonite groups have also become more actively involved with peace and social justice issues, helping to found Christian Peacemaker Teams and Mennonite Conciliation Service.[2] A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Christian Peacemaker Teams (CPT) is an international organization set up to support teams of peace workers in conflict areas around the world. ...

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Radical Reformation

Main article: Radical Reformation
Ulrich Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli

The early history of the Mennonites begins with the Anabaptists in the German and Dutch-speaking parts of central Europe. The German term is "Täufer" (that is, Baptists). These forerunners of modern Mennonites were part of the broad reaction against the practices and theology of the Catholic Church known as the Protestant Reformation. Its most distinguishing feature is the rejection of infant baptism, an act that had both religious and political meaning since almost every infant born in Western Europe was baptized into the Catholic Church. Other significant theological views of the Mennonites developed in opposition to Catholic views or to the views of other Protestant reformers like Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli. The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ... Scanned from German Meyers Encyclopedia, 1906 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. ... Scanned from German Meyers Encyclopedia, 1906 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... Reformation redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ...


Some of the followers of Zwingli's Reformed church felt that requiring church membership beginning at birth was inconsistent with the New Testament example. They felt that the church should be completely removed from government (the proto-free church tradition), and that people should join only once they were willing to publicly acknowledge that they believed in Jesus and wanted to live in accordance with his teachings. At a small meeting on January 21, 1525, Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, and George Blaurock, along with twelve others, baptized each other. This meeting marks the beginning of the Anabaptist movement. In the spirit of the times, many radical groups followed, preaching any number of ideas about hierarchy, the state, eschatology, and sexual license, running from utter abandon to extreme chastity. These movements are together referred to as the Radical Reformation.-1... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... A free church is a Christian church or denomination that is intrinsically separated from any government (as opposed to a theocracy or the state church). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Conrad Grebel (ca. ... An allegorical portrait of Felix Manz, painted in the 20th century. ... Jörg vom Haus Jacob (Georg Cajacob, or George of the House of Jacob), commonly known as George Blaurock¹ (1491-1529), with Conrad Grebel and Felix Manz was co-founder of the Swiss Brethren church in Zürich, and thereby one of the founders of modern Anabaptism. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ... The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ...


Many government and religious leaders, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, considered voluntary church membership to be dangerous — the concern of some deepened by reports of the Münster Rebellion, led by a violent sect of Anabaptists. They joined forces to fight the movement, using methods such as persecution, banishment, torture, and sometimes executing them as heretics. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Münster Rebellion was an attempt by radical Anabaptists to establish a theocracy in the German city of Münster. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ...


Despite the best efforts of the state churches, the movement spread slowly around Western Europe, primarily along the Rhine. Many of the earliest Anabaptist leaders were killed in an attempt to purge Europe of the new sect. By 1530, most of the founding leaders had been killed for refusing to renounce their beliefs. Many believed that God did not condone killing or the use of force for any reason and were therefore unwilling to fight for their lives. These pacifist branches often survived by seeking refuge in neutral cities or nations, such as Strasbourg. Their safety, however, was often tenuous, as a shift in alliances or an invasion could mean resumed persecution. Other groups of Anabaptists, such as the Batenburgers, were eventually destroyed by their very willingness to fight. This played a large part in the evolution of Anabaptist theology. It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Batenburgers. ...

Menno Simons
Menno Simons

In the early days of the Anabaptist movement, Menno Simons, a Catholic priest in the Netherlands, heard of the movement and started to rethink his Catholic faith. He questioned the doctrine of transubstantiation, but was reluctant to leave the Roman Catholic Church. His thinking was influenced by the death of his brother, who, as a member of an Anabaptist group, was killed when he and his companions were attacked and refused to defend themselves. In 1536, at the age of 40, Simons left the Roman Catholic Church. Soon thereafter he became a leader within the Anabaptist movement. He would become a hunted man with a price on his head for the rest of his life. His name became associated with scattered groups of nonviolent Anabaptists he helped to organize and consolidate. Image File history File links Menno_Simons. ... Image File history File links Menno_Simons. ... Menno Simons - wood engraving by Christoffel van Sichem 1610 Menno Simons (1496–1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands). ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Fragmentation and variation

During the sixteenth century, the Mennonites and other Anabaptists were relentlessly persecuted. By the seventeenth century, some of them joined the state church in Switzerland and persuaded the authorities to relent in their attacks. The Mennonites outside the state church were divided on whether to remain in communion with their brothers within the state church, and this led to a split. Those against remaining in communion with them became known as the Amish, after their founder Jacob Amman. Those who remained in communion with them retained the name Mennonite. This period of persecution has had a significant impact on Mennonite identity. Martyrs Mirror, published in 1660, documents much of the persecution of Anabaptists and their predecessors. Today, the book is still the most important book besides the Bible for many Mennonites and Amish, in particular for the Swiss-South German branch of Mennonitism. Spanish Leftists during the Red Terror Shoot at a statue of Christ The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. ... See also civil religion. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Jacob Amman (Jakob Ammann) was born circa 1644 in Erlenbach im Simmental, Switzerland, but later moved to Alsace as part of a wave of Anabaptist emigration from out of the Canton of Berne. ... The Martyrs Mirror or The Bloody Theater, first published in 1660 in Dutch by Thieleman J. van Braght, documented the stories and testimonies of Christian martyrs, especially Anabaptists. ...


Other disagreements over the years have led to other splits; sometimes the reasons were theological, sometimes practical, sometimes geographical. For instance, near the beginning of the twentieth century, there were some members in the Amish church who wanted to begin having Sunday Schools and evangelize. Unable to persuade the rest of the Amish, they separated and formed the Conservative Mennonite Conference. Mennonites in Canada and other countries typically have independent denominations because of the practical considerations of distance and, in some cases, language. Sunday school, Indians and whites. ... The Conservative Mennonite Conference (CMC) is a Christian body of conservative evangelical Mennonite churches. ...


The first recorded account of this group is in a written order by Countess Anne, who ruled a small province in central Europe. The presence of some small groups of violent Anabaptists was causing political and religious turmoil in her state, so she decreed that all Anabaptists were to be driven from her state. The order made an exception though, for the non-violent branch known at that time as the Menists.


This order set the precedent that was to be repeated many times throughout history, where a political ruler would allow the Menists or Mennonites into his/her state because they were honest, hardworking and peaceful. However, inevitably, their presence would upset the powerful state churches, princes would renege on exemptions for military service, or a new monarch would take power, and the Mennonites would once again be forced to flee for their lives, usually leaving everything but their families behind. Often, another monarch in another state would grant them welcome, at least for a while.


One example was Elizabeth I, the ruling Queen of England. There, in a small village in Britain, a group of Dutch Anabaptists made the acquaintance of a congregation led by John Smythe, who would later lead his Pilgrims to the Netherlands and then to America. The Pilgrims' exposure to the Dutch Mennonite congregation probably influenced some of their teachings, including the freedom of each branch to regulate itself. However, the Pilgrims, known today as the Congregational Church, kept their practice of infant baptism despite the Mennonites' belief that baptism should take place only once the person had the capacity and willingness to accept Jesus as their Lord and Savior. This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... John Smyth (1570 - c. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...


In addition to the Mennonites' impact on the first American Pilgrims, religious historians have traced their influence to other religious teachings. This included the Baptists' emphasis of adult baptism upon confession of faith, and the Religious Society of Friends' (Quakers) strong stance against war. The dissemination of Anabaptist beliefs helped build the religious freedom that is enjoyed in America today. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Quaker redirects here. ...

Mennonite churches blended into city architecture to avoid offending the religious sensibilities of the majority. Doopsgezinde Gemeente, Amsterdam.
Mennonite churches blended into city architecture to avoid offending the religious sensibilities of the majority. Doopsgezinde Gemeente, Amsterdam.

While Mennonites in Colonial America were enjoying a large degree of religious freedom, their counterparts in Europe were in the same situation they always had been. Their well-being still depended on a ruling monarch, who would often extend an invitation only when there was poor soil that no one else could farm; the exception to this rule being in The Netherlands, where the Mennonites (nl: Doopsgezinden) enjoyed a relatively high degree of tolerance. The Mennonites would reclaim this land through hard work and good sense, in exchange for exemption from mandatory military service. However, once the land was arable again, this arrangement would often change, and the persecution would begin again. Because the land still needed to be tended, the ruler would not drive out the Mennonites but would actually pass laws to force them to stay, while at the same time severely limiting their freedom. Mennonites had to build their churches facing onto back streets or alleys (which began the habit of meeting in someone's home rather than a formal church), and they were forbidden from announcing the beginning of services with the sound of a bell. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1550x1004, 787 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Mennonite Mennonite Church in the Netherlands ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1550x1004, 787 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Mennonite Mennonite Church in the Netherlands ... This article is about the colonial history of the United States. ... Dutch (  ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ...


In addition, high taxes were enacted in exchange for both continuing the military service exemption, and to keep the states' best farmers from leaving. In some cases, the entire congregation would give up their belongings to pay the tax to be allowed to leave. If a member or family could not afford the tax, it was often paid by others in the group.


A strong emphasis on "community" was developed under these circumstances and continues to be typical of Mennonite churches. As a result of frequently being required to give up many possessions in order to retain individual freedoms, these Mennonites learned to live very simply. This was reflected both in the home and at church, where their dress and their buildings were plain. Even the music at church, which was usually simple German chorales, was performed a cappella. This style of music serves as a reminder to many Mennonites of their simple lives, as well as their history as a persecuted people. Some branches of Mennonites have retained this "plain" lifestyle into modern times. This article is about the vocal technique. ...


Jacob Amman and the Amish

Main article: Amish

In 1693 Jacob Amman led an effort to reform the Mennonite church: to include social avoidance of baptised members who left the church, to hold communion more often, and other differences. When the discussions fell through, Jacob and his followers split from the Mennonite church. Amman's followers became known as the Amish. The acrimony between the two groups was so severe that they reportedly refused to talk to each other when they found themselves together on the same boat sailing to America. This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Jacob Amman (Jakob Ammann) was born circa 1644 in Erlenbach im Simmental, Switzerland, but later moved to Alsace as part of a wave of Anabaptist emigration from out of the Canton of Berne. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ...


Mennonite schisms

Prior to migration to America, Anabaptists in Europe were divided between those of Dutch and Swiss-German background. However, both Dutch and Swiss groups took their name from Menno Simons who led the Dutch group. A trickle of Dutch Mennonites began the migration to America in 1683, followed by a much larger migration of Swiss-German Mennonites beginning in 1707. Two centuries later, in the 1870s, significant numbers of Dutch Mennonites, who had settled in the German Kingdom of Prussia and then Russia, moved to the United States and Canada where they are now known as Russian Mennonites. Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Russian Mennonites are a group of Mennonites descended from Dutch and mainly Germanic Prussian Anabaptists who established colonies in South Russia (present-day Ukraine) beginning in 1789. ...


After immigration to America, many of the early Mennonites split from the main body of North American Mennonites and formed their own separate and distinct churches, a process that began in 1785 with the formation of the orthodox Reformed Mennonite Church and is ongoing today. Many of these churches were formed as a response to deep disagreements about theology, doctrine, and church discipline as evolution both inside and outside the Mennonite faith occurred. Many of the 'modern' churches descended from those groups that abandoned traditional Mennonite practices. Today, the groups that have held to the traditional interpretations of Mennonite doctrine are increasing at a more rapid rate than those groups that have rejected these standards. However, the moderate denominations are still by far the largest and continue to grow at a steady rate.


These historical schisms have had an influence on creating the distinct Mennonite denominations that exist today. Such divisions continue to go on today as one group claims its version of the Mennonite faith and splits from the parent denomination or church, sometimes using mild or severe shunning to show its disapproval of other Mennonite groups. One recent and widely reported example of this is the expulsion of the Germantown Mennonite Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from the Franconia Conference and later the Mennonite Church USA denomination for welcoming LGBT people as church members. Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... The Franconia Mennonite Conference, based in Souderton, PA, is a division of Mennonite Church USA and a member of Mennonite World Conference that has 42 congregations in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Vermont. ... Mennonite Church USA logo. ... The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ...


German-Russian Mennonite were heavily influenced by Catherine the Great of Russia, who in 1768 acquired a great deal of land north of the Black Sea (in the present-day Ukraine) following a war with the Turks, invited those Mennonites living in Prussia to come farm the cold, tough soil of the Russian steppes in exchange for religious freedom and military exemption. Over the years the Mennonite farmers were very successful. By the beginning of the 20th century they owned large agricultural estates and were even successful as industrial entrepreneurs in the cities. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War (1917-1921) all of these farms (whose owners were called Kulaks) and enterprises were expropriated. Beyond expropriation, Mennonites suffered severe persecution during the course of the Civil War, at the hands of both the Bolsheviks and, particularly, the anarchists of Nestor Makhno.[citation needed] After the war people who openly followed religion were in many cases imprisoned. This led to a wave of Russian Mennonite emigration to the Americas (U.S., Canada and Paraguay). Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... The collectivisation campaign in the USSR, 1930s. ... Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, October 26, 1888 – July 25, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ...


When the German army invaded the Soviet Union in the summer of 1941, many in the Mennonite community saw them as liberators from the communist regime under which they had suffered. When the tide of war turned, many of the Mennonites fled with the German army back to Germany where they were accepted as "Volksdeutsche". After the war the remainder of the Mennonite community emigrated or, (because, as the Soviets saw it, they had "collectively collaborated" with the Germans) was forcefully relocated to Siberia and Kazakhstan, and many were sent to the Gulag. German-Russian Mennonites who lived further to the East (not Western Russia) were deported to Siberia before the German army's invasion, and were also often placed in labor camps. In the 1990s the Russian government gave these people the opportunity to emigrate. The Russian Mennonite immigrants in Germany outnumber the pre-1989 community of Mennonites in Germany by 3 to 1. Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ...


North America

Persecution and the search for employment forced Mennonites out of the Netherlands eastward to Germany in the 17th century. As Quaker evangelists moved into Germany they received a sympathetic audience among the larger of these Dutch-Mennonite congregations around Krefeld, Altona-Hamburg, Gronau and Emden.[3] It was among this group of Quakers and Mennonites, living under ongoing discrimination, that William Penn solicited settlers for his new colony. The first permanent settlement of Mennonites in the American Colonies consisted of one Mennonite family and twelve Mennonite-Quaker[4] families of Dutch extraction who arrived from Krefeld, Germany in 1683 and settled in Germantown, Pennsylvania. Among these early settlers was William Rittenhouse, a lay minister and owner of the first American paper mill. This early group of Mennonites and Mennonite-Quakers wrote the first formal protest against slavery in America. The treatise was addressed to slave-holding Quakers in an effort to persuade them to change their ways.[5] For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... Krefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Germantown is the name of five places in the State of Pennsylvania and a neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Germantown, Adams County, Pennsylvania Germantown, Cambria County, Pennsylvania Germantown, Columbia County, Pennsylvania Germantown, Franklin County, Pennsylvania Germantown, Pike County, Pennsylvania See also: Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania This is a disambiguation page — a... International Paper Companys Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In the eighteenth century, 100,000 Germans from the Palatinate, collectively known as the Pennsylvania Dutch, immigrated to Pennsylvania. Of these, around 2,500 were Mennonites and 500 Amish.[6] This group settled farther west than the first group, choosing less expensive land in the Lancaster, Pennsylvania, area. A member of this second group, Christopher Dock, authored Pedagogy, the first American monograph on education. Today, Mennonites also reside in Kishacoquillas Valley (also known as Big Valley), a valley in Huntingdon and Mifflin counties, also in Pennsylvania. The Palatinate (German: Pfalz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (German: Rheinpfalz), is a region in south-western Germany. ... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... Nickname: Location of Lancaster County in Pennsylvania Location of Lancaster in Lancaster County Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lancaster Founded 1730 Incorporated March 10, 1818 Government  - Mayor Rick Gray (D) Area  - City  7. ... Christopher Dock (c. ... The Kishacoquillas Valley, or Kish Valley as it is known locally, is an enclosed valley in the Ridge-and-valley Appalachians of Central Pennsylvania, lying between Stone Mountain ridge to the north and Jacks Mountain ridge to the south. ... Huntingdon County is a county located in the state of Pennsylvania. ... Mifflin County is a county located in the state of Pennsylvania. ...


During the Colonial period, Mennonites were distinguished from other Pennsylvania Germans in three ways:[7] their opposition to the American Revolutionary War, resistance to public education and disapproval of religious revivalism. Contributions of Mennonites during this period include the idea of separation of church and state and opposition to slavery. This article is about military actions only. ...


From 1812 to 1860, another wave of immigrants settled farther west in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri. These Swiss-German speaking Mennonites, along with Amish, came from Switzerland and the Alsace-Lorraine area. Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ...

Mennonite Church logo
Mennonite Church logo

The Swiss-German Mennonites that migrated to North America in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries settled first in Pennsylvania, then across the Midwestern states (initially Ohio, Indiana, and Kansas) are the root to the former Mennonite Church denomination (MC), colloquially called the "Old Mennonite Church". This denomination had offices in Elkhart, Indiana, and was the most populous Mennonite denomination before merging with the General Conference Mennonite Church (GCMC) in 2002. Image File history File links MC-logo. ... Image File history File links MC-logo. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Elkhart (IPA: ) is a city located about 100 miles due east of Chicago in Elkhart County, Indiana, United States. ...

General Conference Mennonite Church logo

The General Conference Mennonite Church was an association of Mennonite congregations based in North America beginning in 1860. The conference was formed in 1860 when congregations in Iowa invited North American Mennonites to join together in order to pursue common goals such an education and mission work. The conference was especially attractive to recent Mennonite and Amish immigrants to North America and expanded considerably when thousands of Russian Mennonites arrived in North America starting in the 1870s. Conference offices were located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and North Newton, Kansas. The conference supported a seminary and several colleges. It became the second largest Mennonite denomination with 64,431 members in 410 congregations in Canada, the United States and South America in the 1990s.[8] After decades of increasingly closer cooperation with the Mennonite Church, the two groups voted to merge in 1995 and completed reorganization into Mennonite Church Canada in 2000 and Mennonite Church USA in 2002. Image File history File links Gcmc-logo. ... Image File history File links Gcmc-logo. ... The General Conference Mennonite Church was an association of Mennonite congregations based in North America from 1860 to 2002. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Winnipeg (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... North Newton is a city located in Harvey County, Kansas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Mennonite Church Canada logo. ... Mennonite Church USA logo. ...


Mennonites in Canada were automatically exempt from any type of service during World War I by provisions of the Order in Council of 1873. During World War II, Mennonite conscientious objectors were given the options of noncombatant military service, serving in the medical or dental corps under military control or working in parks and on roads under civilian supervision. Over 95% chose the latter and were placed in Alternative Service camps.[9] Initially the men worked on road building, forestry and firefighting projects. After May 1943, as a labour shortage developed within the nation, men were shifted into agriculture, education and industry. The 10,700 Canadian objectors were mostly Mennonites (63%) and Doukhobors (20%).[10] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in the United Kingdom and in the Commonwealth of Nations which is formally made in the name of the Queen by the Privy Council (Queen-in-Council), or the Governor-General in a Commonwealth realm or Governor by the Executive Council... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. ... The Doukhobors (Duchobozetz, Duchobortzi) (Russian: ) are a Christian dissenting sect of Russian origin. ...

Mennonite conscientious objector Harry Lantz distributes rat poison for typhus control in Gulfport, Mississippi (1946).
Mennonite conscientious objector Harry Lantz distributes rat poison for typhus control in Gulfport, Mississippi (1946).

In the United States, Civilian Public Service (CPS) provided an alternative to military service during World War II. From 1941 to 1947, 4,665 Mennonites, Amish and Brethren in Christ[11] were among nearly 12,000 conscientious objectors who performed work of national importance in 152 CPS camps throughout the United States and Puerto Rico. The draftees worked in areas such as soil conservation, forestry, fire fighting, agriculture, social services and mental health. Image File history File links CPS141ratpoison. ... Image File history File links CPS141ratpoison. ... Endemic typhus is caused by certain species of Rickettsia - namely , transmitted by fleas infesting rats, and less often , transmitted by fleas carried by cats or opossums. ... Location of Gulfport in the State of Mississippi Coordinates: , Country United States State Mississippi County Harrison Founded Incorporated Government  - Mayor Brent Warr Area  - City  64. ... Civilian Public Service (CPS) provided conscientious objectors in the United States an alternative to military service during World War II. From 1941 to 1947 nearly 12,000 draftees, unwilling to do any type of military service, performed work of national importance in 152 CPS camps throughout the United States and... The Brethren in Christ Church (often called B.I.C. Church) is an evangelical Christian denomination with roots in the Mennonite church, pietism, and Wesleyan holiness. ...


The CPS men served without wages and minimal support from the federal government. The cost of maintaining the CPS camps and providing for the needs of the men was the responsibility of their congregations and families. Mennonite Central Committee coordinated the operation of the Mennonite camps. CPS men served longer than regular draftees, not being released until well past the end of the war. Initially skeptical of the program, government agencies learned to appreciate the men's service and requested more workers from the program. CPS made significant contributions to forest fire prevention, erosion and flood control, medical science and reform of the mental health system.


Schools in Canada and the USA

Several Mennonites groups have their own private or parochial schools. Conservative groups, like the Holdeman, have not only their own schools, but their own curriculum and teaching staff (usually, but not exclusively, young unmarried women). Quebec does not allow these parochial schools as the Quebec government imposes its curriculum to all schools (public and private), while private schools may only add optional material to the compulsory curriculum but may not replace it. The Quebec curriculum is unacceptable to the parents of the only Mennonite school in the province. They have said they will leave Quebec after the Education Ministry has threatened legal actions would be taken and the Youth Protection services might become involved if the children were not to register with the Education Ministry and either home school, using the Government approved material, or attend a "sanctioned" school. The local population and its mayor support the local Mennonites. The Evangelical Fellowship of Canada has also written to the Quebec government to express its concerns about this situation. This story has received quite a large echo in circles defending religious freedom, so much so that the Becket Fund placed Quebec on its weekly report of threatened religious traditions. Latest reports indicate that several Mennonites families have already left Quebec to protect their children. This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Evangelical Fellowship of Canada (EFC) is a national parachurch association of over 140 affiliated church denominations, ministry organizations, educational institutions, and 1,000 local church congregations. ... The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty is a non-profit organization based in Washington, DC that describes itself as a nonprofit, nonpartisan, interfaith, legal and educational institute dedicated to protecting the free expression of all religious traditions. ...


Sexual, marriage, and family mores

The Mennonite church has no formal celibate religious order similar to monasticism, but recognizes the legitimacy of and honors both the single state and the sanctity of marriage of its members. Single persons are expected to be chaste and marriage is held to be a lifelong, monogamous, faithful covenant between a man and a woman. Divorce is discouraged and it is believed that the "hardness of the heart" of people is the ultimate cause of divorce. Some Mennonite churches have disciplined members who have unilaterally divorced their spouses outside of cases of sexual unfaithfulness or acute abuse. Until approximately the 1960s or 1970s, before the more widespread urbanization of the Mennonite demographic, divorce was in fact quite rare. In recent times, divorce is more common and also carries less stigma, particularly in cases where abuse was apparent. Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


Traditionally, very modest dress (apparent mostly in women's apparel) was expected, particularly in conservative Mennonite circles, but again, as the Mennonite population became urbanized and more integrated into the wider culture, this visible difference has disappeared outside of conservative Mennonite groups.


Some regional conferences (the Mennonite counterpart to dioceses of other denominations) of the Mennonite Church have acted to expel member congregations that have granted membership to non-celibate homosexuals. These expulsions have been and continue to be controversial in the moderate Mennonite conferences.[citation needed] In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ...


Some of these expelled congregations were dually affiliated with the Mennonite Church and the General Conference Mennonite Church, the latter which did not act to expel the same congregations. When these two Mennonite denominations formally completed their merger in 2002 to become the new Mennonite Church USA and Mennonite Church Canada denominations, it was still not clear, in all cases, whether or not the congregations that were expelled from one denomination, yet included in the other, are considered to be "inside" or "outside" of the new merged denomination. Also, some Mennonite conferences have chosen to maintain such "disciplined" congregations as "associate" or "affiliate" congregations in the conferences rather than to expel such congregations. In virtually every case, a dialogue continues between the disciplined congregations and the denomination as well as their current or former conferences.[12]


The Mennonite church in the Netherlands (Doopsgezinde Kerk) was the first Dutch church to have a female pastor — Anna Zernike, authorized in 1911.[13] About one century later over 40% of all Doopsgezinde Kerk pastors are female.[citation needed]


The Doopsgezinde Kerk was in the 1970s also the first to accept homosexual pastors (whether male or female).[citation needed] In 2001, when homosexual marriage was introduced in the Netherlands, the Doopsgezinde Kerk with the Remonstrantse Kerk was the first to solemnize homosexual marriages.[citation needed]


Theology

Mennonite theology emphasizes the primacy of the teachings of Jesus as recorded in New Testament scripture. They hold in common the ideal of a religious community based on New Testament models and imbued with the spirit of the Sermon on the Mount. Their core beliefs deriving from Anabaptist traditions are: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Sermon...

  • The authority of Scripture and the Holy Spirit.
  • Salvation through conversion by the Spirit of God
  • Believer's baptism understood as threefold: Baptism by the spirit (internal change of heart), baptism by water (public demonstration of witness), and baptism by blood (martyrdom and asceticism or the practice of strict self-denial as a measure of personal and especially spiritual discipline).
  • Discipleship understood as an outward sign of an inward change.
  • Discipline in the church, informed by New Testament teaching, particularly of Jesus (for example Matthew 18:15-18). Some Mennonite churches practice the Meidung (shunning).
  • The Lord's Supper understood as a memorial rather than as a sacrament or Christian rite, ideally shared by baptized believers within the unity and discipline of the church.[14]

One of the earliest expressions of their faith was the Schleitheim Confession, adopted on February 24, 1527. Its seven articles covered: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... The Schleitheim Confession was a declaration of Swiss Anabaptist belief, endorsed unanimously by a meeting of Swiss Anabaptists in 1527 in Schleitheim (Switzerland). ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ...

The Dordrecht Confession of Faith was adopted on April 21, 1632, by Dutch Mennonites, by Alsatian Mennonites in 1660, and by North American Mennonites in 1725. There is no official creed or catechism of which acceptance is required by congregations or members. However, there are structures and traditions taught as in the Confession of Faith in a Mennonite Perspective[15] of Mennonite Church Canada and Mennonite Church USA. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A pastor is an... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nonresistance (or non-resistance) discourages physical resistance to an enemy and is a subdivision of nonviolence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Dordrecht Confession of Faith is a statement of religious beliefs adopted by Dutch Mennonite leaders at a meeting in Dordrecht, Netherland, on April 21, 1632. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... Codex Manesse, fol. ...


Worship, doctrine, and tradition

There is a wide scope of worship, doctrine and traditions among Mennonites today. This section shows the main types of Mennonites as seen from North America. It is far from a specific study of all Mennonite classifications worldwide but it does show a somewhat representative sample of the complicated classifications within the Mennonite faith worldwide. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


Moderate Mennonites include the largest denominations, the Mennonite Brethren and the Mennonite Church. In most forms of worship and practice they differ very little from Protestant congregations. There is no special form of dress and no restrictions on use of technology. Worship styles vary greatly between different congregations. There is no formal liturgy; services typically consist of singing, scripture reading, prayer and a sermon. Some churches prefer hymns and choirs; others make use of contemporary Christian music with electronic instruments. Mennonite congregations are self-supporting and appoint their own ministers. There is no requirement for ministers to be approved by the denomination, and sometimes ministers from other denominations will be appointed. A small sum, based on membership numbers, is paid to the denomination, which is used to support central functions such as publication of newsletters and interactions with other denominations and other countries. The distinguishing characteristics of moderate Mennonite churches tend to be ones of emphasis rather than rule. There is an emphasis on peace, on community and service. However, members do not live in community — they participate in the general community as 'salt and light' to the world (Matt 5:13,14). The main elements of Menno Simons doctrine are retained, but in a moderated form. Banning is rarely practiced and would in any event have much less effect than those denominations where community is more tight-knit. Excommunication can occur, and was notably applied by the Mennonite Brethren to members who joined the military during the Second World War. Service in the military is generally not permitted, but service in the legal profession or law enforcement is acceptable. Outreach and help to the wider community at home and abroad is encouraged. Mennonite Central Committee is a leader in foreign aid provision. Ten Thousand Villages acts as a reseller of fair trade goods. The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Ten Thousand Villages is a program of the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) started in 1946 that pioneered the concept of fair trade by buying crafts directly from artisans in the developing world and paying a living wage. ... For other uses, see Fair trade (disambiguation). ...


The Reformed Mennonite Church, with members in the United States and Canada, represents the first division in the original North American Mennonite body. Called the First Keepers of the Old Way by author Stephen Scott, the Reformed Mennonite Church formed in the very early 19th century. Reformed Mennonites see themselves as true followers of Menno Simon's teachings and of the teachings of the New Testament. They have no church rules, but they rely solely on the Bible as their guide. They insist on strict separation from all other forms of worship and dress in conservative plain garb that preserves eighteenth century Mennonite details. However, they refrain from forcing their Mennonite faith on their children, allow their children to attend public schools, and have permitted the use of automobiles. They are notable for being the church of Milton S. Hershey's mother and famous for the long and bitter ban of Robert Bear, a Pennsylvania farmer who rebelled against what he saw as dishonesty and disunity in the leadership. The Reformed Mennonite Church, with just 400 members in the United States and Canada, represents the first split from the main North American Mennonite body. ... Menno Simons - wood engraving by Christoffel van Sichem 1610 Menno Simons (1496–1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Milton Snavely Hershey (September 13, 1857 – October 13, 1945) was an American businessman and philanthropist. ...


Holdeman Mennonites were founded from a schism in 1859, the Church of God in Christ, Mennonite church has about 19,000 members worldwide. They are known as Holdeman Mennonites after their founder. They emphasize evangelical conversion, strict church discipline and shunning of the excommunicated. They stay separate from other Mennonite groups because of their emphasis on the one-true church doctrine and their use of strict shunning against their own excommunicated members. Church of God in Christ, Mennonite is a Christian group of Anabaptist heritage; a 19th century offshot of the Old Order Mennonite Church. ...


Old Order Mennonites cover many distinct groups. Some groups use horse and buggies for transportation and speak German while others drive cars and speak English. What most Old Orders share in common is conservative doctrine, dress, and traditions, common roots in nineteenth and early twentieth century schisms, and a refusal to participate in politics and other so-called 'sins of the world'. Most Old Order groups also school their children in Mennonite-operated schools. Old Order Mennonites are a branch of the Mennonite church. ...

Mennonite Horse and Carriage
Mennonite Horse and Carriage
  • Horse and Buggy Old Order Mennonites came from the main series of Old Order schisms that began in 1872 and ended in 1901 as conservative Mennonites fought the radical changes that the influence of nineteenth century American revivalism had on Mennonite worship. Most Horse and Buggy Old Order Mennonites allow the use of tractors for farming, although some groups insist on steel-wheeled tractors to prevent tractors from being used for road transportation. Like the Stauffer or Pike Mennonites, they stress separation from the world, excommunicate and wear plain clothes. Unlike the Stauffer or Pike Mennonites their form of the Ban is less severe because the ex-communicant is not shunned, therefore is not excluded from the family table, shunned by a spouse or cutoff from business dealings.
  • Automobile Old Order Mennonites also evolved from the main series of Old Order schisms from 1872-1901. They often share the same meeting houses with, and adhere to almost identical forms of Old Order worship as their Horse and Buggy Old Order brethren with whom they parted ways in the early 1900s. Although this group began using cars in 1927, the cars were required to be plain and painted black. The largest group of Automobile Old Orders are still known today as 'Black Bumper' Mennonites because some members still paint their chrome bumpers black.

Stauffer Mennonite or Pike Mennonites represent the first and most conservative form of Horse and Buggy Mennonites. They were founded in 1845, following conflicts about how to discipline child and spousal abuse by a few Mennonite church members. They almost immediately began to split into separate churches themselves. Today these groups are among the most conservative of all Swiss Mennonites outside the Amish. They stress strict separation from "the world", adhere to "strict withdrawal from and shunning of apostate and separated members", forbid and limit cars and technology, and wear plain clothing. They are now considered to be part of the larger less-conservative Horse and Buggy Old Order Mennonite group which formed from later schisms. Image File history File links Mennonite_and_carriage_publ. ... Image File history File links Mennonite_and_carriage_publ. ... Old Order Mennonites are a branch of the Mennonite church. ... Child abuse is the physical or sexual maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... Spousal abuse refers to a wide spectrum of abuse. ...


Conservative Mennonites are generally considered those Mennonites who maintain somewhat conservative dress and do not engage in television and radio, although carefully accepting other technology. They are not a unified group and are divided into various independent conferences and fellowships such as the Eastern Pennsylvania Mennonite Church conference. Despite the rapid changes that precipitated the Old Order schisms in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, most Mennonites in the United States and Canada retained a core of traditional beliefs based on literal interpretation of the New Testament Scriptures as well as more external 'Plain' practices into the beginning of the twentieth century. However, disagreements in the United States and Canada between conservative and progressive (i.e. less emphasis on literal interpretation of scriptures) leaders began in the first half of the twentieth century and continue to some extent today. Following WWII, a conservative movement emerged from scattered separatist groups as a reaction to the Mennonite Churches drifting away from the churches historical traditions. 'Plain' became passe as open criticisms of traditional beliefs and practices broke out in the 1950s and 1960s. The first conservative withdrawals from the progressive group began in the 1950s. These withdrawals continue to the present day in what is now the growing Conservative Movement formed from Mennonite schisms and/or from combinations with progressive Amish groups. Other Conservative Mennonite groups descend from the former Amish-Mennonite churches, who split from the Old Order Amish in the latter part of the nineteenth century like the Wisler Mennonites. There are also other Conservative Mennonite churches that descend from more recent groups that have left the Amish. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ...


Progressive Mennonite churches allow homosexual members to worship as church members and have been banned from membership in the moderate groups as result. The Germantown Mennonite Church in Germantown, Pennsylvania [2] is one example of such a progressive Mennonite church. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Membership

Mennonite Children selling peanuts near Lamanai in Belize.
Mennonite Children selling peanuts near Lamanai in Belize.

In 2003, there were 1,297,716 Mennonites in 65 countries. Africa had the highest number of Mennonites with 451,959 members, closely followed by North America with 451,180 members. The third largest concentration of Mennonites was in the Asia/Pacific region with 208,155 members, while the fourth largest region was the one encompassing South America, Central America and the Caribbean, with 133,150 members. Europe, the birthplace of Mennonites, had 53,272 members.[16] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2192 KB) Description: Menonite children selling peanuts to tourists Source: Photo by stanthejeep Date: February 15, 2005 Location: Orange Walk District in Belize near Lamanai Author: stanthejeep File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2192 KB) Description: Menonite children selling peanuts to tourists Source: Photo by stanthejeep Date: February 15, 2005 Location: Orange Walk District in Belize near Lamanai Author: stanthejeep File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Lamanai (from Lamaan Ai, submerged crocodile in Yukatek Maya) is a Mesoamerican archaeological site, and was once a considerably sized city of the Maya civilization, located in the north of Belize, in Orange Walk District. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ...


Africa has the highest membership growth rate by far with 10%-12% rise every year, particularly in Ethiopia. Growth in Mennonite membership is slow but steady in North America, the Asia/Pacific region, and the South/Central America and Caribbean region. Europe has seen a slow and accelerating decline in Mennonite membership since about 1980.


Some churches in North America have begun profiling potential members and with some success have targeted inner city minorities in their recruitment efforts. Growth in the traditional churches is outpacing growth in the moderate churches.


Organization: Worldwide

The most basic unit of organization among Mennonites is the church. There are hundreds or thousands of Mennonite churches, many of which are separate from all others. Some churches are members of regional or area conferences. Some, but far from all, regional or area conferences are members of larger national or world conferences. Thus, there is no single authorized organization that includes all Mennonite churches worldwide.


Instead, there is a host of separate churches along with a myriad of separate conferences with no particular responsibility to any other group. Independent churches can contain as few as 50 members or as many as 20,000 members. Similar size differences occur among separate conferences. Worship, church discipline and lifestyles vary widely between progressive, moderate, conservative, Old Order and orthodox Mennonites in a vast panoply of distinct, independent, and widely dispersed classifications. For these reasons, no single group of Mennonites anywhere can credibly claim to represent, speak for, or lead all Mennonites worldwide.


The eleven largest Mennonite groups are:

  1. Mennonite Brethren (300,000 members on 6 continents worldwide)
  2. Meserete Kristos Church in Ethiopia (120,600 members;126,000 more followers attending alike churches)[17]
  3. Mennonite Church USA with 114,000 members in the United States
  4. Brethren in Christ with 100,000 US and worldwide members
  5. Communauté Mennonite au Congo (87,000).
  6. Kanisa La Mennonite Tanzania with 50,000 members in 240 congregations
  7. Deutsche Mennonitengemeinden with 40,000 members in Germany[3]
  8. Mennonite Church Canada with 35,000 members in Canada
  9. Church of God in Christ, Mennonite with 16,000 members in 240 US churches and 2000 members in 13 other countries (1995 data)
  10. Conservative Mennonite Conference, 11,000 members in the North America, plus 34,000 affiliate members in 8 countries worldwide.
  11. Beachy Amish Mennonite, with 10,000 US members (159 congregrations) plus many international locations.

The remaining 20 or so other smaller independent Churches, and Conferences numbering only a few churches and a few hundred members.[18] Finally, there are 100 or more small independent churches with one or a few congregations numbering from as high as 2,000 members to as low as a 40 members. The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Meserete Kristos Church , meaning Christ is the foundation Church (based on I Cor. ... Mennonite Church USA logo. ... The Brethren in Christ Church (often called B.I.C. Church) is an evangelical Christian denomination with roots in the Mennonite church, pietism, and Wesleyan holiness. ... Mennonite Church Canada logo. ... Church of God in Christ, Mennonite is a Christian group of Anabaptist heritage; a 19th century offshot of the Old Order Mennonite Church. ... The Conservative Mennonite Conference (CMC) is a Christian body of conservative evangelical Mennonite churches. ... The Beachy Amish Mennonite Church arose from a 1927 division in the (Casselman) River Old Order Amish congregation in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. ...


The Mennonite World Conference is a global community of 95 Mennonite and Brethren in Christ Mennonite national Churches from 51 countries on six continents. It exists to "facilitate community between Anabaptist-related churches worldwide, and relate to other Christian world communions and organizations", but it is not a 'governing body' of any kind. It is a voluntary community of faith whose decisions are not binding on member churches. The member churches of Mennonite World Conference include the Mennonite Brethren, the Mennonite Church USA, and the Mennonite Church Canada, with a combined total membership of at least 400,000, or about 30% of Mennonites worldwide. The Mennonite World Conference (MWC) is a body that attempts to bring fellowship and communication to diverse Anabaptist bodies across the world. ...


Organization: North America

In 2003, there were about 323,000 Mennonites in the United States.[19] About 110,000 were members of Mennonite Church USA churches, while about 26,000 were members of Mennonite Brethren churches. About 30,000 (according to Scott) were members of conservative and old order churches. (That leaves about 159,000 Mennonites unaccounted for in other United States' churches). Other sources list 236,084 total United States Mennonites.[20] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,181 × 1,675 pixels, file size: 848 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,181 × 1,675 pixels, file size: 848 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Alexanderwohl Mennonite Church of Goessel, Kansas is a congregation affiliated with the Mennonite Church USA. The church has a long and illustrious history going back to the 16th century in Europe. ... Goessel is a city in Marion County, Kansas, United States. ...


Total membership in Mennonite Church USA denominations decreased from about 133,000, before the merger in 1998, to about 114,000 after the merger in 2003. The Mennonite Church USA has begun profiling potential members and has been successful at recruiting inner-city minorities into the church in several large cities in the United States. Significant growth in the conservative churches seems to be occurring by itself in the already existing communities.


In Canada, in 2003 there were around 130,000 Mennonites.[21] About 37,000 of those were members of Mennonite Church Canada churches and about another 35,000 of those were members of Mennonite Brethren churches. About 5,000 belonged to conservative Old Order Mennonite churches, or other ultra-conservative and orthodox churches. (That leaves about 55,000 Mennonites unaccounted for in other Canadian churches).


As of 2003, there were an estimated 80,000 Old Colony Mennonites in Mexico.[22] These Mennonites descend from a mass migration in the 1920s of roughly 6,000 Old Colony Mennonites from the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. In 1921, a Canadian Mennonite delegation arriving in Mexico received a privilegium, a promise of non-interference, from the Mexican government. This guarantee of many freedoms was the impetus that created the two original Old Colony settlements near Patos (Nuevo Ideal), Durango, and Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua.[23]


See also

Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Like the two best-known Anabaptist denominations, the Amish and the Mennonites, the Hutterites had their beginnings in the Radical Reformation of the 16th Century. ... Mennonite Central Committee logo. ... The Mennonite Church in the Netherlands, or Algemene Doopsgezinde Sociëteit, is a body of Mennonite Christians in the Netherlands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Schleitheim Confession was a declaration of Swiss Anabaptist belief, endorsed unanimously by a meeting of Swiss Anabaptists in 1527 in Schleitheim (Switzerland). ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals may pursue for a variety of motivations, such as spirituality, health, or ecology. ... Eastern Mennointe Missions (EMM) is a mission agency primarily supported by congregations of Lancaster Mennonite Conference, an area conference of Mennonite Church USA. EMM connects with nearly 200 long-term workers (some seconded to other organizations), and sends about a hundred short-term workers per year to thirty-seven countries. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Mennonite Disaster Service. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  2. ^ Mennonite Conciliation Service. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  3. ^ Smith p.139
  4. ^ Smith p.360. Smith uses Mennonite-Quaker to refer to Quakers who were formerly Mennonite and retained distinctive Mennonite beliefs and practices.
  5. ^ See A Minute Against Slavery, Addressed to Germantown Monthly Meeting, 1688 for text of the meetings message.
  6. ^ Pannabacker p. 7.
  7. ^ Pannabacker p. 12.
  8. ^ Horsch, p. 16
  9. ^ Gingerich p. 420.
  10. ^ Krahn, pp. 76-78.
  11. ^ Gingerich p. 452.
  12. ^ Religious Tolerance.org: The Mennonite Churches and Homosexuality
  13. ^ Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online: Mankes-Zernike, Anna (1887-1972)
  14. ^ In connection with the Lord's Supper, some Mennonites practice feet washing as continuing outer sign of humility within the church. Feet washing was not originally an Anabaptist practice. Pilgram Marpeck before 1556 included it, and it became widespread in the late 1500s and the 1600s. Today it is practiced by some as a memorial sacrament, in memory of Christ washing the feet of his disciples as recorded in the thirteenth chapter of the Gospel of John.
  15. ^ Confession of Faith in a Mennonite Perspective. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  16. ^ 2003 Mennonite & Brethren in Christ World Membership - Mennonite World Conference
  17. ^ Mennonite Weekly Review, 2004-10-12, Ethiopian church strives to keep spiritual fires alive
  18. ^ Mennonite & Brethren in Christ World Directory 2003
  19. ^ United States and Worldwide Mennonite Membership Statistics (source Mennonite Church USA)
  20. ^ Mennonites in the United States. Mennonite Weekly Review (2005-06-20). Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  21. ^ Mennonites in Canada. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  22. ^ The Mennonite Old Colony Vision: Under siege in Mexico and the Canadian Connection (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  23. ^ Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online: Old Colony Mennonites

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Feet washing is a religious rite observed as an ordinance by several Christian denominations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mennonite World Conference (MWC) is a body that attempts to bring fellowship and communication to diverse Anabaptist bodies across the world. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Gingerich, Melvin (1949), Service for Peace, A History of Mennonite Civilian Public Service, Mennonite Central Committee.
  • Horsch, James E. (Ed.) (1999), Mennonite Directory, Herald Press. ISBN 0-8361-9454-3
  • Krahn, Cornelius, Gingerich, Melvin & Harms, Orlando (Eds.) (1955). The Mennonite Encyclopedia, Volume I, pp. 76-78. Mennoniite Publishing House.
  • Mennonite & Brethren in Christ World Directory 2003. Available On-line at http://www.mwc-cmm.org/Directory/index.htm
  • Pannabecker, Samuel Floyd (1975), Open Doors: A History of the General Conference Mennonite Church, Faith and Life Press. ISBN 0-87303-636-0
  • Scott, Stephen (1995), An Introduction to Old Order and Conservative Mennonite Groups, Good Books, ISBN 1-56148-101-7
  • Smith, C. Henry (1981), Smith's Story of the Mennonites Fifth Edition, Faith and Life Press. ISBN 0-87303-060-5

External links

  • Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online (GAMEO)
  • A message to Conservative Mennonite groups in South America

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