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Encyclopedia > Menno van Coehoorn
Menno van Coehoorn
Menno van Coehoorn

Menno, baron van Coehoorn (1641March 17, 1704), was a Dutch soldier and military engineer of Swedish extraction. He made a number of influential weaponry innovations in siege warfare and fortification techniques. He was also known as the "Hollandish Vauban" (Hollandse Vauban), Vauban being his famous French counterpart. Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ...

Contents

Early Life

Coehoorn was born in the city of Leeuwarden in the Dutch province of Friesland. He received an excellent military and general education, and at the age of sixteen became a captain in the Dutch army. During the Anglo-Dutch Wars, he took part in the defence of Maastricht in 1673 and in the siege of Grave in 1674, where he used the small mortars (called coehorns) invented by him to great effect against the French garrison. He was promoted to the rank of colonel for his gallant conduct at the battle of Seneffe (1674), and was also present at the Battle of Cassel (1677) and the Battle of Saint Denis (1678). Leeuwarden ( (help· info), Frisian: Ljouwert) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... The painting Dutch attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, painted c. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Grave is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Battle of Seneffe Conflict Third Anglo-Dutch War Date August 11, 1674 Place Near Seneffe, Belgium Result French victory The Battle of Seneffe was fought on August 11, French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé against the Dutch-Austrian army under William III of Orange. ... The Battle of Cassel was fought on April 11, 1677, as a part of the Franco-Dutch War. ... 1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Saint-Denis was fought on August 14 & 15 1678 between the French army under Marshal Luxembourg and the Dutch army under William III near Saint-Denis, a little village outside Mons, Belgium. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ...


Military Innovations

The circumstances of the time and the country turned Coehoorn's attention to the art of fortification, and the events of the late war showed him that existing methods could no longer be relied upon. Coehoorn gained most of his knowledge and insights on the building of fortification by having to capture many of them himself. His first published work, Versterchinge de Vijfhoeks met alle syne Buytenwerken (Leeuwarden, 1682), at once aroused attention, and involved the author in a lively controversy with a rival engineer, Louys Paan (Leeuwarden, 1682, 1683; copies are in the library of the Dutch Ministry of Defence). The military authorities were much interested in his work, and entrusted Coehoorn with the reconstruction of several fortresses in the Netherlands. This task he continued throughout his career and his experience made him the worthy rival of his great contemporary Vauban. He formulated his ideas a little later in his chief work, New fortress Construction (Nieuwe Vestingbouw op een natte of lage horisont, Leeuwarden, 1685), in which he laid down three systems, the characteristic feature of which was the multiplicity and great saliency of the works, which were calculated and in principle are still eminently suited for, flat and almost marshy sites such as those in the Low Countries. Essential to his new approach was the ability to fight an active defence on the outer shores of the enveloping ditch, made possible by constructing an extra protective wall around the fortification. Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... The Ministry of Defence (Ministerie van Defensie; Def) is the Dutch Ministry of Defence: it is occupied with coordinating military of the Netherlands. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...


He borrowed many of the details from the works of his Dutch predecessor Freytag, of Albrecht Dürer, and of the German engineer Speckle, and in general he aimed rather at the adaptation of his principles to the requirements of individual sites than at producing a geometrically and theoretically perfect fortress. Throughout his career he never hesitated to depart from his own rules in dealing with exceptional cases, such as that of Groningen. Subsequent editions of Nieuwe Vestingbouw appeared in Dutch (1702, and frequently afterwards), English (London, 1705), French (Wesel, 1705), and German (Düsseldorf, 1709). Coehoorn's individual assessment of each fortification and focus on existing natural advantages and disadvantages is the main difference in thinking from Vauban, who adhered more strictly to mathematics and standard fortifications. Freitag, Freytag (Friday) refers to: Günther Freitag Jacques Freitag Michel Freitag Wayss & Freitag Freytag Arny Freytag Bernd Freytag Bernd Freytag von Loringhoven Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Freytag Gustav Freytag(Gustav Freitag) Freytag und Berndt(Freytag & Berndt), Viennese publisher Freytags pyramid This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Laser speckle on a digital camera image from a green laser pointer. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ...


In the War of the Grand Alliance (16891697) Coehoorn served as a brigadier. At the battle of Fleurus he greatly distinguished himself, and in 1692 he defended Namur, a fortress of his own creation. Namur was taken by Vauban; but the Dutch engineer had his revenge three years later, when the place, on which in the meantime Vauban had lavished his skill, fell to his attack. Coehoorn became lieutenant-general and inspector-general of the Netherlands fortresses, and the high-German peoples as well as his own countrymen honored him. He commanded a corps in the army of the Duke of Marlborough from 1701 to 1703, and in the constant siege warfare of these campaigns in the Low Countries his technical skill was of the highest value. The swift reduction of the fortress of Bonn and the siege of Huy in 1703 were his crowning successes. At the opening of his following campaign he was on his way to confer with Marlborough when he died of apoplexy at Wijkel. Combatants  Denmark Dutch Republic, England,[3]  Holy Roman Empire,  Portugal Duchy of Savoy, Spain,  Sweden France, Jacobites Commanders William III, Prince Waldeck, Duke of Savoy, Duke of Lorraine , Elector of Bavaria, Prince of Baden Louis XIV, Duc de Luxembourg â€ , Duc de Villeroi, Duc de Lorge, Duc de Boufflers, Nicolas Catinat... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Spain Holy Roman Empire Commanders Duc de Luxembourg Prince of Waldeck Strength 35,000 38,000 Casualties 3,000 dead 3,000 wounded 6,000 dead 5,000 wounded 8,000 captured The Battle of Fleurus took place on July 1, 1690. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... As at Liege, the city of Namur had been fortified between 1888 and 1892 under the direction of military engineer Brialmont with the construction of a ring of forts around the city. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... In a civilian or military administration, an Inspector General is a high ranking official charged with the mission to inspect and report on some bodies in his field of competency. ... This article is about a military unit. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Huy (Walloon: Hu; French: Huy, Dutch: Hoei) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... Apoplexy is an old-fashioned medical term, generally used interchangeably with cerebrovascular accident (CVA or stroke) but having other meanings as well. ...


Applications of the Coehoorn-system

His first system was applied to numerous places in the Netherlands, notably Nijmegen, Breda and Bergen op Zoom. Mannheim in Germany was also fortified in this way, while the second system was applied to Belgrade and Temesvar in eastern Europe. Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. ... Bergen op Zoom is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania showing Timisoara Timişoara (Hungarian: Temesvár, German: Temeswar or Temeschburg, Serbian: Temišvar, Turkish: Tamışvar) is a city in western Romania, in the Banat region, Timiş county, population 329,554 in 2000. ...


Trivia

  • Coehoorn's son, Gosewijn Theodor van Coehoorn, wrote a biography (re-edited Syperstein, Leeuwarden, 1860).
  • Andrzej Sapkowski, Polish fantasy writer, used Menno van Coehoorn's name for one of the Nilfgaard marchals in the five book "Saga" about The Hexer.

For other uses, see Biography (disambiguation). ... Andrzej Sapkowski Andrzej Sapkowski, born June 21, 1948 in Łódź, is a Polish fantasy writer. ... The Witcher or The Hexer (Polish: Wiedźmin) named Geralt is a character created by Andrzej Sapkowski. ...

External links

  • 1911 Encyclopedia Brittanica
  • Article on Coehoorn at fortified-places.com

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Menno, Baron Van Coehoorn - LoveToKnow 1911 (572 words)
MENNO COEHOORN, BARON VAN (1641-1704), Dutch soldier and military engineer, of Swedish extraction, was born at Leeuwarden in Friesland.
The circumstances of the time and the country turned Coehoorn's attention to the art of fortification, and the events of the late war showed him that existing methods could no longer be relied upon.
From 1688 to the treaty of Ryswick Coehoorn served as a brigadier.
Menno van Coehoorn (2129 words)
Menno van Coehoorn descended from a family that had its roots in Germany and had come to the United Provinces with the troops of William of Orange.
Coehoorn quickly concentrated the artillery against a part of the city and after an assault the city itself was surrendered on 3 August.
Coehoorn's conquest of Namur was a decisive event during the war of the Ligue of Augsburg.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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