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Encyclopedia > Mengjiang
Mengkiang
Mengjiang United Autonomous Government
Puppet state of Japan

1936 - 1945

Flag of Mengjiang A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Mengjiang. ...


Flag

Capital Kalgan
Language(s) Japanese, Mongolian
Political structure Puppet state
History
 - Established 1936
 - Disestablished 1945

Mengjiang (Chinese: 蒙疆; pinyin: Měngjiāng; Wade-Giles: Meng-chiang; Postal map spelling: Mengkiang), also known in English as Mongol Border Land, was a puppet state in Inner Mongolia controlled by Japan. It consisted of the then-provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, corresponding to the central part of modern Inner Mongolia. It is occasionally called Mengkukuo or Mongokuo, after Manchukuo, another Japanese puppet state in China, amongst named Mongkyo in Japanese. Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Zhangjiakou (Simplified Chinese: 张家口; Traditional Chinese: 張家口; pinyin: ; Mongolian: Чуулалт Хаалга [Čūlalt Hālga]) is a city in Hebei Province, China. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Chinese Postal Map Romanization (Traditional Chinese: 郵政式拼音; Pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì PÄ«nyÄ«n) refers to the system of romanization for Chinese place names which came into use in the late Qing dynasty and was officially sanctioned by the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference (帝國郵電聯席會議), which was held in Shanghai in the... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chahar (察哈爾 in pinyin: Cháhāěr), also known as Chahaer, Chakhar, or Qahar, was a 24-year-old China established in 1912 now mostly in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. ... Suíyuǎn (綏遠) was a historical province of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of...

Although intended to harness Mongol nationalism to support Japanese aims, this goal was undercut by the fact that the Japanese drew the borders of Mengjiang to produce a state that was 80 percent Han Chinese. Prince Demchugdongrub (February 8, 1902 - May 23, 1966) , was the leader of a Mongol independence movement in Inner Mongolia. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Zhangjiakou (Simplified Chinese: 张家口; Traditional Chinese: 張家口; pinyin: ; Mongolian: Чуулалт Хаалга [Čūlalt Hālga]) is a city in Hebei Province, China. ... An era name was assigned as the name of each year by the leader (emperor or king) of the East Asian countries of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam during some portion of their history. ... This article is about the person. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...

Contents

History

Mengjiang flag (before 1939)
Mengjiang flag (before 1939)

Formed in May 12, 1936, the Mongol Military Government (蒙古軍政府) was renamed in October 1937 as the Mongol United Autonomous Government (蒙古聯盟自治政府). On September 1, 1939, the predominantly Han Chinese puppet governments of South Chahar Autonomous Government and North Shanxi Autonomous Government were merged with the Mongol Autonomous Government, creating the new Mengjiang United Autonomous Government (蒙疆聯合自治政府). is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...


The capital was established at Chan Pei, near Kalgan, with the puppet government's control extending around Hohhot. On August 4, 1941, it was again renamed: the Mongolian Autonomous Federation (蒙古自治邦). After Wang Jingwei formed a collaborationist government of China in Nanjing, Mengjiang was nominally put under it, though in reality it was not administered by the Nanjing government. Zhangjiakou (Simplified Chinese: 张家口; Traditional Chinese: 張家口; pinyin: ; Mongolian: Чуулалт Хаалга [Čūlalt Hālga]) is a city in Hebei Province, China. ... Hohhot (Chinese: 呼和浩特; Pinyin: HÅ«héhàotè; Mongolian: Ð¥Ó©Ñ… хот), occasionally spelled Huhehot or Huhhot, is the capital city of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region in the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Wang Jingwei * Courtesy name: Jixin (季新) * Alternate name: Zhaoming (兆銘). Wang Jingwei (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wang Ching-wei) (May 4, 1883 – November 10, 1944), was a Chinese politician. ... The Wang Jingwei was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ...


The state disappeared in 1945 when it was invaded by Russian and Mongol Red Army forces as part of Operation August Storm, the Soviet attack on Imperial Japan in the final weeks of World War II. It became part of Inner Mongolia of the People's Republic of China. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Mongolian Peoples Army (Red Mongolian Army) was a secondary army under the Soviet Red Army command during the 1920s and during World War II. // One of the first actions of the new Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party authorities was the creation of a native communist army in 1920... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Politics

List of political institutions:

  • Mongolian Royal Family
  • Japanese Central Academy of Kalgan
  • Directorate General of Communications
  • Bank of Mengjiang
  • Mongolian Military Command Headquarters
  • Mengjiang national army
  • United Autonomous Mongolian Aimags
  • Autonomous Government of Northern Shanxi
  • Autonomous Government of Southern Chahar
  • The United Autonomous Government of Mengjiang
  • Government Mongol administrative uls
  • Inner Mongolia Pailingmiao Autonomous Political Council (Mongolian political movement)

Notable people: Historically, Mongolia does not have a royal family per se. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Demchugdongrub:-Native head of state,Khungtayji(noble descendant of Genghis Khan family), also commander Mongolian Military Command Headquarters.
  • Kanji Tsuneoka:-Japanese military adviser, he led of Central Academy in Kalgan, the Japanese secret services in area and was represent real powerin nation
  • Mr.Toyonori Yamauchi:-as the political advisor on a mission to "inherit the great spirit of Genghis Khan and retake the territories that belong to Mongolia, completing the grand task of reviving the prosperity of the nationality".
  • Yoshio Kozuki:-Commanding General, Mongolia Army
  • Ichiro Shichida:-Commanding General, Mongolia Garrison Army
  • Gen Sugiyama:-concurrently Commanding General, Mongolia Garrison
  • Sadamu Shimomura:-Commander of Mongolia Garrison Army
  • Hiroshi Nemoto:-Commander of Mongolia Garrison Army
  • Shinichi Tanaka:-Chief of Staff, Mongolia Garrison Army
  • Hideki Tojo:-Commander, the 1st Independent Mixed Brigade, Chahar Expeditionary Force
  • Commander Sakai:- the direct tank commader,1st Independent Mixed Brigade
  • Kitsuju Ayabe:-Colonel, engaged in Chahar area operation as Staff Officer, Kwantung Army, North China Detachment
  • Hiroshi Nemoto:-Commander of 18th Army (with Hq in Kalgan)
  • Torashiro Kawabe: some Army adviser in area for sometimes
  • local warlord Li Shou-hsin,in Chahar Provence in Mengjiang area

See also: National symbols of Mengjiang Prince Demchugdongrub (February 8, 1902 - May 23, 1966) , was the leader of a Mongol independence movement in Inner Mongolia. ... This article is about the person. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Kitsuji Ayabe (1894–TBD) was a Chujo (Lieutenant General) in Japans Kwantung Army. ... Torashiro Kawabe (1890-1960) was a Japanese general and served as Deputy Chief of Army General Staff within the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War. ... National symbols of Mengjiang are national signs in use during the administrative period of Prince Demchugdongrub in Mengjiang: Bank of Mengjiang Mengjiang Money Mengjiang flag Mengjiang Postal flag Mongolian League flag Ancient Inner Mongolia flag (1936-?) Categories: | | | ...


Name

Mengjiang, meaning "Mongolian Territories," came from the acceptance speech of chairmanship by Demchugdongrub:

To recover the territories originally owned by the Mongolians
(收復古固有土)[citation needed]

Economy

The Japanese established the Bank of Mengjiang that printed its own currency without years on it. Some traditional local money shops also made currency with Chinese year numbering system, such as the Jiachen Year (甲辰年), on it. The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar formed by combining a purely lunar calendar with a solar calendar. ...


The Japanese had mineral interests in their created state of Mengjiang. One example was Japanese put in production the iron mine in Hsuanhua-Lungyen with a reserve of 91,645,000 tonnes in 1941; and analyzed the reserves of Coal in land, ones 504 tonnes and one potential production of 202,000 of tonnes (1934).


The Mengjiang iron deposits exported minerals directly to Japan. At the same time Japanese seeking the coal reserves of Suiyuan (another Mengjiang occupied sector) why are ones 417 million tonnes and one potential extraction of 58,000 tonnes in 1940 for future investments in area too. Suíyuǎn (綏遠) was a historical province of China. ...


Demographic

Though named the one Mongolian ethnic state, the governed region resides mostly Han chinese, more than 80%. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. ...


Military

The Mengjiang National Army was the Japanese-made "native army" organized in Mengjiang; not to be confused with the Mongol Army. It was a Kwantung Army special force group under direct command, having native commanders alongside the Japanese commanding officers, as in other auxiliary outer sections of the Kwantung Army. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kwantung Army ), also known as the Guandong Army simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kwan-tung chün; Korean: ), was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the early twentieth century. ...


The purpose of the army was support of any eventual Imperial Japanese Army operations against Outer Mongolia, or north China areas, and to act as a local security force, with the "local" police forces. It protected Prince De Wang, the head of state, and the Mengjiang native establishment and local government properties. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi Měnggǔ) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Prince Demchugdongrub (February 8, 1902 - May 23, 1966) , was the leader of a Mongol independence movement in Inner Mongolia. ...


The army was equipped with rifles, pistols, light and medium machine guns, mortars and some artillery and anti-aircraft guns. It was organised as a mobile cavalry and light infantry force with little artillery support and no tanks or aircraft. For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... “Flak” redirects here. ... Flying machine redirects here. ...


History


In 1936, the Inner Mongolian Army was armed with Mauser rifles and they had 200 machineguns: mostly the Czech ZB-26 and a few Swiss Sig. Model 1930 sub- machinegun for Teh Wang's 1000 bodyguard troops. They had 70 artillery pieces, mostly mortars and a few captured Chinese mountain and field guns of a variety of types (making ammo and spare parts a problem). The few tanks and armored cars were captured Chinese vehicles crewed by Japanese. The Inner Mongolian Army was first formed by Prince Demchugdongrub with his personal bodyguard of 900 men in 1929. ...


Raised from the defeated reminants of the Inner Mongolian Army, the new eight Mongol cavalry Divisions were 1500 men strong, in three regiments of 500 men. Each regiment were to have three Saber companies and a Machinegun Company of 120 men. However these divisions actually ranged in size from 1000men to 2000men (8th Division).


In 1939, the enthic Chinese troops in the Mongol Divisions were brigaded together in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Divisions and turned into the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Ch'ing An Tui Brigades of the "Mongolian Pacification Force" and used against various guerrilla groups.


In 1943 the Mongol 4th and 5th Divisions were combined to form a new 8th Division and the old 7th and 8th Divisions formed the new 9th Division. Strength of the army was between 4000-10000 men, all cavalry at this time and had little heavy equipment and that controlled by the Japanese.


The Mongokuo or Mengjiang state also had 5 Defense Divisions in 1943, made up of local militia and other security forces, nominally of 3 regiments. Apparently only one of these regiments in each division was capable of operations. In 1944, the Japanese reorganized them along with the Chahar garrisons into 4 Divisions of 2000 men each.


At the end of the war they had 6 Divisions (2 Cavalry and 4 Infantry), 3 Independent Ch'ing An Tui Brigades, and an "Pao An Tui" Security Force Regiment.


Sources

  • Jowett, Phillip S. Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931-45. Volume I: China & Manchuria. Solihull: Helion, 2004.
  • Lattimore, Owen. "The Phantom of Mengkukuo." Pacific Affairs 10, no. 4 (1937): 420-27.

Owen Lattimore (July 29, 1900 – May 31, 1989) was a U.S. author and educator, the most influential American scholar of Central Asia in the 20th Century. ...

See also

The Inner Mongolian Army was first formed by Prince Demchugdongrub with his personal bodyguard of 900 men in 1929. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... The Wang Jingwei was a government under the leadership of Wang Jingwei in the Republic of China, set up by the Empire of Japan in March 1940. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of some Asian leaders and politicians, with a commitment to the Japanese cause, in the Yen Block or Greater Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere Pan-Asian economic associations previous to and during the Pacific War period, between 1931-1945. ... The Collaborationist Chinese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War went under different names at different times depending on what puppet regime it was organized under. ...

External links and references


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationStates | Spotlight on The Empire of Mengjiang (299 words)
Mengjiang's national animal is the Great White Horse, which teeters on the brink of extinction due to widespread deforestation, and its currency is the Mengjiang Dollar.
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Mengjiang, (蒙疆 in pinyin: Měngjiāng; in Wade-Giles: Meng-chiang; Postal Pinyin: Mengkiang), Meng Chiang, also known in English as Mongol Border Land, was a puppet state in northern China controlled by Japan.
At the same time Japanese seeking the coal reserves of Suiyuan (another Mengjiang occupied sector) why are ones 417 million tonnes and one potential extraction of 58,000 tonnes in 1940 for future investments in area too.
The Mengjiang National Army was the Japanese-made "native army" organized in Mengjiang; not to be confused with the Mongol Army.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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