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Encyclopedia > Menelaus (general)

Menelaus (in Greek Mενελαoς; lived 4th century BC) was son of Lagus and brother of Ptolemy I Soter, king of Egypt. His name does not occur among the officers or generals of Alexander the Great (336323 BC) during the lifetime of that monarch, though it is incidentally mentioned by Phylarchus1 in terms that would seem to imply that he then already occupied a distinguished position.2 The first occasion, on which he appears in history is 315 BC, when he was appointed by his brother to the chief command of the forces dispatched to Cyprus, where they were destined to co-operate with the fleet of Seleucus, and with Nicocreon, king of Salamis.3 By their combined efforts, they soon reduced all the cities of Cyprus to subjection, with the exception of Citium; and that also, it would appear, must have ultimately submitted. Menelaus now remained in the island, which he governed with almost absolute authority, the petty princes of the several cities being deposed, imprisoned, or assassinated on the slightest symptom of disaffection. He still held the chief command in 306 BC, when Demetrius Poliorcetes arrived in Cyprus with a powerful fleet and army. Unable to contend with this formidable antagonist in the open field, Menelaus drew together all his forces, and shut himself up within the walls of Salamis, which he prepared to defend to the utmost. But having risked an action under the walls of the town, he was defeated with much loss; and Demetrius pressed the siege with his wonted vigour. Menelaus, however, succeeded in burning his battering engines; and by the most strenuous exertions, made good his defence until the arrival of Ptolemy himself, with a powerful fleet, to the relief of the island. In the great sea-fight that ensued, Menelaus sent a squadron of sixty ships to assist Ptolemy; but though these succeeded in forcing their way out of the harbour of Salamis, they came too late to retrieve the fortune of the day; and the total defeat of the Egyptian fleet having extinguished all his hopes of succour, he immediately afterwards surrendered the city of Salamis, with all his forces, both military and naval, into the hands of Demetrius. The conqueror, with characteristic magnanimity, sent him back to Egypt, accompanied by his friends, and carrying with him all his private property.4 From this time we hear no more of Menelaus. There are some coins, attributed to him, which must have been struck during the period of his occupation of Cyprus. (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) // Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Battle of the Allia and subsequent Gaulish sack of Rome 383 BCE Second Buddhist Councel at Vesali. ... Lagus (in Greek ΛαγoÏ‚; lived 4th century BC) was the father, or reputed father, of Ptolemy, the founder of the Egyptian monarchy. ... Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC) was the ruler of Egypt (323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC - 323 BC - 322 BC 321 BC 320... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC - 310s BC - 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC - 315 BC - 314 BC 313 BC 312... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Nicocreon (in Greek Nικoκρεων; lived 4th century BC) was king of Salamis in Cyprus, at the time of Alexander the Greats (336–323 BC) expedition against Persia. ... Salamis is an ancient city on the east coast of Cyprus, at the mouth of the river Pedieos, 6 km North of GazimaguÅŸa. ... Larnaca, or Larnaka, is a city on the southeast coast of Cyprus. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 311 BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303... Demetrius I (337-283 BC), surnamed Poliorcetes (Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... The Battle of Salamis of 306 BC was a naval battle fought near Salamis, Cyprus between the fleets of Ptolemy I of Egypt and Demetrius, two of the diadochi, the successors to Alexander the Great. ...


References

Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is a encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. ... Alternative meanings: Boston (disambiguation) The 18th-century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. ...

Notes

1 Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, xii. 55
2 Aelian, Varia Historia, ix. 3
3 Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xix. 62
4 Diodorus, xix. 62, 79, xx. 21, 47-53; Plutarch, Parallel Lives, "Demetrius", 15-17; Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus, xv. 2; Pausanias, Description of Greece, i. 6

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology by William Smith (1867). Athenaeus (ca. ... The Deipnosophistes (deipnon “dinner” and sophistae, “the wise ones”) is variously translated as The Banquet of the Learned or Philosophers at Dinner or The Gastronomers is work of some 15 books (some complete and some surviving in summaries only) by the ancient Greek author Athenaeus of Naucratis in Egypt, written... Claudius Aelianus (c. ... Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the Province of Enna). ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarch (cz. ... Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... Justin or Marcus Junianus Justinus or Justinus Frontinus, 3rd century Roman historian. ... Pausanias was Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is a encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ...


 
 

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