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Encyclopedia > Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
מנחם בגין
Menachem Begin

In office
21 June 1977 – 10 October 1983
Preceded by Yitzhak Rabin
Succeeded by Yitzhak Shamir

Born August 16, 1913(1913-08-16)
Brest, then Russian Empire, now Belarus
Died March 9, 1992 (aged 78)
Tel Aviv, Israel
Political party Likud

Menachem Wolfovich Begin  (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין‎, August 16, 1913March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Mbegin2. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... Image File history File links He-Menachem_Begin. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Irgun emblem. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ...


Though revered by many Israelis, Begin’s legacy remains highly controversial and divisive. As the leader of Irgun, Begin played a central role in Jewish military resistance to the British Mandate of Palestine, but was strongly deplored and consequently sidelined by the mainstream Zionist leadership. Suffering eight consecutive defeats in the years preceding his premiership, Begin came to embody the opposition to the Ashkenazi Mapai-led Israeli establishment. His electoral victory in 1977 not only brought to an end three decades of Labor Party political hegemony, but also symbolised a new social realignment in which hitherto marginalized communities gained public recognition. However, the extent to which this symbolic change was translated into government policy remains highly debatable. Irgun emblem. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Labour (העבודה HaAvoda) is an Israeli political party. ...


Despite having established himself as a fervent nationalist ideologue, Begin’s first significant achievement as Prime Minister was to negotiate the Camp David Accords with President Sadat of Egypt, agreeing on the full withdrawal of the Israel Defense Forces from the Sinai Peninsula and its return to Egypt in 1978. Yet in the years to follow, especially during his second term in office from 1981, Begin’s government was to reclaim a nationalist agenda, promoting the expansion of Jewish settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories. As retaliation to attacks from the north, he authorized a limited invasion into southern Lebanon in 1982, which quickly escalated into full-fledged war. As Israeli military involvement in Lebanon deepened, Begin grew increasingly depressed and reticent, losing grip on the IDF’s operation in Lebanon and the unstable economy which was gradually spiraling into hyperinflation. Mounting public pressure, exacerbated by the death of his wife Aliza in November 1982, increased his withdrawal from public life, until his resignation in September 1983. Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ...

Contents

Early life

Begin was born to an Ashkenazi Jewish family of timber merchants in Brest-Litovsk, Grodno Governorate ("Brisk"), a town famous for Talmudic scholars, including Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik. On his mother's side he was descended from a venerable rabbinical family. Brisk was at this time a part of the Russian Empire. In between the two world wars, the town was located in the Eastern Borderlands of the Second Polish Republic. It currently lies within the western boundary of Belarus. His father was a community leader, an ardent Zionist, and an admirer of Theodor Herzl. Both of Begin's parents perished in the Holocaust. Begin's elementary education was at a Mizrachi school where he received, for seven years, a traditional Yeshivah education. At the early age of 12 he joined the Zionist Hashomer Hatzair. Due to straightened circumstances, he was, aged 14, then sent to a Polish government school where he was instructed in secular subjects. Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... For a city in France, see Brest, France. ... Grodno Governorate (Russian: ) was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Chaim (Halevi) Soloveitchik (חיים סולובייציק) (also known as Reb Chaim Brisker), (1853-July 30, 1918) was a rabbi and Talmudic scholar credited as the founder of the Brisk yeshivas and of an approach to Talmudic study within Judaism. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The Mizrachi (acronym for Merkaz Ruchani or religious centre) is the name of the religious Zionist organization founded in 1902 in Vilna at a world conference of religious Zionists called by Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Reines. ... A yeshiva (Hebrew, pl. ... The Semel Tnua, the official logo of Hashomer Hatzair. ...


From his primary education he retained a life-long private commitment to Jewish observance and Torah study and maintained consistently good relations with Haredi rabbis, going so far as to adopt Haredi guise under the alias "Rabbi Yisrael Sassover" when hiding from the British in Palestine as leader of the Irgun.[citation needed]) From his secondary education, albeit in an antisemitic environment [1], he received a solid grounding in classical literature, and gained a lifelong love of such classical works, read in Latin, as Vergil's Aeneid. Torah study is the study by Jews of the Torah, Tanakh, Talmud, responsa, rabbinic literature and similar works, all of which are Judaisms religious texts, for the purpose of the mitzvah (commandment) of Torah study itself, meaning study for religious (as opposed to academic) purposes. ... Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. ... For other uses, see Alias. ... For other uses see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story...


In 1931, Begin trained as a lawyer at University of Warsaw, and was deeply impressed by the Law faculty's emphasis on training in oratory and rhetoric, a skill which left its mark on Begin, whose mastery of oratory became a byword in Israel for his gifts as a speech-maker. He graduated in 1935, but never practiced his profession. In these same years he became a key disciple of Vladimir "Ze'ev" Jabotinsky, the founder of the militant, nationalist Revisionist Zionism movement and its Betar youth wing. His rise within Betar was rapid: in the same year he graduated, a mere 22, he shared the dais with his mentor during Betar's World Congress in Krakow. In 1937 he was the active head of Betar in Czechoslovakia and Poland, leaving just prior to the German invasion of that country. He managed to escape the Nazi round-up of Polish Jews by crossing into the Soviet Union. On September 20, 1940 he was arrested by the NKVD. Ironically he was accused of being an "agent of British imperialism" and sentenced for 8 years of gulag camps. On June 1, 1941 sent to Pechora labor camps, where he labored until May 1942. Much later in life, Begin would record and reflect upon his experiences in Siberia in great detail in a series of autobiographical works. University of Warsaw (Polish: ) is the largest university in Poland. ... Zeev Jabotinsky in military uniform Zeev Vladimir (Evgenevich) Jabotinsky (or Zhabotinski) (October 18, 1880 - August 4, 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. During World War II a similar and larger unit known as the Jewish Brigade would follow. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Betar Movement (ביתר, also spelled Beitar) is a youth movement founded in 1923 in Riga, Latvia, by Zionist leader Zeev Jabotinsky. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Pechora (Печора) is a major river in European Russia (Komi Republic and Nenetsia). ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ...


In 1941, just after the German offensive started against the Soviet Union, following his release under the Sikorski-Mayski Agreement, Begin joined the Polish Army of Anders. He was later sent with the army to Palestine via the Persian Corridor, just as the Germans were advancing into the heart of Russia. Upon arrival in August 1942, he received a proposal to take over a position in the Irgun, as Betar's Commissioner. He declined the invitation because he felt himself honour-bound to abide by his oath as a soldier and not to desert the Polish army, where he worked as an English translator. Begin was subsequently released from the Polish Army after Irgun intervened unofficially on his behalf with senior Polish army officers[citation needed]. He then joined the Jewish national movement in the British Mandate of Palestine. Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... The Sikorski-Mayski Agreement was a treaty between Soviet Union and Poland signed in London on August 17, 1941. ... Polish II Corps Insignia. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The Persian Corridor is the name for a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II. Map of Iran & Borders with former Soviet Republics of Armenia, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan // Background Note: The... Irgun emblem. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ...


In the British Mandate of Palestine

See also: Irgun

Irgun emblem. ...

Insurgency against the British in Palestine

Begin quickly made a name for himself as a fierce critic of mainstream Zionist leadership as being too cooperative with British ‘colonialism’, and as a proponent of guerrilla tactics against the British as a necessary means to achieve independence. In 1942 he joined the Irgun (Etzel), an underground militant Zionist group which had split from the Jewish military organization, the Haganah, in 1931. In 1944 Begin assumed the organization's leadership, determined to force the British government to remove its troops entirely from Palestine. Claiming that the British had reneged on their original promise of the Balfour Declaration, and that the White Paper of 1939 restricting Jewish immigration was an escalation of their pro-Arab policy, he decided to break with the Haganah, which continued to cooperate militarily with the British as long as they were fighting Nazi Germany. Soon after he assumed command, a formal 'Declaration of Revolt' was publicized, and armed attacks against British forces were initiated. A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Irgun emblem. ... The Haganah (Hebrew: Defense, ×”×’× ×”) was a Zionist para-military organization in Palestine during the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour...


Begin issued a call to arms and from 1944–48 the Irgun launched an all-out armed rebellion, perpetrating hundreds of attacks against British installations and posts. Begin financed these operations by extorting money from Zionist businessmen, and running bogus robbery scams in the local diamond industry, which enabled the victims to get back their losses from insurance companies.[2]



For several months in 1945–46, the Irgun’s activities were coordinated within the framework of the Hebrew Resistance Movement under the direction of the Haganah, however this fragile partnership collapsed following the Irgun’s bombing of the British administrative headquarters at the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, killing 91 people, including British officers and troops as well as Arab and Jewish civilians. The Irgun under Begin’s leadership continued to carry out military operations such as the break in to Acre Prison, and the hanging of two British sergeants, Clifford Martin and Marvyn Paice, causing the British to suspend any further executions of Irgun prisoners. Growing numbers of British forces were deployed to quell the Jewish uprising, yet Begin managed to elude captivity, at times disguised as a rabbi. The British Security Service MI5 placed a 'dead-or-alive' bounty of £10,000 on his head after Irgun threatened 'a campaign of terror against British officials', saying they would kill Sir John Shaw, Britain's Chief Secretary in Palestine. An MI5 agent codenamed Snuffbox also warned that Irgun had sleeper cells in London trying to kill members of British Prime Minister Clement Attlee's Cabinet.[3] This article is about the Jewish underground movement in British Mandatory Palestine. ... The hotel after the bombing The King David Hotel bombing (July 22, 1946) was a bombing attack against the British government of Palestine by members of Irgun — a militant Zionist organization. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... MI-5 redirects here. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ...


The Jewish Agency, headed by David Ben-Gurion, did not take kindly to the Irgun’s independent agenda, regarding it a defiance of the Agency’s authority as the representative body of the Jewish community in Palestine. Ben-Gurion openly denounced the Irgun as the “enemy of the Jewish People”, accusing it of sabotaging the political campaign for independence. In 1944, and again in 1947, the Haganah actively persecuted and handed over Irgun members to the British authorities in what is known as the Hunting Season; Begin’s instruction to his men to refrain from violent resistance prevented it from deteriorating into an armed intra-Jewish conflict. In November 1947, the UN adopted the Partition Plan for Palestine, and Britain announced its plans to fully withdraw from Palestine by May 1948. Begin, once again in opposition to the mainstream Zionist leadership, rejected the plan. In the years following the establishment of the State of Israel, the Irgun’s contribution to precipitating British withdrawal became a contested historic debate, as different factions vied for control over the emerging narrative of Israeli independence.[4] Begin resented his being portrayed as a belligerent dissident and what he perceived to be a politically motivated belittlement of the Irgun’s vital role in Israel’s struggle for independence.[5] The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ... Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... “Hunter” redirects here. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ...


Altalena and the War of Independence

As the Israeli War of Independence broke, Irgun fighters joined forces with the Haganah and Lehi militia in fighting the Arab forces. Notable operations in which they took part were the battles of Jaffa, Haifa, and the Jordanian siege on the Jewish Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem. One such operation in the Palestinian village of Deir Yassin in April 1948, which resulted in the death of more than a hundred Palestinian civilians, remains a source of controversy. Some have accused the Jewish forces of committing war crimes, while others hold those were legitimate acts of warfare, however it is generally accepted that the Irgun and Lehi forces who took part in the attack carried out a brutal assault upon what was predominantly a civilian population. As the Irgun’s leader, Begin has been accused of being responsible for the atrocities that had allegedly taken place, even though he did not partake in them. The 1948 Arab-Israeli War, called the War of Independence by Israelis and al Nakba the catastrophe by Arabs, was the first in a series of wars in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... The Haganah (Hebrew: Defense, ×”×’× ×”) was a Zionist para-military organization in Palestine during the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... Lehi refers to: Lehi, a prophet in the Book of Mormon Lehi, a city in Utah Lehi, a Zionist paramilitary group in Palestine/Israel Lehi, a location in southwest Palestine/Israel Lehi, a traditionally Mormon agricultural neighborhood in northern Mesa, Arizona This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... For other uses, see Jaffa (disambiguation). ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Deir Yassin massacre (Deir Yassin is also transliterated from Arabic as Dayr Yasin and frequently (mis)transliterated from Hebrew writings as Dir Yassin) refers to the killing of scores of Arab civilians at the village of Deir Yassin just east of Jerusalem in Palestine by Jewish irregular forces between...


Within days of the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel on May 14, 1948 Begin broadcast a speech on radio calling on his men to put down their weapons. It was the first time that the public had ever heard his voice. He reviewed some of his forces at a few public parades and repeated his command that they lay down their arms and join with the Haganah to form the newly established Israel Defense Forces (IDF). People were surprised at his slight build and mild demeanor, the formality of the way he dressed and his ‘old world’ manners and attention to detail and appearance. David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Haganah (Hebrew: Defense, ×”×’× ×”) was a Zionist para-military organization in Palestine during the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ...


Shortly after the founding of the state of Israel, the Irgun formally disbanded. However tensions with the IDF persisted over Ben-Gurion’s uncompromising insistence on the Irgun’s total surrender to the provisional government which he headed. These culminated in the confrontation over the Altalena cargo ship, which secretly delivered weapons to the Irgun in June 1948. The government demanded that the cargo be handed over to it unconditionally, however Begin refused to comply. Rather than negotiating, Ben-Gurion was determined to make this event an exemplary demonstration of the state’s authority. He eventually ordered the IDF to take the ship by gunfire, and it sank off the shore of Tel Aviv. Begin, who was on board as the ship was being shelled, ordered his men not to retaliate in an attempt to prevent the crisis from spiraling into civil war. The Altalena Affair established Ben-Gurion as Israel’s indisputable leader, condemning Begin to political wilderness for almost thirty years to come. Ben Gurion redirects here. ... The Altalena Affair was a violent confrontation that took place in June of 1948 between the newly-formed Israel Defense Forces and the Irgun (Etzel), a paramilitary Jewish group. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...


Enters Israeli politics

The Herut opposition years

In 1948 Begin founded the right-wing political party Herut ("Freedom"), which would eventually evolve into the present-day Likud party. The move countered the weakening attraction for the earlier revisionist party, Hatzohar, founded by his late mentor Vladimir Jabotinsky. Revisionist 'purists' alleged nonetheless that Begin was out to steal Jabotinsky's mantle and ran against him with the old party. Political Parties redirects here. ... Herut (Hebrew: חרות Freedom) was the political party of the Revisionist Zionist movement in Israel. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... Hatzohar, (Union of Zionists-Revisionists or Alliance of Zionists-Revisionists) was organisation found by Zeev Jabotinsky in 1925. ...


In November 1948, Begin visited the US on a campaigning trip. During his visit, a letter signed by Albert Einstein, Sidney Hook, Hannah Arendt, and other prominent Americans and several rabbis was published which described Begin's Herut party as similar in significant ways to Nazi and Fascist parties.[6] “Einstein” redirects here. ... Sidney Hook (December 20, 1902–July 12, 1989) was a prominent New York intellectual and philosopher who championed pragmatism. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ...


In the first elections in 1949, Herut, with 11.5% of the vote, won 14 seats, while Hatzohar failed to break the threshold and disbanded shortly thereafter. This provided Begin with legitimacy as the leader of the Revisionist stream of Zionism. The Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held in newly-independent Israel on 25 January, 1949. ...


Between 1948 and 1977, under Begin, Herut formed the main opposition to the dominant Mapai and later the Alignment (the forerunners of today's Labour Party) in the Knesset, adopting a radical nationalistic agenda committed to the irredentist idea of Greater Israel. During those years, Begin was systematically delegitimized by the ruling party, and was often personally derided by Ben-Gurion who refused to either speak to or refer to him by name. Ben-Gurion famously coined the disparaging phrase 'without Herut and Maki', effectively pushing both parties and their voters beyond the margins of political consensus. Labour (העבודה HaAvoda) is an Israeli political party. ... The Alignment (Hebrew: המערך, HaMaarakh), originally called the Labour Alignment (Hebrew: המערך העבודה, HaMaarakh HaAvoda) was the dominant left-wing political party in Israel from its founding in 1965 until its transformation into the Labour Party in 1992. ... The Israeli Labor Party (‎, Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisraelit), generally known in Israel as Avoda (‎) is a center-left political party in Israel. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Mythological King Davids Kingdom at the time of his death Greater Israel (also Complete Land of Israel, Hebrew: ‎, Eretz Yisrael Hashlemah[1][2]) is a term that denotes Biblical boundaries of the Land of Israel. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ... Maki (‎, an acronym for HaMiflega HaKomunistit HaYisraelit (‎), lit. ...


The personal animosity between Ben-Gurion and Begin, going back to the hostilities over the Altalena Affair, underpinned the political dichotomy between Mapai and Herut. Begin was a keen critic of Mapai, and what he perceived to be its coercive Bolshevism and deep-rooted institutional corruption. Drawing on his training as a lawyer in Poland, he preferred wearing a formal suit and tie and evincing the dry demeanor of a legislator to the socialist informality of Mapai, as a means of accentuating their dissimilarity. The Altalena Affair was a violent confrontation that took place in June of 1948 between the newly-formed Israel Defense Forces and the Irgun (Etzel), a paramilitary Jewish group. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...


One of the most energetic confrontations between Begin and Ben-Gurion centered on the Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany, signed in 1952. Begin vehemently opposed the agreement, claiming that it was tantamount to a pardon of Nazi crimes against the Jewish people. While the agreement was being debated in the Knesset in January 1952, he led a passionate demonstration in Jerusalem in which he scathingly attacked the government, calling for civil disobedience. Incited by his speech, the crowd marched towards the Knesset, throwing stones into the general assembly and injuring dozens of policemen and several Knesset members. Many held Begin personally responsible for the violence, and he was consequently barred from the Knesset for several months. The testimony of Eliezer Sudit linked Begin to the failed assassination attempt on West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer in the same year, an act which appeared to be another effort to sabotage the agreement. His belligerent behaviour was strongly condemned in mainstream public discourse, reinforcing his image as an irresponsible provocateur. Laden with pathos and evocations of the Holocaust, Begin's trademark of impassioned rhetoric appealed to many, while being denounced by his critics as inflammatory language of a demagogue. The Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany was signed in 1952. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... A demagogue (sometimes spelled demagog) is a leader who obtains power by appealing to the gut feelings of the public, usually by powerful use of rhetoric and propaganda. ...


Gahal and the Six Day War unity government

During the following years, Begin failed to gain electoral momentum, and Herut remained far behind Labor with no more than 17 seats in the four elections held up until 1961. In 1965, Herut and the Liberal Party united to form the Gahal party under Begin’s leadership, but was once again unsuccessful in increasing its share of parliament seats in the election held that year. Begin was increasingly seen as incapable of sweeping the public, though his authority was never seriously contested. In 1966, during Gahal's party convention, he was challenged by the young Ehud Olmert who called for his resignation. Begin announced that he would retire from party leadership, but soon reversed his decision when the crowd emotionally pleaded him to stay. At the outbreak of the Six-Day War in June 1967, Gahal joined a national unity government under Prime Minister Levi Eshkol of the Alignment, resulting in Begin serving in the cabinet for the first time, as a Minister without Portfolio. The arrangement lasted until 1970, when Begin and Gahal left the government (by this time led by Golda Meir) due to disagreements over policy. The Israeli Liberal Party (Hebrew: מפלגה ליברלית ישראלית, Miflega Libralit Yisraelit) was a political party in Israel and is one of the ancestors of the modern-day Likud. ... Gahal (acronym for Gush Herut-Liberalim) is a right-wing Zionist party formed in 1965 by members of the Herut and Liberal parties. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... National governments or national unity governments are broad coalition governments consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature and are often formed during times of war or national emergency. ... â–¶(?) (Hebrew לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל ) (Born Levi Skolnick) (Hebrew לֵוִי שְׁקוֹלְנִיק) (October 25, 1895 - February 26, 1969), was the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death of a heart attack in 1969. ... The Cabinet of Israel is a formal body comprised of government officials chosen and led by a Prime Minister. ... A Minister without Portfolio is a government minister with no specific responsibilities. ... Golda Meir (‎, Arabic: , born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978, known as Golda Meyerson from 1917-1956) was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ...


Likud and Mizrahi support

In 1973, Begin agreed to a plan by Ariel Sharon to form a larger bloc of opposition parties, made up from Gahal, the Free Centre, and other smaller groups. They came through with a tenuous alliance called the Likud ("Consolidation"). In the elections held later that year, the Likud won a considerable share of the votes, though with 39 seats still remained in opposition. Held only two months after the Yom Kippur War, this election was too close to the war's events to allow its devastating consequences to be translated into political transformation.   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... The Free Centre (Hebrew: מרכז חופשי, Merkaz Hofshi) was a political party in Israel, and is one of the ancestors of the modern-day Likud. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim...


Yet the aftermath of the Yom Kippur War saw ensuing public disenchantment with the Alignment. Voices of criticism about the government's misconduct of the war gave rise to growing public resentment toward the dominant Ashkenazi elite. Personifying the antithesis to the Alignment's socialist ethos, Begin appealed to many Mizrahi Israelis, mostly first and second generation Jewish immigrants from Arab countries, who felt they were continuously being treated by the establishment as second-class citizens. His open embrace of Judaism stood in stark contrast to the Alignment's secularism, which alienated Mizrahi voters. The Alignment's failure to address the protest about its institutional discrimination of Mizrahi Jews drew many of them to support Begin, becoming his burgeoning political base. Numerous corruption scandals which mired Yitzhak Rabin's government signalled that Begin was finally poised to capture the center stage of Israeli politics. Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Mizrachi is also an organisation of the Religious Zionist Movement Mizrahi Jews or Oriental Jews (מזרחי eastern, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥi, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥî; plural מזרחים easterners, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥim, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥîm... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion and emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ...


Prime Minister of Israel

1977 Electoral victory

On May 17, 1977 the Likud, headed by Begin, won the Knesset elections by a landslide, becoming the biggest party in the Knesset. Popularly known as the Mahapakh (colloquial Hebrew for 'cataclysmic changeover'), the election results had seismic ramifications as for the first time in Israeli history a party other than the Alignment/Mapai was in a position to form a government, effectively ending the left's hitherto unrivalled domination over Israeli politics. Likud's electoral victory signified a fundamental restructuring of Israeli society in which the founding socialist Ashkenazi elite was being replaced by a coalition representing marginalized Mizrahi and Jewish-religious communities, promoting a politically conservative and economically liberal agenda. The Elections for the ninth Knesset were held on 17 May, 1977. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... The Elections for the ninth Knesset were held on 17 May, 1977. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Mizrachi is also an organisation of the Religious Zionist Movement Mizrahi Jews or Oriental Jews (מזרחי eastern, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥi, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥî; plural מזרחים easterners, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥim, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥîm... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Likud campaign leading up to the election centered on Begin's personality. Demonized by the Alignment as totalitarian and extremist, his self-portrayal as a humble and pious leader struck a chord with many who felt abandoned by the ruling party's ideology. In the predominantly Jewish Mizrahi working class urban neighborhoods and peripheral towns, the Likud won overwhelming majorities, while disillusionment with the Alignment's corruption prompted many middle and upper class voters to support the newly founded centrist Democratic Movement for Change headed by Yigael Yadin. Dash won 15 seats out of 120, largely at the expense of the Alignment, which was led by Shimon Peres and had shrunk from 51 to 32 seats. Well aware of his momentous achievement and employing his trademark sense for drama, when speaking that night in the Likud headquarters Begin quoted from Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address and the Old Testament, referring to his victory as a 'turning point in the history of the Jewish people'. Mizrachi is also an organisation of the Religious Zionist Movement Mizrahi Jews or Oriental Jews (מזרחי eastern, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥi, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥî; plural מזרחים easterners, Standard Hebrew Mizraḥim, Tiberian Hebrew Mizrāḥîm... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Yigael Yadin (March 20, 1917 - June 28, 1984) was an Israeli archeologist, politician, and the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The only confirmed photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg (seated), taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before he spoke. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism...


With 43 seats, the Likud still required the support of other parties in order to reach a parliamentary majority that would enable it to form a government under Israel's proportionate representation parliamentary system. Though able to form a narrow coalition with smaller Jewish religious and ultra-orthodox parties, Begin also sought support from centrist elements in the Knesset to provide his government with greater public legitimacy. He controversially offered the foreign affairs portfolio to Moshe Dayan, a former IDF Chief of Staff and Defense Minister, and a prominent Alignment politician identified with the old establishment. Begin was sworn in as Prime Minister of Israel on June 20, 1977. Dash eventually joined his government several months later, thus providing it with the broad support of almost two thirds of the Knesset. Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Insignia of the Rav Aluf The Ramatkal (Hebrew: רמטכל, abbr. ... Defense Ministers of Israel, 1948-present David Ben-Gurion 1948-1954 Pinhas Lavon 1954-1955 David Ben-Gurion 1955-1963 Levi Eshkol 1963-1967 Moshe Dayan 1967-1974 Shimon Peres 1974-1977 Ezer Weizman 1977-1980 Menachem Begin 1980-1981 Ariel Sharon 1981-1983 Moshe Arens 1983-1984 Yitzhak Rabin... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Camp David Accords

main articles: Camp David Accords (1978) and Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty
Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords (1978): Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords (1978): Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat

In 1978 Begin, aided by Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan and Defense Minister Ezer Weizman, negotiated the Camp David Accords, and in 1979 signed the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty with Egyptian President, Anwar Sadat. Under the terms of the treaty, brokered by US President, Jimmy Carter, Israel was to hand over the Sinai Peninsula in its entirety to Egypt. The peace treaty with Egypt was a watershed moment in Middle-Eastern history, as it was the first time an Arab state recognized Israel’s legitimacy whereas Israel effectively accepted the land for peace principle as blueprint for resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict. Given Egypt’s prominent position within the Arab World, especially as Israel’s biggest and most powerful enemy, the treaty had far reaching strategic and geopolitical implications. Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Ezer Weizman (עזר ויצמן) (Tel Aviv, June 15, 1924 – Caesarea Maritima, April 24, 2005) was the seventh President of the State of Israel (1993-2000). ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The traditional Middle East and the G8s Greater Middle East Political & transportation map of the traditional Middle East today The Middle East is a historical and political region of Africa-Eurasia with no clear definition. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Land for peace is a general principle proposed for resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict by which Israel would relinquish control of all or part of the territories it conquered in 1967 in return for peace with and recognition by the Arab world. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Arab States redirects here. ...


For Begin, the peace with Egypt was a moment of personal vindication. Labeled throughout his career a bellicose and militant zealot by his opponents, this was an opportunity to prove his commitment to a peaceful resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict as well as ascertain his legitimacy and leadership as the first Likud Prime Minister. Almost overnight, Begin’s public image of an irresponsible nationalist radical was transformed into that of a statesman of historic proportions. This image was reinforced by international recognition which culminated with him being awarded, together with Anwar Sadat, the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978. Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


Yet while establishing Begin as a leader with broad public appeal, the peace treaty with Egypt was met with fierce criticism within his own Likud party. His devout followers found it difficult to reconcile Begin’s history as a keen promoter of the Greater Israel agenda with his willingness to relinquish occupied territory. Agreeing to the removal of Israeli settlements from the Sinai was perceived by many as a clear departure from Likud’s Revisionist ideology. Several prominent Likud members, most notably Yitzhak Shamir, objected to the treaty and abstained when it was ratified with an overwhelming majority in the Knesset, achieved only thanks to support from the opposition. A small group of hardliners within Likud, associated with Gush Emunim Jewish settlement movement, eventually decided to split and form the Tehiya party in 1979. They led the Movement for Stopping the Withdrawal from Sinai, violently clashing with IDF soldiers during the forceful eviction of Yamit settlement in April 1982. Despite the traumatic scenes from Yamit, political support for the treaty did not diminish and the Sinai was finally handed over to Egypt in 1982. Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... Mythological King Davids Kingdom at the time of his death Greater Israel (also Complete Land of Israel, Hebrew: ‎, Eretz Yisrael Hashlemah[1][2]) is a term that denotes Biblical boundaries of the Land of Israel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Gush Emunim גוש אמונים (Hebrew: Block [of the] faithful) was an Israeli political movement. ... Tehiya (Hebrew for revival, תחיה), was a right-of-center Israeli political party founded in response to the 1978 Camp David Treaty between Egypt and Israel. ... Yamit (ימית) was an Israeli settlement in the Sinai Peninsula established during Israels occupation of the peninsula from the end of the 1967 Six Day War until that part of the Sinai was handed over to Egypt in 1982 as part of the terms of the Egypt–Israel peace treaty. ...


However Begin was far less resolute in implementing the section of the Camp David Accord which defined a framework for establishing autonomous Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. He appointed Agriculture Minister Ariel Sharon to implement a large scale expansion of Jewish settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories, a policy intended to make future territorial concessions in these areas effectively impossible. Begin refocused Israeli settlement strategy from populating peripheral areas in accordance with the Allon Plan, to building Jewish settlements in areas of Biblical and historic significance. When the settlement of Elon Moreh was established on the outskirts of Nablus in 1979, following years of campaigning by Gush Emunim, Begin declared that there are "many more Elon Morehs to come". Indeed during his term as Prime Minister dozens of new settlements were built, and Jewish population in the West Bank and Gaza more than quadrupled.[7] The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The Agriculture Minister of Israel (‎, Sar HaHaklaut) is the political head of the Israeli Ministry of Agriculture and a relatively minor position in the Israeli cabinet. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... The Allon Plan is an historic proposal to end the Israeli occupation of the West Bank with a negotiated partition of territories between the Jewish State and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ... The two older neighbourhoods, looking south Elon Moreh (Hebrew: ), is an Israeli settlement located in the Samarian Hills of the West Bank northeast of Shechem/Nablus on the slopes of Mount Kabir ridge. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ...

Anwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter, and Menachem Begin meet on the Aspen Lodge patio on September 6, 1978.

WHSP-C-07275-18 Anwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter and Menahem Begin meet on the Aspen Cabin patio at Camp David. ... WHSP-C-07275-18 Anwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter and Menahem Begin meet on the Aspen Cabin patio at Camp David. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...

Bombing Iraq's nuclear reactor

Main article: Operation Opera

Begin took the anti-Zionist and anti-Semitic threats of Saddam Hussein very seriously and therefore took aim at Iraq. Israel attempted to negotiate with France so as to not provide Iraq with the nuclear reactor at Osiraq, but to no avail. In 1981 Begin ordered the bombing and destruction of Iraq's Tammuz nuclear reactor by the Israeli Air Force in a successful long-range operation called Operation Opera. Soon after, Begin enunciated what came to be known as the Begin doctrine: "On no account shall we permit an enemy to develop weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against the people of Israel." Many foreign governments, including the United States, condemned the operation, and the United Nations Security Council passed a unanimous resolution 487 condemning it. The Israeli left-wing opposition criticized it also at the time, but mainly for its timing relative to elections only three weeks later. Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) was an Israeli air strike against the Iraqi Osirak nuclear... Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, an international political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine[1][2] Anti-Zionism takes many forms, ranging from political or religious opposition to the idea of a Jewish state, to rejecting Israels right to exist and the legitimacy... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Osiraq was a 40 MW light water nuclear materials testing reactor (MTR) in Iraq. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) was an Israeli air strike against the Iraqi Osirak nuclear... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... In the late 1970s, Iraq purchased an Osiris class nuclear reactor from France. ...


Lebanon invasion

On June 6, 1982, Begin’s government authorized the Israel Defense Forces' invasion of Lebanon, in response to the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov. Operation Peace for Galilee’s stated objective was to force the PLO out of rocket range of Israel's northern border. Begin was hoping for a short and limited Israeli involvement that would destroy the PLO’s political and military infrastructure in southern Lebanon, effectively reshaping the balance of Lebanese power in favor of the Christian Militias who were allied with Israel. Nevertheless, fighting soon escalated into war with Palestinian and Lebanese militias, as well as the Syrian military, and the IDF progressed as far as Beirut, well beyond the 40 km limit initially authorized by the government. Israeli forces were successful in driving the PLO out of Lebanon and forcing its leadership to relocate to Tunisia, however the war ultimately failed in achieving security to Israel’s northern border, nor imposing stability in Lebanon. Israeli entanglement in Lebanon intensified throughout Begin’s term, leading to a partial unilateral withdrawal in 1985, and finally ending only in 2000. The 1982 Invasion of Lebanon, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (Shlom HaGalil in Hebrew), began June 6, 1982, when the Israel Defence Force invaded southern Lebanon purportedly in response to the Abu Nidal organizations assassination attempt against Israels ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, and to halt... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... The 1982 Invasion of Lebanon, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (Shlom HaGalil in Hebrew), began June 6, 1982, when the Israel Defence Force invaded southern Lebanon purportedly in response to the Abu Nidal organizations assassination attempt against Israels ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, and to halt... Shlomo Argov (December 14, 1929 - February 23, 2003) was the Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom whose attempted killing sparked Israels Invasion of Lebanon. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... Location in the Republic of Lebanon Coordinates: , Governorate Government  - Mayor Abdel Mounim Ariss[1] Area  - City 100 km² (31 sq mi) Population (2005)  - City 1,574,397  - Metro 1,792,111 Time zone +2 (UTC)  - Summer (DST) +3 (UTC) Website: City of Beirut This article is about the Lebanese city. ...


Like Begin, the Israeli public was expecting quick and decisive victory. Yet as this failed to arrive, disillusionment with the war, and concomitantly with his government, was growing. Begin continuously referred to the invasion as an inevitable act of survival, often comparing Yasser Arafat to Hitler, however its image as a war of necessity was gradually eroding. Within a matter of weeks into the war it emerged that for the first time in Israeli history there was no consensus over the IDF’s activity. Public criticism reached its peak following the Sabra and Shatila Massacre in September 1982, when tens of thousands gathered to protest in Tel Aviv in what was one of the biggest public demonstrations in Israeli history. The Kahan Commission, appointed to investigate the events, found the government indirectly responsible for the massacre, accusing Defense Minister Ariel Sharon of gross negligence. The commission’s report, published in February 1983, severely damaged Begin’s government, forcing Sharon to resign. As the Israeli quagmire in Lebanon seemed to grow deeper, public pressure on Begin to resign increased. Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre; Arabic: مذبحة صبرا وشاتيلا) was an attack carried out in September 1982 by a Lebanese Forces militia group against Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... The Kahan Commission (ועדת כהן), formally known as the Commission of Inquiry into the Events at the Refugee Camps in Beirut, was established by the Israeli government on 28 September 1982, to investigate the Sabra and Shatila Massacre (16 September-18 September, 1982). ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...


Begin’s disoriented appearance on national television while visiting the Beaufort battle site raised concerns that he was being misinformed about the war’s progress. Asking Sharon whether PLO fighters had ‘machine guns’, Begin seemed worryingly out of touch with the nature and scale of the military campaign he had authorized. Almost a decade later, Haaretz reporter Uzi Benziman published a series of articles accusing Sharon of intentionally deceiving Begin about the operation’s initial objectives, and continuously misleading him as the war progressed. Sharon sued both the newspaper and Benziman for libel in 1991. The trial lasted 11 years, with one of the highlights being the deposition of Benny Begin, Menachem Begin's son, in favor of the defendants. Sharon lost the case. [8] Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... Zeev Binyamin Benny Begin (Hebrew: , born 1 March 1943) is a former Israeli politician and the son of former Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin. ...


Retirement from public life

Menachem Begin at Camp David in 1978
Menachem Begin at Camp David in 1978
Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin engages Zbigniew Brzezinski in a game of chess at Camp David
Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin engages Zbigniew Brzezinski in a game of chess at Camp David

Begin himself retired from politics in August 1983 and handed over the reins of the office of Prime Minister to his old friend-in-arms who had been the leader of the Lehi resistance to the British, Yitzhak Shamir. Begin had become deeply disappointed and depressed by the war in Lebanon because he had hoped to establish peace with Bashir Gemayel who was assassinated. Instead there were mounting Israeli casualties which he deeply regretted. The death of his devoted and beloved wife Aliza Begin in Israel while he was away on an official visit to Washington DC, added to his own mounting depression. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The West Wing, see NSF Thurmont (The West Wing). ... Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin engages U.S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski in a game of chess at Camp David File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin engages U.S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski in a game of chess at Camp David File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... The West Wing, see NSF Thurmont (The West Wing). ... For other uses, see Lehi. ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Bachir Gemayel, first name also spelt Bashir, (November 10, 1947 - September 14, 1982) was a Lebanese military commander and politician. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ...


Final years in seclusion

Begin would rarely leave his apartment, and then usually to visit his wife's grave-site to say the traditional Kaddish prayer for the departed. His seclusion was watched over by his children and his lifetime personal secretary Yechiel Kadishai who monitored all official requests for meetings. This article is about the Jewish prayer. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ...


Begin died in Tel Aviv in 1992, followed by a simple ceremony and burial at the Mount of Olives. Begin explained his request, as it appears in his will, to be buried at the Mount of Olives instead of Mount Herzl, the traditional burial ground for Israel's great leaders, with the reason that Meir Feinstein of Irgun and Moshe Barazani of Lehi, whom Begin was very emotionally influenced by, were buried there. Feinstein and Barazani were two of the Olei Hagardom. They exploded themselves with grenades, awaiting execution by the British, and since Begin approved the operation, he felt personally responsible. Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the Old City The Mount of Olives (also Mount Olivet, Hebrew: ‎, Har HaZeitim; Arabic: ‎, Jebel ez-Zeitun, Jebel et-Tur, Mount of the Summit) is a mountain ridge to the east of Jerusalem. ... Yitzhak and Leah Rabins grave. ... A version of this article in Hebrew has been listed at Wikipedia:Translation into English. ... Irgun emblem. ... Moshe Barazani or Moshe Barzani (1928-1947), was a Kurdish Jew and a member of Lehi (The Freedom Fighters of Israel). ... Lehi refers to: Lehi, a prophet in the Book of Mormon Lehi, a city in Utah Lehi, a Zionist paramilitary group in Palestine/Israel Lehi, a location in southwest Palestine/Israel Lehi, a traditionally Mormon agricultural neighborhood in northern Mesa, Arizona This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Monument commemorating those who were hanged in the gallows, situated in Ramat Gan Olei Hagardom (Hebrew: Those hanged in the gallows, עולי הגרדום) is the term commonly used for those Jewish fighters that were tried before British Mandate courts and executed by hanging, usually in the Acre prison. ...


Contested legacy

The importance of Menachem Begin in Israel's national identity cannot be contested since in 2005 a poll conducted showed him gaining the highest result as the leader that Israelis missed the most, outpolling even the first prime minister David Ben-Gurion and assassinated prime-minister Yitzhak Rabin.[citation needed] For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ...


However, the inheritance of his mantle became a subject of conjecture during the debate over the 2005 Gaza Withdrawal that former Prime Minister, Ariel Sharon implemented. Opponents of the withdrawal in the Likud, led by Finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Uzi Landau called it a dangerous departure from the Likud platform, especially after Sharon ran against the same policy in 2003. They viewed themselves as the natural successors of Menachem Begin, who in 1975 congratulated the first Jewish settler group when they founded Elon Moreh. Sharon's supporters pointed to Begin's exchange of the Sinai with Egypt that ended in 1982 as an historical justification for the painful step.   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...   (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is a leading figure in the Likud party. ... Uzi Landau (born August 2, 1943) is an Israeli Knesset member representing the Likud political party. ...


When Sharon left the Likud in November 2005 to form Kadima, an internal purge of the party of symbols of the departed leader was performed in many party branches. Photographs of Sharon were ripped from the walls, and with the absence of a clear successor they were replaced almost always with photos or images of Begin. Those who remain faithful to the Likud after Sharon left point to Begin's long struggle until 1977 in the political opposition, and the fact that he never abandoned his party even when they were reduced to a minuscule eight seats in the second Knesset in 1952. Evidently Sharon supporters have abandoned the comparisons of him with Begin, and instead he is being put in the same boat as such stately icons as Charles De Gaulle or even Begin's nemesis David Ben-Gurion. The battle over who really has inherited the legacy of Begin, Rabin, and Ben-Gurion are a characteristic of today's volatile changes in Israel's political spectrum. Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה, Forward) is a political party in Israel. ...


As a fictional character

  • Begin appears in the early editions (but not the later ones) of Tintin au Pays de l'Or Noir, a graphic novel by Belgian artist and writer Hergé. Although Begin is not named, there can be no doubt that the leader of the Irgun, living in the guise of an orthodox rabbi, is none other than Menachem Begin. In the graphic novel, as in real life, Begin is deeply concerned for the lives of his men. He mounts a daring rescue operation for one of his followers, a young Jewish man named Goldstein, apparently captured by the British. Actually, the young man is Tintin, Goldstein's doppelganger. In later editions of "Tintin in the Land of Black Gold," Hergé eliminated all references to the Israelis and the British. (Compare the first and subsequent editions of Tintin au Pays de l'Or Noir. See also Thompson, Harry (1991) Tintin - Hergé & His Creation - ISBN 0-340-52393-X).

English-language edition Land of Black Gold (Tintin au Pays de lOr Noir) is one of a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... Georges Prosper Remi (May 22, 1907 – March 3, 1983), better known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian comics writer and artist. ... The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ... For other uses of the word Doppelgänger please see Doppelgänger (disambiguation). ... Land of Black Gold (originally Tintin au Pays de lOr Noir) is one of a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ... English-language edition Land of Black Gold (Tintin au Pays de lOr Noir) is one of a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ... This article is about the type of musical group. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. ... The Final Cut is a rock album by Pink Floyd recorded at several studios in the UK from July to December 1982. ... Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Worldwar is a series of four alternate history science fiction novels by Harry Turtledove. ...

Quotes

Menachem Begin, the day after the UN vote on the 1947 UN Partition Plan: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ...

The Partition of Palestine is illegal. It will never be recognized .... Jerusalem was and will for ever be our capital. Eretz Israel will be restored to the people of Israel. All of it. And for ever.

Soon after Menachem Begin and the Likud party won the Israeli election in 1977, the government's foreign policy was stated as follows: For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

The Jewish people have unchallengeable, eternal, historic right to the Land of Israel [including the West Bank and Gaza Strip], the inheritance of their forefathers. (Iron Wall, p. 354-355)

Menachem Begin, Broadcast to the Egyptian People November 11, 1977: [9] For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Masoretic: ʼẸretz Yiśrāēl, Hebrew Academy: Éreẓ Yisrael, Yiddish: ) is the divinely ordained and given territory by God as an eternal inheritance to the Jewish people. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...

No more wars, no more bloodshed, and no more threats.

Menachem Begin, Nobel Prize Lecture, December 10, 1978: [10] For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...

Free women and men everywhere must wage an incessant campaign so that these human values become a generally recognized and practised reality. We must regretfully admit that in various parts of the world this is not yet the case. Without those values and human rights the real peace of which we dream is jeopardized.

When President Ronald Reagan sent a letter to Menachem Begin condemning the attack on the Iraqi Osirak nuclear reactor in June 1981, Begin responded with a letter, he wrote: Reagan redirects here. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...

A million and half children were poisoned by the Zyklon gas during the Holocaust. Now Israel's children were about to be poisoned by radioactivity. For two years we have lived in the shadow of the danger awaiting Israel from nuclear reactor in Iraq. This would have been a new Holocaust. It was prevented by the heroism of our pilots to whom we owe so much. (Iron Wall, p. 387)

As a justification for the invasion of Lebanon. On June 5, 1982 he told the Israeli cabinet: Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...

The hour of decision has arrived. You know what I have done, and what all of us have done. To prevent war and bereavement. But our fate is that in the Land of Israel there is no escape from fighting in the spirit of self-sacrifice. Believe me, the alternative to fighting is Treblinka, and we have resolved that there would be no Treblinkas. This is the moment in which courageous choice has to be made. The criminal terrorists and the world must know that the Jewish people have a right to self-defense, just like any other people. (Iron Wall, p. 404-405).

Response to a question by an Israeli reporter about the official stand of the Israeli government regarding the war in the Persian gulf between Iran and Iraq: Treblinka is a small village in the Mazowieckie voivodship (province) of Poland. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft...

We wish both sides great success! (Yaron Dekel, IBA: Israel Broadcast Authority)

Books by Menachem Begin

  • The Revolt (ISBN 0-8402-1370-0)
  • White Nights: The story of a prisoner in Russia (ISBN 0-06-010289-6)

The Revolt (also published as Revolt, The Revolt: Inside Story of the Irgun and The Revolt: the Dramatic Inside Story of the Irgun) is a book about the Zionist militant organization Irgun Zvai Leumi by one of its principal leaders, Menachem Begin. ...

Further reading

  • Ze'ev Schiff and Ehud Ya'ari, Israel's Lebanon War, Touchstone, 1985
  • Ilan Peleg, Begin’s foreign policy, 1977-1983 : Israel’s move to the right, Greenwood Press, 1987
  • Colin Shindler, The Land Beyond Promise : Israel, Likud and the Zionist Dream, I.B.Tauris, 2002
  • Eric Silver, Begin: a biography, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1984
  • Sasson Sofer, Begin: an anatomy of leadership, Basil Blackwell, 1988

References

  1. ^ Bernard Reich, Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa, Greenwood Press, Westport, 1990 p.71.
  2. ^ Yehuda Bauer, From Diplomacy to Resistance: A history of Jewish Palestine, Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1970 p.325.
  3. ^ "Agent Snuffbox and an Israeli threat to kill Cabinet", Mail on Sunday (London), 5 March 2006, p.40.
  4. ^ Tom Segev, One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate, Henry Holt and Co. 2000, p. 490
  5. ^ In his book ‘The Revolt’ (1951), Begin outlines the history of the Irgun’s fight against British rule. He quotes Colonel Archer-Cust, Assistant Chief Secretary of the British Government in Palestine, as having said in a lecture to the Royal Empire Society that 'The hanging of the two British Sergeants [an Irgun retaliation to British executions] did more than anything to get us out [of Palestine]'
  6. ^ "The Gun and the Olive Branch" p 472-473, David Hirst, quotes Lilienthal, Alfred M., The Zionist Connection, What Price Peace?, Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, 1978, pp.350-3 - Albert Einstein joined other distinguished citizens in chiding these `Americans of national repute' for honouring a man whose party was `closely akin in its organization, methods, political philosophy and social appeal to the Nazi and Fascist parties'. See text at Harvard.eduand image here. Verified 5th Dec 2007.
  7. ^ According to data published by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, and collated by Peace Now, the number of settlers in the West Bank grew from 5000 in the early seventies to more than 20000 in 1983
  8. ^ Breaking the silence of cowards Haaretz, 23 August 2002, Accessed 26 April 2007
  9. ^ Broadcast by Prime Minister Begin to the Egyptian People - 11 November 1977 Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Accessed 26 April 2007
  10. ^ Nobel Lecture Nobelprize.org

Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... This article is about the day. ... Tom Segev is a public intellectual, journalist, and Israeli historian. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Official sites

  • The Menachen Begin Center
  • PM Sharon's Address at the Opening Ceremony for the Begin Heritage Centre Building 06/16/2004
  • Menachem Begin - The Sixth Prime Minister Official Site of the Prime Minister's Office

Miscellaneous links

Political offices
Preceded by
new party
Leader of the Herut party
1948–1973
Succeeded by
Likud party
Preceded by
new party
Leader of the Likud party
1973–1982
Succeeded by
Yitzhak Shamir
Preceded by
Yitzhak Rabin
Prime Minister of Israel
1977–1983
Succeeded by
Yitzhak Shamir
Preceded by
Moshe Dayan
Foreign Affairs Minister of Israel
1979–1980
Succeeded by
Yitzhak Shamir
Preceded by
Ezer Weizman
Defense Minister of Israel
1980–1981
Succeeded by
Ariel Sharon
Prime Ministers of Israel Flag of Israel
v  d  e
Ben-GurionSharettBen-GurionEshkolAllon (Acting) • Meir RabinPeres (Acting) • Begin ShamirPeres ShamirRabinPeresNetanyahu BarakSharonOlmert
Rosen (three times) • Yosef (twice) • Cohen • Ben-GurionShapiro (twice) • Meir (twice) • Tzadok • BeginTamir Nissim • Moda'i • Sharir • Meridor • Libai • Neeman NetanyahuHanegbiBeilin • Sheetrit (twice) • LapidLivni (twice) • RamonFriedmann
Persondata
NAME Begin, Menachem Wolfovich
ALTERNATIVE NAMES בגין, מנחם
SHORT DESCRIPTION Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel
DATE OF BIRTH August 16, 1913
PLACE OF BIRTH Brest, Russian Empire
DATE OF DEATH March 9, 1992
PLACE OF DEATH Tel Aviv, Israel

From the Middle Ages until the Holocaust, Jews were a significant part of the Polish population. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Irgun emblem. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Menachem Begin - Wikipedia (445 words)
Menachem Begin (Hebreeuws: מנחם בגין) werd vooral bekend door de akkoorden van Camp David met de Egyptische president Anwar Sadat die beiden de Nobelprijs voor de Vrede opleverde in 1978.
Begin werd geboren in Brest in Rusland waar hij vanaf 1939 de leider van de Zionistische Betar-organisatie was.
Begin wordt verantwoordelijk gehouden voor de terroristische aanslag op het Koning David Hotel in Jeruzalem, waar op dat moment het Britse militaire hoofdkwartier was gevestigd en waarbij 91 mensen omkwamen.
Menachem Begin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3852 words)
Begin was born to an Ashkenazi Jewish family in Brest-Litovsk ("Brisk"), a town famous for Talmudical scholars such as Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik.
Begin quickly made a name for himself as a fierce critic of mainstream Zionist groups as being too co-operative with the "colonial" British, and as a proponent of guerrilla tactics against the British as a necessary means to achieve independence.
Begin himself retired from politics in August 1983 and handed over the reins of the office of Prime Minister to his old friend-in-arms who had been the leader of the Lehi resistance to the British, Yitzhak Shamir.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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