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Encyclopedia > Men's rights
Theories of rights
Animal rights
Children's rights
Civil rights
Collective rights
Fathers rights
Gay rights
Group rights
Human rights
Inalienable rights
Individual rights
Legal rights
Men's rights
Natural rights
Negative & positive
Social rights
"Three generations"
Women's rights
Workers' rights
Youth rights
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Part of a series of articles on
Discrimination
General forms

Racism · Sexism · Ageism · Religious intolerance · Xenophobia In jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. ... For the album by Moby, see Animal Rights (album). ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The term collective rights refers to rights which are held and exercised by all the people collectively, or by specific subsets of the people. ... The Fathers rights movement is a loose network of interest groups, primarily in western countries, established to campaign for equal treatment by the courts in family law issues such as child custody after divorce, child support, and paternity determinations. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Group rights are rights that all members of a group have by virtue of being in that group. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The term inalienable rights (or unalienable rights) refers to a set of human rights that are in some sense fundamental, are not awarded by human power, and cannot be surrendered. ... Individual rights represent the moral rights of individuals in society prior to government. ... In modern English and European systems of jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. ... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... Within the philosophy of human rights, some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between negative and positive rights. ... Social rights refer to what are usually positive rights, which ensure to all people a fair standard of treatment. ... The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... This box:      Most broadly, discrimination is the discernment of qualities and rejection of subjects with undesirable qualities. ... Racism is the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... This box:      The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex... Look up ageism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Specific forms

Social
Ableism · Adultism · Biphobia · Classism · Elitism · Ephebiphobia · Gerontophobia · Heightism · Heterosexism · Homophobia · Lesbophobia · Lookism · Misandry · Misogyny · Pediaphobia · Sizeism · Transphobia Ableism is a term used to describe discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are able-bodied. ... Adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which some see as biased against children, youth, and all young people who arent addressed or viewed as adults. ... Biphobia is the fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals (although in practice it extends to pansexual people too). ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... Ephebiphobia (from Greek ephebos έφηβος = teenager, underage adolescent and fobos φόβος = fear, phobia), also known as hebephobia (from Greek hebe = youth), denotes both the irrational fear of teenagers or of adolescence, and the prejudice against teenagers or underage adolescents. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This box:      Heightism is a form of discrimination based on height. ... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church; a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) is a term which describes prejudice, discrimination, harassment or abuse, either specifically targeting a lesbian person, based on their lesbian identity, or, more generally, targetting lesbians as a class. ... Lookism is discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This box:      Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Fear of children and/or infants or childhood is alternately called pedophobia or pediaphobia. ... The fat acceptance movement, also referred to as the fat liberation movement, is a grass-roots effort to change societal attitudes about fat people. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children...

Against cultures:

Americans · Arabs · Armenians · Australians · Canadians · Catalans · Chinese · English · Europeans · French · Germans · Indians · Iranians · Irish · Italians · Japanese · Jews · Malay · Mexicans · Pakistanis · Poles · Portuguese · Quebecers · Roma · Romanians · Russians · Serbs · Turks Anti-Arabism is a term that refers to prejudice or hostility against people from Arabic origin. ... Anti-Catalanism is the collective name given to various political attitudes in Spain. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Anti-Europeanism is opposition or hostility toward the governments, culture, or people of the countries of Europe. ... This box:      Anti-Malay racism refers to prejudice against ethnic Malays. ... Anti-Quebec sentiment is opposition or hostility toward the government, culture, or people of Quebec, that is French-Canadians, English Quebecers and people from other origins. ... Antiziganism or Anti-Romanyism is hostility, prejudice or racism directed at the Romani people, commonly called Gypsies. ... Serbs rule ...

Against beliefs:

Atheism · Bahá'í · Catholicism · Christianity · Hinduism · Judaism · Mormonism · Islam · Neopaganism · Protestantism · Many atheists have experienced discrimination, mainly from religious entities. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church. ... This box:      Anti-Christian discrimination, anti-Christian prejudice, Christianophobia or Christophobia is a negative categorical bias against Christians or the religion of Christianity. ... Anti-Hindu prejudice is a negative perception against the practice and practitioners of Hinduism. ... This box:      Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... This box:      Islamophobia is a criticized[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Religious discrimination against adherents of various neopagan denominations. ... Anti-Protestantism is an institutional, ideological or emotional bias against Protestantism and its followers. ...

Manifestations

Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching · Hate speech · Hate crime · Genocide · Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war · Religious persecution · Gay bashing · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Blood libel · Black Legend · Paternalism · Police brutality Slave redirects here. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually execution, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by police batons Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...

Movements

Discriminatory
Aryanism · Hate groups · Kahanism · Ku Klux Klan · Nativism · Neo-Nazism · American Nazi Party · South African National Party · Supremacism · UMNO ·
Anti-discriminatory
Abolitionism · Civil rights · LGBT rights · Women's/Universal suffrage · Feminism · Masculism Men's/Fathers rights
Children's rights · Youth rights · Disability rights · Inclusion · Autistic rights · Equalism Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Aryan race is a notion mentioned in the Old Persian inscriptions and other Persian sources from c. ... A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility or violence towards a group of people or some organization upon spurious grounds, despite a wider consensus that these people are not necessarily better or worse than any others. ... Speaking: US-born Rabbi Meir Kahane, leader of the Kach party in the Knesset. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chauvinism. ... Sang Saka Bangsa The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu), is the right-Wing and the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterruptedly since its independence. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) is an ideology associated with the mens movement. ... The Fathers rights movement is a loose network of interest groups, primarily in western countries, established to campaign for equal treatment by the courts in family law issues such as child custody after divorce, child support, and paternity determinations. ... The childrens rights movement was born in the 1800s with the orphan train. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... Inclusion is a term used by activist people with disabilities and other disability rights advocates for the idea that human beings should freely, openly and happily accommodate any other human being that happens to be differently-abled without question or qualification of any kind. ... This box:      The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [1] and autistic liberation movement [2]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. ... Graffiti in Madrid promoting equality, reads todos somos iguales, or we are all equal. Equalism is a name often given to forms of egalitarianism (advocacy of equality) concerned with issues of gender or race. ...

Policies

Discriminatory
Race/Religion/Sex segregation · Apartheid · Redlining · Internment
Anti-discriminatory
Emancipation · Civil rights · Desegregation · Integration
Counter-discriminatory
Affirmative action · Racial quota · Reservation · Reparations · Forced busing · Employment equity (Canada) The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... Segregation means separation. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ... Affirmative action refers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group. ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Employment equity refers to Canadian policies that require or encourage preferential treatment in employment practices for certain designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities. ...

Law

Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration · Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws · Black codes · Apartheid laws · Ketuanan Melayu · Nuremberg Laws
Anti-discriminatory
List of anti-discrimination acts
14th Amendment · Crime of apartheid
Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ... This box:      The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. ... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defense of ketuanan Melayu. ... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial...

Other forms

Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism · Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism · Adultcentrism · Gynocentrism · Androcentrism · Economic discrimination Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Crony” redirects here. ... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ...

Related topics

Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism · Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity · Multiculturalism · Political correctness · Reverse discrimination · Eugenics · Racialism · Speciesism A bigot is a prejudiced person who is intolerant of opinions, lifestyles, or identities differing from his or her own. ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chauvinism. ... Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diversity (business). ... The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Reverse discrimination is a term that is used to describe policies or acts that are seen to benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically minorities or women), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (typically men and majority races). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ...

WikiProject Discrimination
Discrimination Portal
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Men's Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. Its aim is to promote the physical, economic and emotional well-being of all men and boys, as part of a general human rights, civil rights, or equal rights agenda. It is frequently concerned with family law, paternity fraud, and domestic violence. There is no single unifying manifesto or organization which can claim to speak for the entire movement and the term is used in various ways.[Who said this?][citation needed] Image File history File links Portal. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Equal Rights can be: One of several groups called the Equal Rights Party. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... Main articles: Paternity (law) and Paternity testing Paternity fraud, the term, came into common use in the late 1990s describing the act of falsely naming a man to be the biological father of a child when the mother knows (or suspects) that he is not the biological father, particularly for... “Domestic disturbance” redirects here. ...


Related areas of the men's movement include:

  • Fathers' rights focus on the relationship between fathers and their children and in particular family law.
  • Masculism provides a counterpart to feminism and argues against legal constructs, reforms, or entitlements which deny men equal rights under the law on the basis of gender; there are conservative "traditionalist", "liberal", and libertarian strands. [citation needed]

Contents

The Fathers rights movement can be seen as part of the mens movement and/or the parents movement, it emerged in the 1970s as a loose social movement providing a network of interest groups, primarily in western countries. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) is an ideology associated with the mens movement. ... Feminists redirects here. ...

Men's Rights Movement

The Men's Rights Movement is concerned with the promotion of male rights and freedoms in society. The development of the modern men's movement, with its own Community and philosophy, is a recent development. [citation needed][Who said this?]


In the 2000s men began to share their concerns on the Internet, often bringing forward unheard statistics or viewpoints. Its supporters are considered part of the Men's Movement, and often call themselves Men's Rights Activists, or MRAs. Father's rights and Domestic violence are areas central to the men's rights movement. It is primarily concerned with legal equality and representation, health, education, employment, civil rights and Constitutional rights.[citation needed] Many supporters are particularly concerned with the effect that Divorce, Custody, Rape and Violence Against Women Act-type laws have on men's rights and freedoms. It is argued that these laws cause violation of Constitutional rights such as the right to a fair trial and the right to due process.[citation needed][Who said this?]Affirmative Action programmes, and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 are also areas of prime concern. One group, S.P.A.R.C., argues that these policies have a far more discriminatory effect than is widely reported or acknowledged. [1] MRAs believe that Title IX is responsible not only for adverse college enrollment trends, but also for damaging male participation and opportunity in sports. It is argued that Title IX has become a "quota system" and, in seeking to fulfil those quotas, regularly discriminates against male needs and participation levels.[citation needed][Who said this?] The mens movement is a social movement that includes a number of philosophies and organizations that seek to support men, change the male gender role and improve mens rights in regard to marriage and child access and victims of domestic violence. ... The Fathers rights movement is a loose network of interest groups, primarily in western countries, established to campaign for equal treatment by the courts in family law issues such as child custody after divorce, child support, and paternity determinations. ... “Domestic disturbance” redirects here. ... A constitutional right is a right granted by a governments constitution (on the national or sub-national level), and cannot be legally denied by that government. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... Affirmative action refers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, now known as the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act in honor of its principal author, but more commonly known simply as Title IX, is a 76-word United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: No person...


Men's Rights Advocacy and Masculinism also promote the concept of "defending male identity". Typically MRAs would subscribe to masculinity as strength, honour and honesty.[citation needed][Who said this?] Masculinism aims to break negative heterosexual male stereotyping but refuses to be perceived as anti-feminist or anti-gay. ...


History

Prior to 1995 the men's movement was predominantly a reactive and disorganized movement that received little attention or recognition. The American Coalition for Fathers and Children was founded in 1995 by mature activists such as Stuart A. Miller, and Dianna Thompson. ACFC founded the shared parenting movement and organized the largest protests in the history of the men's movement, the largest held in over 225 cities around the world on father's day, 2001 in the "Bridges for Children" campaign.[citation needed] Shared parenting refers to a family arrangement in child custody or divorce settlements, in which the care of the children is equal, or more than substantially shared, between the natural parents. ...


Structure

Like most social movements, those concerned with men's rights comprise a wide variety of individuals and organizations, both united and divided in various ways on specific issues including the mistreatment of men in the media, the abortion debate, family law and false rape allegations. Some groups are formally organized or incorporated, while others are casual alliances or the work of a few individuals.[citation needed] American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... Issues of discussion The abortion debate refers to discussion and controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of abortion. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ...


Most Men's Rights advocates do not align themselves with "pro-feminist" men or their organizations.[citation needed] These men are commonly referred to within the movement as "collaborationists" or "manginas".[citation needed] A pro-feminist supports the views and goals of feminism. ...


Although the vast majority of men's rights leaders and activists are men, there are many women, including those in significant positions within the movement. For example, Sue Price in the Australian Men's Rights Agency has been at the forefront of activism there. Naomi Penner was a women's rights activist in the 1960s who later helped to create the National Coalition of Free Men in America in 1981. B.N. Saraswati founded one of the earliest Men's right group in India. Dianna Thompson, the first Executive Director of the American Coalition for Fathers and Children founded the Second Wives Crusade, which gained popularity very quickly, and later became part of the True Equality Network operated by Terri Lynn Tersak. Self-labeled feminists, such as Wendy McElroy, regularly advocate for men's rights.[citation needed] The Mens Rights Agency (operating Australia-wide out of Brisbane) is a support group offering help and community for separated and divorced men and fathers. ... The National Coalition of Free Men (NCFM) is a non-profit educational & civil rights organization based in the United States. ...


Although most men's rights advocates are from the developed world, they form a diverse group, which include both singularly religious and atheistic individuals, as well as those from the left, right, and center of politics and every echelon of society. Significantly, however, the Men's right movement caught strength in India with Purush Hakka Sanraskhshan Samsta, of "Save Indian Family".[citation needed]


Issues

Within the larger context of human rights, men's rights advocates are concerned with many of the same general issues as proponents of women's rights, only with special attention and consideration to the role of men and boys.[citation needed] The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...


Education

In recent years, girls in the United States have tended to perform better at some educational levels. [2]


Employment

Employment law is another area of concern, with such problems as unequal treatment around parental leave, retirement age, and pension entitlements. They also assert sexual harassment policies are de facto directed against the male style of inappropriate sexual behaviour in the workplace, while ignoring the female style of inappropriate behaviour in the workplace. Others assert that many sexual harassment laws restrict men's basic freedoms, and cause men to be constantly on edge. They express anger towards the fact that a man telling a joke or simply referring to a co-worker by a nickname is grounds for dismissal or lawsuits. Spain's recent 40% requirement on boardroom members has come under harsh criticism from the movement, in paricular as it violates EU law which would make working for a company with 65% male board members illegal, while a company with 100% female board members would be acceptable under Zapatero's new law.[citation needed][Who said this?] Employment law is the branch of the law that deals with employment related issues. ... Lost, see Maternity Leave (Lost). ... A mandatory retirement age is the age at which persons who hold certain jobs or offices are required by statute to step down, or retire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born August 4, 1960) is the Prime Minister of Spain. ...


Family

Family law is one area of keen interest among men's groups. Fathers' rights advocates say there is a systematic bias against men in child custody matters. The treatment of husbands in divorce cases, whether or not there are children, is another issue.[citation needed][Who said this?] Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... The Fathers rights movement can be seen as part of the mens movement and/or the parents movement, it emerged in the 1970s as a loose social movement providing a network of interest groups, primarily in western countries. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ...


Health

Health areas addressed by the men's rights movement include:

  • Male-only military conscription[citation needed]
  • Male circumcision[citation needed] performed without the consent of the individual being circumcised. Neonatal circumcision is still common in the United States. Men's rights advocates believe that male body parts should not be amputated without the individual's consent.
  • The disparity in the spending on men and women in the healthcare system. As another example, in the United Kingdom more money is spent on breast cancer research than prostate cancer research [3]; however, breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in the UK [4] 40,000 cases of breast cancer were detected in the UK in 2000 and claimed the lives of 13,000 women in 2002. In 2000, about 27,200 cases of prostate cancer were detected and claimed nearly 10,000 lives in 2002 in the UK .
  • Increasing suicide rate amongst young men, four times higher than amongst young women in the United Kingdom[1]; (73% of all suicide deaths are white males in the United States[5]; In the United States, more women than men report a history of attempted suicide, with a gender ratio of 3:1)[6]
  • Workplace deaths and injuries occurs at a higher rate for men in the United Kingdom[7][8]
  • For domestic violence, advocates cite government statistics that show that in 15% to 38% of the cases of intimate partner violence the victim is male. [citation needed] They argue that the real number is likely to be higher, since male victims may be less likely to report abuse than female victims due to social stigmatisation [citation needed] . They also assert that the percentage of shelters for battered men should make up a respective percentage of all shelters. The National Coalition of Free Men has sued several women's shelters with the goal of allowing battered men and their children to be admitted and to receive assistance from shelters.(see Violence against men)[Who said this?]

This article is about male circumcision. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... “Domestic disturbance” redirects here. ... “Domestic disturbance” redirects here. ...

Media portrayal

Another issue of concern is the perceived anti-male bias in the media. Men's rights activists claim that men are portrayed unfairly on television, radio and in newspapers and magazines. They claim that not only does the media not pay serious attention to men's rights issues but that men are portrayed in a negative light compared to women, particularly in advertising[citation needed], with archetypes such as the "dumb dad" (especially when advertising to children). The lack of concern over male issues such as suicide, boys of education, and a willingness of the press to re-print feminist statistics such as the "wage gap" has led to the term "Lace Curtain" being used. The term was coined by MRA Warren Farrell. “Advert” redirects here. ...


Refugees

In Australian immigration policy a distinction is regularly made between women and children (often treated erroneously as equivalent to "family groups") and single men. The details are subject to current debate and recently failed legislation (August 2006) in the Australian Parliament. But for example in one famous recent case, the Minister for Immigration, Senator Amanda Vanstone, determined as follows concerning Papuan asylum seekers (all forty-three of whom have since been accorded status as refugees): "The single men on the boat would be sent to an immigration detention centre, but families would not be split up and would be housed in facilities in the community".[9] The discriminatory treatment of single women (routinely assumed to be members of some family) and single men evident in such a practice is rarely examined in the Australian media.


Social security and Retirement

In some societies there is legislated discrimination against males in provision of social security. In Australia, for example, a woman over 50 years of age may obtain a Widow Allowance[10] approximately equal to a pension if, after turning 40, she becomes widowed, divorced, or merely separated from a spouse (who may be a de facto spouse). She must have "no recent workforce experience", but she can easily qualify for this well after the loss of her partner by going through a period of underemployment. There is no similar allowance for men. In Australia and the UK[11], some of these discriminatory arrangements (including also women's earlier qualification for Age Pension, etc.) are being legally phased out. The policy of "age 65 for men, age 60 for women" remains in place in most Western countries, however.


Criticisms & response to criticisms

Some commentators assert that most men's rights advocates have joined the movement as the result of negative personal experience during a divorce or custody battle. Many advocates do not dispute this claim and would indeed see it as a justified response, but critics argue many men do not realize legal discrimination until after they have experienced it themselves. The same could be said of a certain amount of women in women's groups. The Men's Movement would regard this logic as flawed, however, and an attempt to "shame" men out of asserting and defending their rights.[citation needed]


In general, all movements claim to address issues of concern to men and to remove institutional and societal discrimination against males. [citation needed] Some argue that feminism was originally an egalitarian ideology and that it has strayed from the goal of gender equality and begun to support the discrimination and abuse of males.[citation needed] Some, like Darren Blacksmith[12] and Chris Key,[13] however, condemn the entire history of the women's rights movement. The men's movement, as a whole, seeks equal rights for all people. The men's rights movement is often equated with the masculist movement, but these terms have never been homogeneous, well-defined, or stable over time, so the relationship or synonymy remains unclear. The culture of "MGTOW" (Men Going Their Own Way) is a recent type of "masculinism" that has come about.[citation needed] This box:      Most broadly, discrimination is the discernment of qualities and rejection of subjects with undesirable qualities. ... Equal Rights can be: One of several groups called the Equal Rights Party. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) is an ideology associated with the mens movement. ...


Wages

See also: Male-female income disparity in the USA

A classic example is equal pay for women and the "wage gap." Research and statistics are used to argue that this is not sexism, but reflect that men are either required, or are more willing and/or able, to work in dangerous conditions, staying in a field longer (thus becoming more experienced employees), being more likely to relocate for higher pay, and numerous other factors. [citation needed] Critics of feminism point out that the methodology used by feminists to gather their wage gap information was flawed. Lenore Wietzman's study, (the one most often cited by feminist books for wage gap information), simply compared the aggregate reported earnings of men in the US to that of women. This ignores the professions chosen and the number of hours worked, as well as unclaimed income such as unclaimed day care and tips from jobs like waiting on tables. Warren Farrell's book Why Men Earn More identified many reasons why he believes men earn more money than women. When accounting for all of these factors using the same data Weitzman used in her report, the wage gap was less than 2 cents on the dollar. Male-female income disparity, also referred to as a gender gap in earnings, in the United States, also known as the gender wage gap, the gender earnings gap and the gender pay gap, is used by government agencies and economists to refer to statistics gathered by the U.S. Census... Equal pay for women is an issue involving pay inequality between men and women. ... Warren Farrell (b. ...


Feminists and other critics, however, point to statistics that demonstrate dangerous and physically demanding attributes do not amount to higher pay and therefore the hypothesis does not have enough data to support the reason for the pay gap.[14] Feminists, like social-psychologist Carol Tavris, labels the "solutions" put forth as sexist since the suggestions to close the gap falls entirely at the feet of women, that it ignores what her research argues is a societal tendency to devalue "women's work", and that it forces women to live their lives on the terms of men.[citation needed]


Violence

Critics also accuse men's right advocates of ignoring, trivializing, and/or defending male violence. In response, some men's rights advocates say they "don't disagree that some men rape"[citation needed], but state that some figures put out claiming that 1 in 4 or 1 in 3 women are raped are exaggerated or are inherently sexist. They also suggest that women can be as violent as men in intimate partner relations, often citing Dr Martin Fiebert's bibliography[15] and Straus and Gelles findings.[16]


A article published in Clinical & Research News Volume 42, Number 15, page 31 states, "In a 2001 CDC (Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, USA) survey using a nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18 to 28, 11,370 who were in heterosexual relationships provided answers to violence related questions. Researchers found that women were far more likely to instigate nonreciprocal violence than were men (IPV = Interpersonal Violence).


"As for physical injury due to intimate partner violence, it was more likely to occur when the violence was reciprocal than nonreciprocal. And while injury was more likely when violence was perpetrated by men, in relationships with reciprocal violence it was the men who were injured more often (25 percent of the time) than were women (20 percent of the time). 'This is important as violence perpetrated by women is often seen as not serious,'


Whitaker discovered, of the 24 percent of relationships that had been violent, half had been reciprocal and half had not. Although more men than women (53 percent versus 49 percent) had experienced nonreciprocal violent relationships, more women than men (52 percent versus 47 percent) had taken part in ones involving reciprocal violence.


Of the study's numerous findings, Whitaker said, "I think the most important is that a great deal of interpersonal violence is reciprocally perpetrated and that when it is reciprocally perpetrated, it is much more likely to result in injury than when perpetrated by only one partner.


These findings on intimate partner violence come from a study conducted by scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The lead investigator was Daniel Whitaker, Ph.D., a behavioral scientist and team leader at the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (which is part of the CDC). Results were published in the May Journal of Public Health."



Michael Flood, while acknowledging violence against men by women does take place, accuses men’s rights advocates of deliberately using free-flowing numbers without taking into account the contexts in which violence occurs. He says advocates neglect to consider when violence against a man by a woman can be in self-defense or an attempt to leave an abusive, potentially violent situation. He adds that they use the terms ‘violence’ and ‘abuse’ interchangeably without defining either and that they fail to distinguish between heterosexual and homosexual couples. Controversially, he states that Men's rights advocates ignore the unreliability of the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS).[17]. Murray Straus (co-creator of the CTS) refers to such claims about the CTS as 'erroneous'.[18] The Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) is a widely used method of identifying intimate partners maltreatment, with a version for the identifying of child maltreatment. ...


Richard Gelles (co-creator of the CTS) describes the claim by "the right of center" that: "Women Initiate Violence as Often as do Men" is a "significant distortion of [his] research". One that "conveniently" ignores that "no matter what the rate of violence or who initiates the violence, women are 7 to 10 times more likely to be injured in acts of intimate violence than are men." As found in surveys conducted by himself and Murray Straus as well as the Bureau of Justice Statistics.[19]


America's national media watch group, FAIR (Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting), agree that violence against men by women takes place, but suggest that a misreading of the Straus/Gelles studies accounts for the difference in numbers alleged by some men's rights advocates and those from the American government's Bureau of Justice Statistics.[20] Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR), is a media criticism organization based in New York, New York, founded in 1986. ... ...


Critics including Michael Flood cite statistics suggesting that of reported assaults by a partner, men are more likely to call the police, press charges, and keep them than women (Schwartz, 1987; Rouse et.al; 1988; Kincaid; 1982).


See also

Antifeminism refers to the disbelief in or opposition to the economic, political and social equality of women. ... Fathers 4 Justice Logo Fathers 4 Justice (or F4J) began as a fathers’ rights organization in the United Kingdom. ... The Fathers rights movement is a loose network of interest groups, primarily in western countries, established to campaign for equal treatment by the courts in family law issues such as child custody after divorce, child support, and paternity determinations. ... This article lists external links to: academic research sponsored research legislative consultation documents law review articles, reported cases, etc. ... A marriage strike is the social phenomenon of men seeking to avoid marriage. ... “Manliness” redirects here. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) is an ideology associated with the mens movement. ... The paternal rights and abortion issue is an extension of both the abortion debate and the fathers rights movement. ... Lost, see Maternity Leave (Lost). ... Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... Feminazi (also spelled femi-Nazi or femme-nazi) is a pejorative, derogatory term used predominantly in the United States and Canada by political conservatives to characterize and belittle feminists whom conservatives perceive to be intolerant of conservative views. ... The Radical Faerie community developed in America among Gay men during the 1970s sexual revolution. ... The seduction community is a loose-knit subculture of men who strive for better sexual and romantic success with women through self-improvement and a greater understanding of social psychology. ... Shared parenting refers to a family arrangement in child custody or divorce settlements, in which the care of the children is equal, or more than substantially shared, between the natural parents. ...

Significant writers

There are several people called Michael Green, including: [[Mike Green (web developerwww. ... Warren Farrell (b. ... It has been suggested that Equity feminism be merged into this article or section. ... Glenn Sacks is an American mens and fathers issues columnist and a nationally syndicated radio talk show host. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.deltabravo.net/custody/waronboys.php
  2. ^ Yupin Bae, Susan Choy, Claire Geddes, Jennifer Sable, and Thomas Snyder, "Trends in Educational Equity of Girls and Women", Education Statistics Quarterly, U.S. Department of Education, 2000
  3. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/health/663688.stm
  4. ^ http://www.scenta.co.uk/Health/829436/conquering-cancer-in-the-uk.htm
  5. ^ http://www.policyalmanac.org/health/archive/suicide.shtml
  6. ^ http://www.policyalmanac.org/health/archive/suicide.shtml
  7. ^ http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/tables/table11e.htm
  8. ^ http://www.springerlink.com/content/l0h5l77h16395wpv/
  9. ^ "Vanstone refuses to return Papuans", Sydney Morning Herald, 26 January 2006
  10. ^ http://www.centrelink.gov.au/internet/internet.nsf/payments/qual_how_wid.htm
  11. ^ http://www.thepensionservice.gov.uk/atoz/atozdetailed/retirement.asp#state
  12. ^ http://www.cooltools4men.com/
  13. ^ http://www.mens-rights.net/commentary/chriskey/index.htm
  14. ^ http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/1999/Oct/wk1/art02.htm
  15. ^ http://www.csulb.edu/~mfiebert/assault.htm/
  16. ^ http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/CTS21.pdf
  17. ^ http://www.xyonline.net/husbandbattering.shtml
  18. ^ http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/CTS44G.pdf
  19. ^ Richard J. Gelles, "Domestic Violence Factoids" University of Rhode Island Family Violence Research Program, 1995
  20. ^ http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1247

Bibliography

  • Save the Males by Richard Doyle, 2006, ISBN 978-1411696334
  • The Myth of Male Power by Warren Farrell, 1993.
  • Women Can’t Hear what Men Don’t Say: The myths that divide couples and poison love by Warren Farrell, 1999.
  • The War against Boys: How misguided feminism is harming our young men by Christina Hoff-Sommers, 2000.
  • Who Stole Feminism: How women have betrayed women by Christina Hoff-Sommers, 1994.
  • Spreading Misandry: The teaching of contempt for men in popular culture by Paul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young, 2001.
  • The Legal Subjection of Men by Ernest Belfort Bax, 1908.
  • The Fraud of Feminism by Ernest Belfort Bax, 1914.
  • The Hazards of Being Male: Surviving the Myth of Masculine Privilege by Herb Goldberg, 1987.
  • Refusing to be a Man: Essays on Sex and Justice by John Stoltenberg, 1989.
  • Iron John: A Book About Men by Robert Bly, 1990.
  • Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man by Susan Faludi, 1999.
  • Men Freeing Men: Exploding the myth of the traditional male by Francis Baumli, 1985.
  • Flood, Michael: Backlash: Angry men's movements in: Rossi, Staceay E.: The Battle and Backlash rage on. 2004, XLibris Corp., ISBN 1-4134-5934-X, S. 261-287 [2]
  • Flood, Michael: Men's movements in: XY magazine, vol. 6. 1996 [3]
  • The Man's No-Nonsense Guide to Women: How to Succeed in Romance on Planet Earth by Marc H. Rudov, 2004.

Warren Farrell (b. ... Warren Farrell (b. ... Ernest Belfort Bax (July 23, 1854 - November 26, 1926) was a socialist journalist and philosopher, associated with the Social Democratic Federation in Britain. ... Ernest Belfort Bax (July 23, 1854 - November 26, 1926) was a socialist journalist and philosopher, associated with the Social Democratic Federation in Britain. ... Robert Bly (born December 23, 1926 in Madison, Minnesota) is a poet, author, and leader of the Mythopoetic Mens Movement in the United States. ... Susan C. Faludi (born April 18, 1959 ) ) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author of two well-known books and won a Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism in 1991, for a report on the leveraged buy-out of Safeway Stores, Inc. ...

External links

  • MensRightsBlogs.com

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