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Encyclopedia > Memphis, Egypt
Memphis and its Necropolis - the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Memphis

Location of Memphis Memphis was the wife of Epaphus, the founder of Memphis, Egypt in Greek mythology. ... 19th-century tourists in front of the Sphinx - view from South-East, Great Pyramid in background Giza pyramids, view from south in late 19th century. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Egypt_terrain_map_Cairo_Karnak. ...

State Party Flag of Egypt Egypt
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, vi
Reference 86
Region North Africa
Inscription History
Inscription 1979  (3rd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Giant statue of Ramses II
Giant statue of Ramses II

Memphis was the ancient capital of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 2200 BC and later for shorter periods during the New Kingdom[1], and an administrative centre throughout ancient history[2][3]. Its Ancient Egyptian name was Ineb Hedj ("The White Walls"). The name "Memphis" is the Greek deformation of the Egyptian name of Pepi I's (6th dynasty) pyramid, Men-nefer[4], which became Menfe in Coptic. The modern cities and towns of Mit Rahina, Dahshur, Saqqara, Abusir, Abu Gorab, and Zawyet el'Aryan, south of Cairo, all lie within the administrative borders of historical Memphis ( 29°50′58.8″N, 31°15′15.4″E). Memphis was also known in Ancient Egypt as Ankh Tawy ("That which binds the Two Lands"), thus stressing the strategic position of the city between Upper and Lower Egypt. Image File history File links Point_rouge_croix_frontier_vert_green. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1041x894, 128 KB)Taken September 1999. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1041x894, 128 KB)Taken September 1999. ... The nomes of Ancient Egypt A nome (Greek: district) is a subnational administrative division of Ancient Egypt. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... (Redirected from 2200s BC) (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Spoken in: Ancient Egypt Language extinction: evolved into Demotic by 600 BC, into Coptic by AD 200, and was extinct by the 17th century Language family: Afro-Asiatic  Egyptian  Writing system: hieroglyphs, cursive hieroglyphs, hieratic, and demotic (later, occasionally Arabic script in government translations) Language codes ISO 639-1: none... Pepi I Meryre (reigned 2332 - 2283 BC) was the third king of the Sixth dynasty of Egypt. ... The Sixth Dynasty of Egypt is considered by many authorities as the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, although The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. ... This article is about architectural pyramids. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ... The Pyramids of Nyuserre Ini and Neferirkare Kakai at Abusir, viewed from the south-east Abusir or Abu Sir is the name given to an Egyptian archaeological locality - specifically, an extensive necropolis of the Old Kingdom period, together with later additions - in the vicinity of the modern capital Cairo. ... Abu Gorab is a solar Temple and Pyramid of the ancient Egypt, discovered around the year 1900. ... The Egyptian town of Zawiyet el-Aryan is located between between Giza and Abusir. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ...


The ruins of Memphis are 20 km (12 miles) south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...

Hieroglyphs in Memphis with a statue of Ramses II in the background
Hieroglyphs in Memphis with a statue of Ramses II in the background

According to Herodotus[5], the city was founded around 3100 BC by Menes, who united the two kingdoms of Egypt. Hieroglyphs at the Memphis museum with Ramses II statue on the back. ... Hieroglyphs at the Memphis museum with Ramses II statue on the back. ... (33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - 31st century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Varna nekropol: The oldest gold in the world found near Varna lake. ... This article is about the Pharaoh. ...


Estimates of population size differ widely. According to T. Chandler Memphis had some 30,000 inhabitants and was by far the largest settlement worldwide from the time of its foundation until around 2250 BC and from 1557 to 1400 BC.[6] [1]. K. A. Bard is more cautious and estimates the city's population to have amounted to about 6,000 inhabitants during the Old Kingdom[7]. // Ruins of the pyramid complex of Pepi II, the longest reigning monarch in recorded history 2334–2279 BC — (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia. ...


Memphis reached a peak of prestige under the 6th Dynasty as a centre of the cult of Ptah. It declined briefly after the 18th Dynasty with the rise of Thebes and was revived under the Persian satraps before falling firmly into second place following the foundation of Alexandria. Under the Roman Empire, Alexandria remained the most important city. Memphis remained the second city of Egypt until the establishment of Fustat (or Fostat) in 641. It was then largely abandoned and became a source of stone for the surrounding settlements. It was still an imposing set of ruins in the 12th century but soon became little more than an expanse of low ruins and scattered stone. The Sixth Dynasty of Egypt is considered by many authorities as the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, although The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. ... Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Antiquity and modernity stand cheek-by-jowl in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport For other uses, see Alexandria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Fostat (also spelled Fustat; Arabic: ) was the first capital city of Egypt under Arab rule. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


The remains of the temple of Ptah and of Apis have been uncovered at the site as well as a few statues, including two four-metre ones in alabaster of Ramesses II. The Saqqara necropolis is close to Memphis. Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Apis can refer to the following: Apis — An Egyptian god Apis — A Bee genus Apis — In Greek mythology a prophet. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ...


The Egyptian historian Manetho referred to Memphis as Hi-Ku-P'tah ("Place of the Ka of Ptah"), which he wrote in Greek as Aί γυ πτoς (Ai-gu-ptos), giving us the Latin AEGYPTVS and the modern English Egypt. The term Copt is also believed to be etymologically derived from this name. Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... In Egyptian mythology, the human soul is made up of seven parts: the Ren, Sekhem, the Akh, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Sekhu. ... Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ...


In the Bible, Memphis is called Moph or Noph. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


References

  1. ^ Katheryn A. Bard, Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999, p.694
  2. ^ Lynn Meskell, Private Life in New Kingdom Egypt, Princeton University Press 2002, p.34
  3. ^ Ian Shaw, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press 2003, p.279
  4. ^ Bridget McDermott, Decoding Egyptian Hieroglyphs: How to Read the Secret Language of the Pharaohs, Chronicle Books 2001, p.130
  5. ^ Herodotus, Euterpe, 2.99.4
  6. ^ Tertius Chandler, Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth, 1987
  7. ^ Katheryn A. Bard, Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999, p.250

Sources

  • Baines & Malek Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt, 2000. ISBN 0-8160-4036-2

External links

Preceded by
--
Capital of Egypt
3100 BC - 2180 BC
Succeeded by
Herakleopolis

Coordinates: 29°50′40.8″N, 31°15′3.3″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Memphis, Egypt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (370 words)
Memphis was the ancient capital of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 1300 BC.
Hieroglyphs in Memphis with a statue of Ramses II in the background.
Memphis reached a peak of prestige under the 6th Dynasty as a centre of the cult of Ptah.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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