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Encyclopedia > Memory
Neuropsychology

Topics

Brain-computer interfacesBrain damage
Brain regionsClinical neuropsychology
Cognitive neuroscienceHuman brain
NeuroanatomyNeurophysiology
PhrenologyPopular misconceptions
Look up memory in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... // medulla oblongata medullary pyramids pons paramedian pontine reticular formation fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus tectum inferior colliculi superior colliculi mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius) cerebral peduncle midbrain tegmentum ventral tegmental... Clinical neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... A 19th century phrenology chart. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ...

Brain functions

arousalattention
concentrationconsciousness
decision-makingexecutive functions
languagelearningmemory
motor coordinationperception
planningproblem solving
thinking
Visual system Auditory system Olfactory system Gustatory system Somatosensory system Visual perception Motor cortex Brocas area (aka Language Area) Lateralization of brain function Phrenology Cybernetics Connectionism Modularity of mind Artificial intelligence Society of Mind Neuropsychology Electroencephalography Electrophysiology Magnetoencephalography Functional MRI Positron emission tomography Categories: | | ... Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake. ... It has been suggested that Neural mechanisms behind shifts of attention be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Neural mechanisms behind shifts of attention be merged into this article or section. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Decision making is the cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among variations. ... Executive functions are the conscious control of ones thoughts, emotions, and movements. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ...

People

Arthur L. BentonAntónio Damásio
Kenneth Heilman • Phineas Gage
Norman Geschwind • Elkhonon Goldberg
Donald HebbAlexander Luria
Muriel D. LezakBrenda Milner
Karl PribramOliver Sacks
Roger SperryRodolfo Llinas
Arthur Lester Benton, Ph. ... António Rosa Damásio, GOSE (IPA: ) (b. ... Kenneth M. Heilman is an American behavioral neurologist. ... Phineas Gages death mask Phineas P. Gage (1823 – May 21, 1860) was a railroad construction foreman who suffered a traumatic brain injury when a tamping iron accidentally passed through his skull, damaging the frontal lobes of his brain. ... Norman Geschwind can be considered the father of modern behavioral neurology in America. ... Elkhonon Goldberg (1946) is a neuropsychologist and cognitive neuroscientist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Alexander Romanovich Luria Александр Романович Лурия (July 16, 1902-1977) was a famous Russian neuropsychologist. ... Muriel Deutsch Lezak is an American neuropsychologist best known for her book Neuropsychological Assessment, widely accepted as the standard in the field. ... Dr. Brenda Milner CC (born 15 July 1918, Manchester England) has contributed extensively to the research literature on various topics in the field of clinical neuropsychology. ... Karl H. Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna, Austria) is a research professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Georgetown University, Washington DC. He trained as a neurosurgeon and became a professor at Stanford University, where he did pioneering work on the cerebral cortex. ... Oliver Sacks in 2005. ... ... Rodolfo Llinás (1934-) is the Thomas and Suzanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the department of Physiology & Neuroscience at the NYU School of Medicine. ...

Tests

Bender-Gestalt Test
Benton Visual Retention Test
Clinical Dementia Rating
Continuous Performance Task
Glasgow Coma Score
Hayling and Brixton tests
Lexical decision task
Mini mental state examination
Stroop task
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wisconsin card sorting task Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. ... The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test or simply the Bender-Gestalt test is a psychological test first developed by child neuropsychiatrist Lauretta Bender. ... The Benton Visual Retention Test (or simply Benton Test) is an individually administered test for ages 8-adult that measures visual perception and visual memory . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Continuous Performance Task, or CPT, is a psychological test that consists of a series of stimuli. ... The Glasgow Coma Scale (also known as Glasgow Coma Score or simply GCS) was devised by doctors to assess head trauma and, importantly, to help keep track of patients progress over a period of time. ... The Hayling and Brixton tests[1] are neuropsychological tests of executive function created by psychologists Paul W. Burgess and Tim Shallice. ... A lexical decision task is a type of experiment in psycholinguistics. ... The mini mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ... Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ... Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ... The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of set-shifting, i. ...

Mind and Brain Portal
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In psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store, retain, and subsequently retrieve information. Traditional studies of memory began in the realms of philosophy, including techniques of artificially enhancing the memory. The late nineteenth and early twentieth century put memory within the paradigms of cognitive psychology. In recent decades, it has become one of the principal pillars of a new branch of science called cognitive neuroscience, a marriage between cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... A mnemonic (AmE [] or BrE []) is a memory aid. ... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ...

Contents

Processes

There are several ways to classify memories, based on duration, nature and retrieval of information. From an information processing perspective there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:

  • Encoding or registration (processing and combining of received information)
  • Storage (creation of a permanent record of the encoded information)
  • Retrieval or recall (calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity)

Encoding in the memory refers to how the information is stored. ... == HUMAN MEMORY STORAGE. == The human memory has three processes of memory storage and these include encoding, storage and retrieval. ... Recollection is the retrieval of memory. ...

Classification

A basic and generally accepted classification of memory is based on the duration of memory retention, and identifies three distinct types of memory: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Sensory memory is our ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimulus has ceased. ... Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary or active memory, is that part of memory which stores a limited amount of information for a limited amount of time (roughly 30-45 seconds). ... Long-term memory (LTM) is memory that lasts from days to years. ...


Sensory

Sensory memory corresponds approximately to the initial 200 - 500 ms after an item is perceived. The ability to look at an item, and remember what it looked like with just a second of observation, or memorization, is an example of sensory memory. With very short presentations, participants often report that they seem to "see" more than they can actually report. The first experiments exploring this form of sensory memory were conducted by George Sperling using the "partial report paradigm." Subjects were presented with a grid of 12 letters, arranged into three rows of 4. After a brief presentation, subjects were then played either a high, medium or low tone, cuing them which of the rows to report. Based on these partial report experiments, Sperling was able to show that the capacity of sensory memory was approximately 12 items, but that it degraded very quickly (within a few hundred milliseconds). Because this form of memory degrades so quickly, participants would see the display, but be unable to report all of the items (12 in the "whole report" procedure) before they decayed. This type of memory cannot be prolonged via rehearsal. MS may refer to: Mississippi - a state in the United States of America Manuscript - a hand-written document (plural MSS). ... George Sperling has studied cognitive psychology. ...


Short-term

Some of the information in sensory memory is then transferred to short-term memory. Short-term memory allows one to recall something from several seconds to as long as a minute without rehearsal. Its capacity is also very limited: George A. Miller, when working at Bell Laboratories, conducted experiments showing that the store of short term memory was 7±2 items (the title of his famous paper, "The magic number 7±2"). Modern estimates of the capacity of short-term memory are lower, typically on the order of 4-5 items, and we know that memory capacity can be increased through a process called chunking. For example, if presented with the string: George A. Miller (born February 3 1920) is a famous professor of psychology at Princeton University, whose most famous work was The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information, which was published in 1956 in In the linguistics community, Miller is well...

FBIPHDTWAIBM

people are able to remember only a few items. However, if the same information is presented in the following way:

FBI PHD TWA IBM

people can remember a great deal more letters. This is because they are able to chunk the information into meaningful groups of letters. Beyond finding meaning in the acronyms above, Herbert Simon showed that the ideal size for chunking letters and numbers, meaningful or not, was three. This may be reflected in the tendency to remember phone numbers as several chunks of three numbers with the final four-number groups generally broken down into two groups of two. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... The Twa, also known as Batwa, are a pygmy people who were the oldest recorded inhabitants of the Great Lakes region of central Africa. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, and philosophy of science and a professor, most notably, at Carnegie Mellon University. ...


Short-term memory is believed to rely mostly on an acoustic code for storing information, and to a lesser extent a visual code. Conrad (1964)[1] found that test subjects had more difficulty recalling collections of words that were acoustically similar (e.g. dog, fog, bog, log).


Long-term

The storage in sensory memory and short-term memory generally have a strictly limited capacity and duration, which means that information is available for a certain period of time, but is not retained indefinitely. By contrast, long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life span). While short-term memory encodes information acoustically, long-term memory encodes it semantically. Baddeley (1966)[2] found that after 20 minutes, test subjects had the greatest difficulty recalling a collection of words that had similar meanings (e.g. big, large, great, huge).


Short-term memory is supported by transient patterns of neuronal communication, dependent on regions of the frontal lobe (especially dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and the parietal lobe. Long-term memories, on the other hand, are maintained by more stable and permanent changes in neural connections widely spread throughout the brain. The hippocampus is essential to the consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory, although it does not seem to store information itself. Rather, it may be involved in changing neural connections for a period of three months or more after the initial learning. The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of vertebrates. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ...


One of the main functions of sleep is thought to be to improve consolidation of information, as it can be shown that memory depends on getting sufficient sleep between training and test, and that the hippocampus replays activity from the current day while sleeping. For example, if we are given a random seven-digit number, we may remember it for only a few seconds and then forget, which means it was stored into our short-term memory. On the other hand, we can remember telephone numbers for many years through repetition; those long-lasting memories are said to be stored in our long-term memory.


Models

Models of memory provide abstract representations of how memory is believed to work. Below are several models proposed over the years by various psychologists.


Multi-store (Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model)

The multi-store model (also known as Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model) was first described in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A corrected visual representation of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model. ...


The multi-store model has been criticized for being too simplistic. For instance, long-term memory is believed to be actually made up of multiple subcomponents, such as episodic and procedural memory. It also proposes that rehearsal is the only mechanism by which information eventually reaches long-term storage, but evidence shows us capable of remembering things without rehearsal.


Working memory

The working memory model.
The working memory model.

In 1974 Baddeley and Hitch proposed a working memory model which further subdivides short-term memory into a number of sub-stores and processes. In this model, STM consists of three basic stores: the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. In 2000 this model was expanded with the multimodal episodic buffer.[3] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Schematic of Baddeleys Model Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch proposed a Model of Working Memory in 1974, in an attempt to describe a more accurate model of short-term memory. ...


The central executive essentially acts as attention. It channels information to the three "slave systems": the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer.


The phonological loop stores sound information by silently rehearsing sounds or words in a continuous loop; the articulatory process (the "inner voice") continuously "speaks" the words to the phonological store (the "inner ear"). The phonological loop has a very limited capacity, which is demonstrated by the fact that it is easier to remember a list of short words (e.g. dog, wish, love) than a list of long words (e.g. association, systematic, confabulate) because short words fit better in the loop. However, if the test subject is given a task that ties up the articulatory process (saying "the, the, the" over and over again), then a list of short words is no easier to remember.


The visuo-spatial sketchpad stores visual and spatial information. It is engaged when performing spatial tasks (such as judging distances) or visual ones (such as counting the windows on a house).


The episodic buffer is dedicated to linking information across domains to form integrated units of visual, spatial, and verbal information and chronological ordering (e.g., the memory of a story or a movie scene). The episodic buffer is also assumed to have links to long-term memory and semantical meaning.


The working memory model explains many practical observations, such as why it is easier to do two different tasks (one verbal and one visual) than two similar tasks (eg two visual), and the aforementioned word-length effect. However, the concept of a central executive as noted here has been criticized as inadequate and vague.


Levels of processing

Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed that it is the method and depth of processing that affects how an experience is stored in memory, rather than rehearsal.

  • Organization - Mandler (1967) gave participants a pack of word cards and asked them to sort them into any number of piles using any system of categorisation they liked. When they were later asked to recall as many of the words as they could, those who used more categories remembered more words. This study suggested that the act of organising information makes it more memorable.
  • Distinctiveness - Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) asked participants to say words in a distinctive way, e.g. spell the words out loud. Such participants recalled the words better than those who simply read them off a list.
  • Effort Tyler et al. (1979) had participants solve a series of anagrams, some easy (FAHTER) and some difficult (HREFAT). The participants recalled the difficult anagrams better, presumably because they put more effort into them.

Classification by information type

Long-term memory can be divided into declarative (explicit) and procedural (implicit) memories. (Anderson, 1976) It has been suggested that Explicit_memory be merged into this article or section. ... Procedural memory, also known as implicit memory, is the long-term memory of skills and procedures, or how to knowledge. ...


Declarative memory requires conscious recall, in that some conscious process must call back the information. It is sometimes called explicit memory, since it consists of information that is explicitly stored and retrieved. It has been suggested that Explicit_memory be merged into this article or section. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Recollection is the retrieval of memory. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Declarative_memory. ...


Declarative memory can be further sub-divided into semantic memory, which concerns facts taken independent of context; and episodic memory, which concerns information specific to a particular context, such as a time and place. Semantic memory allows the encoding of abstract knowledge about the world, such as "Paris is the capital of France". Episodic memory, on the other hand, is used for more personal memories, such as the sensations, emotions, and personal associations of a particular place or time. Autobiographical memory - memory for particular events within one's own life - is generally viewed as either equivalent to, or a subset of, episodic memory. Visual memory is part of memory preserving some characteristics of our senses pertaining to visual experience. We are able to place in memory information that resembles objects, places, animals or people in sort of a mental image. Visual memory can result in priming and it is assumed some kind of perceptual representational system underlies this phenomenon. [1] Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other factual knowledge; in contrast to episodic memory. ... Episodic memory, or autobiographical memory, a sub-category of declarative memory, is the recollection of events. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Visual memory is a part of memory preserving some characteristics of our senses pertaining to visual experience. ... Priming in psychology refers to activating parts of particular representations or associations in memory just before carrying out an action or task. ...


In contrast, procedural memory (or implicit memory) is not based on the conscious recall of information, but on implicit learning. Procedural memory is primarily employed in learning motor skills and should be considered a subset of implicit memory. It is revealed when we do better in a given task due only to repetition - no new explicit memories have been formed, but we are unconsciously accessing aspects of those previous experiences. Procedural memory involved in motor learning depends on the cerebellum and basal ganglia. Procedural memory, also known as implicit memory, is the long-term memory of skills and procedures, or how to knowledge. ... Procedural memory is the long-term memory of skills and procedures, or how to knowledge. ... Implicit 1. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motor learning is the process of improving the smoothness and accuracy of movements. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. ...


So far, nobody has successfully been able to isolate the time dependence of these suggested memory structures.


Classification by temporal direction

A further major way to distinguish different memory functions is whether the content to be remembered is in the past, retrospective memory, or whether the content is to be remembered in the future, prospective memory. Thus, retrospective memory as a category includes semantic memory and episodic/autobiographical memory. In contrast, prospective memory is memory for future intentions, or remembering to remember (Winograd, 1988). Prospective memory can be further broken down into event- and time-based prospective remembering. Time-based prospective memories are triggered by a time-cue, such as going to the doctor (action) at 4pm (cue). Event-based prospective memories are intentions triggered by cues, such as remembering to post a letter (action) after seeing a mailbox (cue). Cues do not need to be related to the action (as the mailbox example is), and lists, sticky-notes, knotted handkerchiefs, or string around the finger are all examples of cues that are produced by people as a strategy to enhance prospective memory. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Prospective memory may be defined as remembering to remember. ... Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other factual knowledge; in contrast to episodic memory. ... Episodic memory, or autobiographical memory, a sub-category of declarative memory, is the recollection of events. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Prospective memory may be defined as remembering to remember. ...


Physiology

Overall, the mechanisms of memory are not well understood. Brain areas such as the hippocampus, the amygdala, or the mammillary bodies are thought to be involved in specific types of memory. For example, the hippocampus is believed to be involved in spatial learning and declarative learning. Damage to certain areas in patients and animal models and subsequent memory deficits is a primary source of information. However, rather than implicating a specific area, it could be that damage to adjacent areas, or to a pathway traveling through the area is actually responsible for the observed deficit. Further, it is not sufficient to describe memory, and its counterpart, learning, as solely dependent on specific brain regions. Learning and memory are attributed to changes in neuronal synapses, thought to be mediated by long-term potentiation and long-term depression. The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The mammillary bodies (Latin: corpus mamillare) are a pair of small round bodies in the brain forming part of the limbic system. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... Long-term potentiation is the persistent increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation of a synapse. ... Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is the weakening of a neuronal synapse that lasts from hours to days. ...


Disorders

Much of the current knowledge of memory has come from studying memory disorders. Loss of memory is known as amnesia. There are many sorts of amnesia, and by studying their different forms, it has become possible to observe apparent defects in individual sub-systems of the brain's memory systems, and thus hypothesize their function in the normally working brain. Other neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease can also affect memory and cognition. For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ...


While not a disorder, a common temporary failure of word retrieval from memory is the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. Tongue Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon is the feeling of knowing something that cannot be immediately recalled. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ...


Impaired memory can be a symptom of hypothyroidism. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Memorization

Memorization is a method of learning that allows an individual to recall information verbatim. Rote learning is the method most often used. Methods of memorising things have been the subject of much discussion over the years with some writers, such as Cosmos Rossellius using visual alphabets. The spacing effect shows that an individual is more likely to remember a list of items when rehearsal is spaced over an extended period of time. In contrast to this is cramming which is intensive memorization in a short period of time. Also relevant is the Zeigarnik effect which states that people remember uncompleted or interrupted tasks better than completed ones. As a linguistic term, verbatim means an exact reproduction of a sentence, phrase, quote or other sequence of text from one source into another. ... It has been suggested that Rote memory be merged into this article or section. ... Cosmos Rossellius (died 1578was a florentine Dominican monk whoe wrote a book about memory. ... The spacing effect states that while you are more likely to remember material if exposed to it many times, you will be much more likely to remember it if the exposures are repeated over a longer span of time. ... Cram schools (also known as crammers) are specialized schools that train their students to meet particular goals, most commonly to pass the entrance examinations of high schools or universities. ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Revision as of 13:19, 23 March 2006; view current revision ← Older revision | Newer revision → Jump to: navigation, search The Zeigarnik effect states that people remember uncompleted or interrupted tasks better than completed ones. ...


In March 2007 it was reported that German researchers found they could use odors to re-activate new memories in the brains of people while they slept and the volunteers remembered better later.[4]


Tony Noice, an actor, director, teacher and cognitive researcher, and his psychologist wife Helga, have spent years trying to understand how actors remember their lines. They've found that if anyone uses the techniques that actors use, those techniques will help to improve memory in general.[5]


At the Center for Cognitive Science at Ohio State University, researchers have found that memory accuracy of adults is hurt by the fact that they know more than children and tend to apply this knowledge when learning new information. The findings appeared in the August 2004 edition of the journal Psychological Science. This article is about Ohio State; there is also an Ohio University. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ...


Improving memory

The best way to improve memory seems to be to increase the supply of oxygen to the brain, which may be accomplished with aerobic exercises; walking for three hours each week suffices, as does swimming or bicycle riding.[6]


Such aerobic exercises have helped elderly people switch between mental tasks, concentrate better, and improve short-term memory. Exercise increases the number of connections between neurons, which is responsible for improved memory.[citation needed]


The International Longevity Center [2] released in 2001 a report [3] which includes in pages 14-16 recommendations for keeping the mind in good functionality until advanced age. Some of the recommendations are to stay intellectually active through learning, training or reading, to keep physically active so to promote blood irrigation to the brain, to socialize, to reduce stress, to keep sleep time regular, to avoid depression or emotional instability and to observe good nutrition.


Cultural references

  • Marcel Proust's novels deal extensively with memory.
  • The experimental film Memento emulates the experience of not being able to convert short-term memories into long-term memories.
  • In 1993 taxi driver Tom Morton, who knew over 16,000 telephone numbers in Lancashire, beat the British Olympia Telephone Exchange computer with his recall while being interviewed by Esther Rantzan and Adrain Mills on the Popular BBC magazine Programme 'That's Life!'. [4]
  • The short stories of Philip K. Dick and the movies based on those works deal extensively with the nature of memory and the consequences to society if memories can be artificially generated.
  • Strange Days is a film about memory. New technology allows people to record all the sensory data associated with their experiences. Playing back one of these recordings is like exactly reliving moments. Lenny, the character played by Ralph Fiennes, storyline revolves around memories.

“Proust” redirects here. ... Memento is a neo-noir–psychological thriller film written and directed by Christopher Nolan, adapted from his brother Jonathans short story Memento Mori. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Thats Life! was a television magazine-style series on BBC between 1973 and 1994, presented by Esther Rantzen throughout the entire run, with various changes of co-presenters. ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... Strange Days is the title of a 1995 science fiction film directed by Kathryn Bigelow and produced and co-written by her ex-husband James Cameron with the assistance of Jay Cocks. ... Ralph Nathaniel Fiennes, (IPA: ), born 22 December 1962) is a Tony Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated and Genie Award-nominated British actor. ...

References

  1. ^ Conrad, R. (1964), Acoustic Confusions in Immediate Memory, British Journal of Psychology, 55, 75-84
  2. ^ Baddeley, A. D. (1966), The influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on long-term memory for word sequences, Quart. J. exp. Psychol., 18, 302-9.
  3. ^ Baddeley, A.D. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Science, 4, 417-423.
  4. ^ Smell of Roses May Improve Memory. Reuters, March 12. 2007.
  5. ^ What Studies of Actors and Acting Can Tell Us About Memory and Cognitive Functioning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Volume 15, Number 1, February 2006 , pp. 14-18(5).
  6. ^ How memory improves
  • Anderson, J.R. (1976) Language, Memory and Thought Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
  • Cardwell, Mike & Flanagan, Cara (2005) Pyschology AS: The Complete Companion. ISBN
  • Costa-Mattioli, Mauro eIF2α Phosphorylation Bidirectionally Regulates the Switch from Short- to Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Cell, Vol 129, 195-206, 06 April 2007 [5]

Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Cell is a bi-monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which publishes novel research in any area of experimental biology that is significant outside its field. ...

See also

One of the key concerns of older adults is experiencing memory loss, especially as it is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimers Disease. ... Alzheimers disease (AD) or senile dementia of Alzheimers type is a neurodegenerative disease which results in a loss of mental functions due to the deterioration of brain tissue. ... For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ... A widely accepted idea regarding the function of prefrontal cortex (PF) is that it serves as a storage of short-term memory. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Cellular memory is the unproven hypothesis that such things as memories, habits, interests, and tastes may somehow be stored in all the cells of human bodies, and not only in the brain. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Eidetic memory, photographic memory, or total recall, is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with extreme accuracy and in seemingly abundant volume. ... Emotion can have a powerful impact on memory. ... For the novel, see False Memory (novel) It has been suggested that Synthetic memory be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Forgetting rate be merged into this article or section. ... Giordano Bruno. ... Hebbian learning is a hypothesis for how neuronal connections are enforced in mammalian brains; it is also a technique for weight selection in artificial neural networks. ... Involuntary memory (fr. ... Kinesthetic learning is a teaching and learning style in which learning takes place by the student actually carrying out a physical activity, rather than listening to a lecture or merely watching a demonstration. ... Memory biases may either enhance or inhibit the recall of memory, or they may alter the content of what we report remembering. ... Long-term potentiation is the persistent increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation of a synapse. ... In order to remember, it is essential not only to activate the relevant information but also to inhibit irrelevant information. ... The memory-prediction framework is a theory of brain function that was created by Jeff Hawkins and described in his book On Intelligence. ... MemoryArchive (formely, MemoryWiki and MemoirBank) is a wiki website that allows anyone to record memories of notable events, places, people and things considered historically significant. ... Mindfulness (Pali: Sati) is a technique in which a person becomes intentionally aware of his or her thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. ... The misinformation effect is a memory bias that occurs when misinformation affects peoples reports of their own memory. ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Procedural memory. ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... Neural adaptation or sensory adaptation is a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus. ... Eidetic memory, photographic memory, or total recall, is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with extreme accuracy and in seemingly abundant volume. ... Source amnesia is an explicit memory disorder in which someone can recall certain information, but they do not know where or how they obtained it. ... The spacing effect states that while you are more likely to remember material if exposed to it many times, you will be much more likely to remember it if the exposures are repeated over a longer span of time. ... In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of the connection, or synapse, between two neurons to change in strength. ... Tongue Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon is the feeling of knowing something that cannot be immediately recalled. ... Eidetic memory, photographic memory, or total recall, is the ability to recall images, sounds, or objects in memory with extreme accuracy and in seemingly abundant volume. ... Visual memory is a part of memory preserving some characteristics of our senses pertaining to visual experience. ...

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