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Encyclopedia > Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe
Holocaust-Memorial (Spring 2004)
Holocaust-Memorial (Spring 2004)
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The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, also known as Holocaust memorial for short, is a memorial in Berlin a block to the south of the Brandenburg Gate. It was designed by New York architect Peter Eisenman and commemorates the Jewish victims of the Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 420 KB) Description: The building lot of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin, Germany. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 420 KB) Description: The building lot of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin, Germany. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 637 KB) Description: de: Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas (Berlin, Deutschland) en: Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe (Berlin, Germany) Date: picture taken on June 09, 2005 Author / Source: picture taken by User:Torinberl License: File links... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 637 KB) Description: de: Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas (Berlin, Deutschland) en: Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe (Berlin, Germany) Date: picture taken on June 09, 2005 Author / Source: picture taken by User:Torinberl License: File links... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x383, 211 KB) Description: Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas (Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe), aerial photo Source: own photography Date: May 2005 Author: de:Benutzer:Schreibkraft Permission: original upload to de:WP 16:25, 29. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x383, 211 KB) Description: Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas (Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe), aerial photo Source: own photography Date: May 2005 Author: de:Benutzer:Schreibkraft Permission: original upload to de:WP 16:25, 29. ... // Basic Information Berlin â–¶(?), IPA: , is the capital of Germany and its largest city; the city is now home to 3. ... The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a triumphal arch, the symbol of Berlin, Germany. ... New York City, officially named the City of New York, is the most populous city in the United States, the most densely populated major city in North America, and is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture. ... Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey) is one of the foremost practitioners of deconstructivism in American architecture. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי transliterated: Yehudi) is used in many ways, but generally refers to a follower of Judaism, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity; and often a combination of these attributes. ... Children survivors of the Holocaust before their liberation The Holocaust is the name applied to the systematic state-sponsored persecution and genocide of various ethnic, religious and political groups during World War II by Nazi Germany and collaborators. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Contents


Description

2711 concrete slabs ("steles") are arranged in a grid pattern on the 19000 square meter site. The steles are 2.38m long, 0.95m wide and vary in height from 0.2m to 4.8m. The blocks are covered with an anti-grafitti substance made by Degussa, the same company that produced the Zyklon B poison used in the Holocaust. They are on a sloping field, designed to produce an uneasy, confusing atmosphere. For the handwriting system, see Graffiti (Palm OS). ... Degussa AG is a multinational chemistry corporation based in Düsseldorf, Germany. ... Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ...


An attached underground "place of information" will hold the names of all known Jewish Holocaust victims, obtained from the Israeli museum Yad Vashem. Yad Vashem memorial sculpture Yad Vashem (יד ושם) is Israels official memorial to the Jewish victims of the Holocaust established in 1953 through the Memorial Law passed by the Knesset, Israels parliament. ...


The cost of construction has been projected as 25 million Euros. The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain, collectively known as the Eurozone. ...


Criticisms

The German organization of Roma and Sinti has criticized that the monument singles out the Jewish victims of the Holocaust, without mentioning the murdered Roma and Sinti, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, or communists. The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...


The "place of information" has been criticized as breaking with the tradition of having informational museums attached directly to the various German Holocaust sites.


Many disability support groups have criticised the fact that the memorial is not wheelchair accessible.


History

German journalist Lea Rosh was the driving force behind the memorial. In 1989, she founded a group to support its construction and to collect donations. With rising support, the Bundestag passed a resolution in favor of the project, and in May 1994 a competition for its design began. In June 1995, the plan of Christine Jackob-Marks (a large sloping concrete surface with the names of the victims chiseled in) was declared the winner, but Bundeskanzler Helmut Kohl rejected it. Peter Eisenman's plan emerged as the winner of the next competition in November 1997. In June 1998, a large majority of the Bundestag decided in favor of Eisenman's plan, modified by attaching a museum. Eisenman designed the underground "place of information". Construction of the memorial started in April 2003. Lea Rosh (born October 1, 1936 in Berlin; birth name Edith Renate Ursula Rosh) is a German television journalist and publicist. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... Bundeskanzler (Federal Chancellor) is the formal name in German for: The head of the German federal government: Chancellor of Germany The head of the Austrian federal government: Chancellor of Austria A Swiss federal government official: List of Federal Chancellors of Switzerland For etymological notes on the word Kanzler, see Chancellor... Dr. Helmut Kohl (full name Helmut Josef Michael Kohl) (born 3 April 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ...


In October 2003, it was discovered that the German company Degussa provided some materials for the memorial. Construction was halted, because a daughter company of Degussa had produced the Zyklon B poison used to murder people in the Nazi gas chambers. After some discussion, construction was resumed one month later, with continued involvement of Degussa. Degussa AG is a multinational chemistry corporation based in Düsseldorf, Germany. ... Zyklon B label — Note that “Gift” translates as “poison” Zyklon B was the tradename of a pesticide ultimately used by Nazi Germany in some Holocaust gas chambers. ...


On December 15th 2004 the memorial was finished. It was dedicated on May 10th, 2005 as part of the celebration of the 60th anniversary of V-E Day and opened to the public on May 12th, 2005. December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the month of May. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Reich. ...

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Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

External links

  • Home page of the project
  • Photos of the construction progress, by Dr. Lars Hennings
  • Photographs of the Memorial

  Results from FactBites:
 
In Berlin, a Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe (1211 words)
In Berlin, a Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe
The new Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, designed by Peter Eisenman, is the apotheosis of this soul-searching.
But the memorial's central theme is the process that allows human beings to accept such evil as part of the normal world - the incremental decisions that collectively lead to the most murderous acts.
Memorial for the murdered Jews of Europe - recent photos by Bonnie Harris and June 2002 photos (674 words)
The 19,000 square-meter Memorial for the murdered Jews of Europe, which was opened to the public on May 12, 2005, consists of 2711 stones placed on sloping, uneven ground in an undulating wave-like pattern, giving visitors the feeling of insecurity as though the stones were on unstable ground.
The memorial was designed by architect Peter Eisenman to deliberately disorient visitors by having all the stones tilted slightly and paths that are not level.
At the opening ceremony on May 10, 2005, Paul Spiegel, the head of Germany's Central Council of Jews, sharply criticized the new Holocaust memorial, saying that it was too abstract and that it failed to confront the issue of German guilt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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