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Encyclopedia > Melting
Mechanical failure modes
Buckling
Corrosion
Creep
Fatigue
Fracture
Melting
Thermal shock
Wear

In physics, melting is the process of heating a solid substance to a point (called the melting point) where it turns into a liquid. An object that has melted is molten. In engineering, buckling is a failure mode characterised by a sudden failure of a structural member that is subjected to high compressive stresses where the actual compressive stresses at failure are smaller than the ultimate compressive stresses that the material is capable of withstanding. ... Corrosion is deterioration of intrinsic properties in a material due to reactions with its environment. ... Creep is the term used to describe the tendency of a material to move or to deform permanently to relieve stresses. ... In materials science, fatigue is the progressive, localized, and permanent structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic or fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum values less than (often much less than) the static yield strength of the material. ... A fracture is the separation of a body into two, or more, pieces under the action of stress. ... Thermal shock is the name given to cracking as a result of rapid temperature change. ... In materials science, wear is the erosion of material from a solid surface by the action of another solid. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is defined as energy in transit. ... In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container. ...


Explanatory

Not only is heat required to raise the temperature of the solid to the melting point, but the melting itself requires heat; see also latent heat and heat of fusion. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy which must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change states from a solid to a liquid or vice versa. ...


From a thermodynamics point of view, at the melting point the change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of the Material is zero, because the enthalpy (H) and the entropy (S) of the material are increasing (ΔHS > 0). Melting phenomenon happens when the Gibbs free energy of the liquid becomes lower than the solid for that material. At various pressures this happens at a specific temperature. It can also be shown that: In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential which measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. ... In thermodynamics and molecular chemistry, the enthalpy or heat content (denoted as Δ or ΔH, or rarely as χ) is a quotient or description of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under constant conditions. ... Ice melting - classic example of entropy increasing[1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of the body of ice. ...


Delta S = frac {Delta H} {T}


The "T","ΔS", and "ΔH" in the above are respectively the temperature at the melting point, change of entropy of melting, and the change of enthalpy of melting.


Freezing, the process of turning a liquid to a solid, is the opposite of melting. The melting point and freezing point are usually the same temperature. See the phase article for more detail. In physics and chemistry, freezing is the process of cooling a liquid to the temperature (called freezing point) where it turns solid. ... Fig. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ...


Books

  • Kleinert, Hagen, Gauge Fields in Condensed Matter, Vol. II, "STRESSES AND DEFECTS; Differential Geometry, Crystal Melting", pp. 743-1456, World Scientific (Singapore, 1989); Paperback ISBN 9971-5-0210-0 (readable online here)

Hagen Kleinert, Photo taken in 2004 Hagen Kleinert is the Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Free University of Berlin, Germany, and Honorary Member of the Russian Academy of Creative Endeavors. ... Stress has different meanings in different fields: Look up stress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Defect is the n00b of the animating world, everybody knows that he cannot and will not animate. ...

Other meanings

In genetics, melting DNA means to separate the double-stranded DNA into two single strands by heating or the use of chemicals. Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix. ...

See also : Polymerase chain reaction

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