FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Melkite Greek Catholic Church
The coat of arms of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church
The coat of arms of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church
Part of the series on
Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity Portal

History
Byzantine Empire
Crusades
Ecumenical council
Baptism of Kiev
Great Schism
By region
Eastern Orthodox history
Ukraine Christian history
Asia Eastern Christian history
Image File history File links Sacred Coat of Arms of the Melkite Greek-Catholic Church. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Image File history File links HY002563. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical... The ruins of Korsun: the place where the Russian and Ukrainian church was born. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Churches trace their... This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ... Judging from the New Testament account of the rise and expansion of the early church, during the first few centuries of Christianity, the most extensive dissemination of the gospel was not in the West but in the East. ...

Traditions
Oriental Orthodoxy
Coptic Orthodox Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
Syriac Christianity
Assyrian Church of the East
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Syriac Christianity is a culturally and... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...

Liturgy and Worship
Sign of the cross
Divine Liturgy
Iconography
Asceticism
Omophorion
For other uses, see Sign of the cross (disambiguation). ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the Orthodox liturgical tradition, the omophorion is one of the bishops vestments and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority. ...

Theology
Hesychasm - Icon
Apophaticism - Filioque clause
Miaphysitism - Monophysitism
Nestorianism - Theosis - Theoria
Phronema - Philokalia
Praxis - Theotokos
Hypostasis - Ousia
Essence-Energies distinction
Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Theoria is contemplation or perception of beauty, esp. ... Phronema is a Greek term that is used in Eastern Orthodox theology to refer to mindset or outlook; it is the Orthodox mind. ... The Philokalia (Gk. ... Praxis is the customary use of knowledge or skills, distinct from theoretical knowledge. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... In Christianity, the Greek word hypostasis [1] is usually translated into Latin as natura and then into English as nature, although the specific Greek word for nature and substance is physis. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Energies of God are a central principle of theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers of the Church, and most famously formulated by Gregory Palamas, against charges of heresy brought by Barlaam of Calabria. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (Arabic: كنيسة الروم الكاثوليك, Kanīsät ar-Rūm al-Kāṯūlīk) is an Eastern Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church in communion with the Pope. The church's origins lie in the Middle East, but, today, Melkite Catholics are spread throughout the world with many in the "diaspora". Arabic is the liturgical language of the church. At present this Church counts a total worldwide membership of approximately 1.5 million. The Melkite Church has a high degree of ethnic homogeneity; its patriarch, its episcopate, its clergy and many of its faithful, are Arabic speaking.[1] Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope in Rome. ... The Latin term sui juris means of ones own right. ... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...

Contents

Meaning of church name

Melkite comes from the Syriac word malko for "imperial", which was originally a pejorative term for Middle-Eastern Christians who accepted the authority of the Council of Chalcedon (451) and the Byzantine Emperor.[2] It was given to them by anti-Chalcedonians (the Oriental Orthodox). This term is now not generally used to refer to other Chalcedonian Christian groups (see Melkite for the history of this term). Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to... The term Melkite (also written Melchite) is used to refer to various Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. ...


The Greek element signifies the Byzantine Rite heritage of the church: its liturgy is little different in structure from that of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... ...


The Catholic element is generally used to signify the church's acknowledgement of the authority of the Pope. However, the word can also imply participation in the world-wide church (see Catholic). According to some theologians, the Melkite Church of Antioch is the "oldest continuous Christian community in the world". [3] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


In Arabic, the official language of the church [3], the church is called ar-Rūm al-Kathūlīk (Arabic: الروم الكثوليك), which literally means Greek Catholic. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


History

The origins of the Melkite Catholic Church goes back to the establishment of Christianity in the Middle East. As Christianity began to spread, the disciples preached the Gospel throughout the region and were for the first time called “Christians” in the city of Antioch (Acts 11:26), the historical See of the Melkite Catholic Patriarchate. Some Melkite families believe that a remote Jewish or pagan ancestor received the Gospel message from an Apostle or even Jesus himself.


Due to heavy emigration from the Middle East, which began with the Damascus massacres of 1860, in which most of the Christian communities were attacked, the Melkite Greek Catholic Church today is found throughout the world and no longer made up exclusively of faithful of Middle Eastern origin. This development is called "The Diaspora". Many in North and South America, Europe, and Australia have now been able to worship in this Church which is so closely connected to the countries where Jesus and his Apostles walked, preached and spread the Good News to the whole world.


The Melkite Greek Catholic Church traces its origins to the Christian communities of the Levant and Egypt. The church's leadership was vested in the three Apostolic Patriarchates of the ancient patriarchates: Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. The church's history and its relation to other churches may be summarized in four defining moments. The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Pentarchy, a Greek word meaning government of five, designates the Five Great Sees or early Patriarchates, which were the five major centres of the Christian church in the early Middle Ages: Rome (Sts. ... Nickname: Alexandria on the map of Egypt Map of Alexandria Coordinates: , Country Egypt Founded 334 BC Government  - Governor Adel Labib Population (2001)  - City 3,500,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Twin Cities  - Baltimore  United States  - Cleveland  United States  - ConstanÅ£a  Romania  - Durban  South Africa... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Fallout from the Fourth Ecumenical Council

The first defining moment was the socio-political fallout in the wake of the Fourth Ecumenical Council, the Council of Chalcedon, which took place in AD 451. Fifth-century Middle-Eastern Christian society became sharply divided between those who did and those who did not accept the outcome of the council. Those who accepted the council, the Chalcedonians, were mainly Greek-speaking city-dwellers, and were called Melkites (imperials) by the anti-Chalcedonians. These latter were predominantly Syriac-Arabic or Coptic-speaking provincials. The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The term Melkite (also written Melchite) is used to refer to various Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...


Fusion with Arabic language and culture

The second defining moment is more of a period of change than a sudden movement. The Battle of Yarmuk (636) took the Melkite homeland out of Byzantine control and placed it in the hands of the Muslim Arabs.[4] Whereas the Greek language and culture remained important, especially for the Melkites of Jerusalem, the Melkite tradition became fused with Arabic language and culture. Indeed there was Arabic Christian poetry before Islam came on the scene but this enracination led to a degree of distancing between the Patriarch of Constantinople, the first of the Orthodox patriarchs, and the Melkite patriarchs and their flocks. Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs Commanders Theodore the Sacellarius Baänes Khalid ibn Walid Strength About 200,000 About 24,000 Casualties Very Heavy,About 50,000 Unknown,Relativly low The Battle of Yarmuk (also spelled Yarmuq or Hieromyax) took place between the Muslim Arabs and the Byzantine Empire in... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ...


Despite the Arab conquest, the Melkites continued to play an important role in the universal church. The Melkites played a leading role in condemning the iconaclastic heresy when it re-appeared in the early 9th century, and were among the first of the Eastern churches to respond to the introduction of the filioque clause in the West. .[5]


Union with Holy See of Rome

The third defining moment were the Councils of Reunion in which the Orthodox hierarchs accepted union with the Holy See of Rome after a long period of schism. In 1054, Patriarch Michael Kerularios and Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida had excommunicated each other, thus formalizing the schism. Patriarch Peter III of Antioch rejected the quarrel of the Latin Cardinal and the Constantinopolitan Patriarch. In 1965, Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I "consigned these excommunications to oblivion." Michael I Cerularius (c. ... Humbert of Mourmoutiers (c. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Patriarch Athenagoras (left) met Pope Paul VI in 1964 Patriarch Athenagoras (born Aristokles Spyrou) (March 25, 1886 - July 6/7, 1972) was the Patriarch of Constantinople from 1948 to 1972. ...


However the Crusaders intruded Latin prelates into the apostolic sees of the East, and the IV Crusade saw the sack of the great city of Constantinople and its domination by the "Crusaders" for fifty-seven years. These developments brought the quarrel home to everyone with comprehension but there was no formal declaration of schism. Since there had never been any formal division from East-West Schism these 'converts' of the Latin missionaries simply became a pro-Western, pro-Catholic party within Eastern Orthodoxy. Throughout the 17th century Jesuits, Capuchins and Carmelites established missions with the consent of the local Orthodox bishops in the Ottoman Empire. The Dominicans had been in Iraq since the 1300s and have been there ever since. For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. ... The Order of Our Lady of Mt. ...


The Second Council of Lyons (1274) and the Council of Florence (1439) at which the Patriarch of Constantinople, Joseph II and the Emperor John VIII Palaelogos accepted union with the West hoping for aid to save Constantinople. Neither of these unions lasted, though the last two Emperors of Constantinople were professing Catholics; nor was any significant aid forthcoming from the warring kingdoms of a soon to be rent apart Europe. The Second Council of Lyon was a Roman Catholic council convened in Lyon in 1274. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ...


From 1342, Roman Catholic friars opened missions in the Middle East, particularly in Damascus. Their teaching had important influence over the Melkite clergy and people, but in the Melkite tradition it was the Jesuits, founded only in 1534, that were really decisive in the formation of the Catholic party in the Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch. The Jesuits were not friars but more like learned priests of the Patriarchal Chancery. This made them more acceptable than the friars. Events May - Pope Clement VI elected John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond Louis becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia Patriarch of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol Louis I becomes king of Hungary Births... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ...


Election of Cyril VI

The fourth defining moment was the election of Cyril VI, in 1724, by the Melkite bishops of Syria as the new Patriarch of Antioch. As Cyril was a prominent pro-Westerner, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Jeremias III, felt his authority was being questioned. Jeremias declared Cyril's election to be invalid, excommunicated him, and appointed Sylvester, a Greek monk to the patriarchal see of Antioch. Sylvester exacerbated divisions with his heavy-handed rule of the church, and many Melkites chose to acknowledge Cyril VI as Patriarch instead. This Greek, Hellene or Phanariot domination over the Byzantine Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch lasted until 1899. Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... Patriarch of Antioch is the traditional title carried by the Bishop of Antioch. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... St. ...


Five years after the election of Cyril Tanas, in 1729, Pope Benedict XIII recognized Cyril as the legitimate Patriarch of Antioch and welcomed him and his followers into full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. From this time onwards, the Melkite Greek-Catholic Church has existed separately from and in parallel to the Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch in the Middle East. The latter is not usually referred to as Melkite in modern times. Pope Benedict XIII (February 2, 1649 – February 21, 1730), born Pietro Francesco Orsini, later Vincenzo Maria Orsini, was pope from 1724 until his death. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


The Melkite Greek Catholic Church has played an important role in the leadership of Arabic Christianity. It has always been led by Arabic-speaking Christians, where the Orthodox counterpart had Greek patriarchs until 1899. Indeed, at the very beginning of her separate existence, around 1725, one of her most illustrious lay leaders, the savant and theologian, Abdallah Zakher of Aleppo (1684-1748) set up the first printing press in the Middle East. In 1835, Maximos III Mazloum, Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarch of Antioch, was recognised by the Ottoman Empire as the leader of a millet, a distinctive religious community within the Empire. Pope Gregory XVI gave Maximos III Mazloum the triple-patriarchate of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem, a title that is still held by the head of the church today. Arab Christians are people who are ethnically Arab or culturally and linguistically Arabized and who follow the religion of Christianity. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pope Gregory XVI (September 18, 1765 – June 1, 1846), born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, named Mauro as a member of the religious order of the Camaldolese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1831 to 1846. ...


His successor Pope Pius IX (1846-1878), on July 23rd, 1847, reinstituted the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in the person of the young (34 years old) and zealous, Giuseppe Valerga (1813-1847-1872), whom the indigenous hierarchs and nicknamed "The Butcher" because of his fierce opposition to the native Churches of the Holy Land. When he arrived in Jerusalem in 1847, there were 4,200 Latin Catholics in the Holy Land and when he died in 1872, there were 8,400.


Some historians theorize[citation needed] that Valerga's attempts to advocate proselytization from native churches was a response to the domination of the Patriarchate by the Greek Hellene Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, which predated the intrusion of Patriarch Sylvester into the Melkite Patriarchate of Antioch in the eighteenth century (1724) and that he was attempting to convert Byzantine (Catholic and Orthodox) Palestinians to Latin Rite Catholicism.Others believe that Valerga was appointed to address the threat of the Protestantization of the Patriarchate posed by the Lutheran-Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem that posed such a challenge to the Tractarian John Henry Newman.


The attempts to bridge divisions between the Latin and Melkite Catholic Churches continued into the Nineteenth Century. Patriarch Gregory II Yusuf (18641897) was an opponent of papal infallibility at the First Vatican Council. According to some historians[citation needed], Yusuf believed that the proclamation of papal infallibility as a dogma papal infallibility would place greater strain on relation between the Melkites and other Eastern Christian Churches. 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at...


The Church in modern times

Gregory III Laham, current patriarch

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gregory III Laham (Arabic,غريغوريوس الثالث لحام)(b. ...

Battles over Latin and Melkite traditions in the Church

Patriarch Maximos IV Sayegh took part in the Second Vatican Council. There he championed the Eastern tradition of Christianity, and won a great deal of respect from Eastern Orthodox observers at the council and the approbation of the great Patriarch of Constantinople, Athenagoras I. However, his advocacy of acceptance of artificial birth control was as remarkable as any other thing he advocated at the Council but this was stiffly refused by that same Athenagoras at the time of Pope Paul VI's encyclical "Humanae Vitae" of July 25th, 1968. Maximos IV Sayegh (Saïgh) (April 10, 1878 – November 5, 1967) was Patriarch of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church from 1947 to 1967. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Following the Second Vatican Council the Melkite Church moved away from latinization and back to traditional Melkite worship. Delatinization involved both the restoration of Melkite practices such as administering the eucharist to infants following post-baptismal chrismation as well as removal of Latin-rite elements such as communion rails and confessionals. Leading this trend were members of "The Cairo Circle", a group of young priests centered around the Patriarchal College of Cairo on Queen Nazli Street in the 1930s. This group included Father George Selim Hakim, Father Joseph Elias Tawil, Father Elias Zoughby and Father Oreste Kerame. These priests later became bishops and several contributed significantly to the Second Vatican Council. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... Maximos V Hakim was elected Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarch in 1967 and served until 2000. ...


These reforms led to protests by some Melkite churches that the de-latinization had gone too far. During the Patriarchate of Maximos IV (Sayegh), some Melkite churches in the United States objected to the use of the vernacular language in the celebration of the Divine Liturgy, a movement that was spearheaded by the future Archbishop of Nazareth, Father Joseph Raya of Birmingham, Alabama. The issue garnered national news coverage after Bishop Fulton Sheen celebrated a Pontifical Divine Liturgy in English at the Melkite National convention in Birmingham in 1958, parts of which were televised on the national television news. Maximos IV Sayegh (Saïgh) (April 10, 1878 – November 5, 1967) was Patriarch of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church from 1947 to 1967. ... Archbishop Joseph M. Raya (1992) Archbishop Joseph Raya (August 15, 1916–June 10, 2005), born in Zahlé, Lebanon, was a prominent Melkite Greek Catholic archbishop, theologian and author. ... Bishop Sheen was known for his dynamic and thoughtful preaching Archbishop Fulton John Sheen (May 8, 1895 - December 9, 1979) became televisions first preacher of note on the airways in the late 1940s on the DuMont Television Network. ...


In 1960, this issue was resolved by Pope John XXIII at the request of Patriarch Maximos IV in favor of the use of vernacular languages in the celebration of the Divine Liturgy. Pope John also consecrated a Melkite monk, Father Accacios Coussa, as a Bishop in the Sistine Chapel using the Byzantine Rite and the papal tiara as a crown. Bishop Coussa was almost immediately elevated to the Cardinalate, but died within two years of his consecration. His cause for canonization was introduced by his religious Order, the Basilians of Aleppo.


Further protests against the de-latinization of the church occurred during the patriarchate of Maximos V Hakim (19672000) when some churches and church officials who supported Latin traditions protested against the allowance of married clergy. Maximos V Hakim was elected Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarch in 1967 and served until 2000. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Attempts to unite the Melkite diaspora

The Patriarchate of Maximos V saw many advances in the worldwide presence of the Melkite Church, called "the Diaspora":[6] Eparchies (the Eastern equivalent of a diocese) were established in the United States, Canada, Brazil, Australia, Argentina and Mexico in response to the continued emptying of the Middle East of her native Christian peoples. Some historians state[citation needed] that after the revolution in Egypt in 1952, many Melkites left the Middle East due to the renewed Islamic, nativist and socialist policies of the Nasser regime. In 1950, the richest Melkite community in the world was in Egypt, in 1945 the most populous single diocese was Akko, Haifa, Nazareth and all Galilee; by 1955 that was no longer the case due to Israeli anti-Arab measures, equally targeting Christian Arabs as well as Muslim. Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word, authentically latinized as eparchia and loosely translating as rule over something, but has the following specific meanings, both in political history and in the hierarchy of eastern churches. ... Anti-Arabism is a term that refers to prejudice or hostility against people from Arabic origin. ...


In 1967, a native Egyptian of Syrian-Aleppin descent, George Selim Hakim, first Archbishop of Akko, Haifa, Nazareth and all Galilee (1943-1967), known in ecumenical circles as "The Archbishop of the Arabs" when he received the pilgrim Pope Paul VI in the Holy Land in January of 1964 was elected the successor of Maximos IV, taking the name Maximos V. (His patriarchal coat of arms is at the head of this article.) He was to reign until he retired at the age of ninety-two in the Jubilee Year of the Millennium, 2000: he reposed on the feast of Saints Peter and Paul, June 29th, 2001.


Nobel Peace Prize nominations

Two successors of Patriarch Maximus V in the See of Akko, Haifa, Nazareth and all Galilee have been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize: the second Archbishop, Joseph Raya (1968-1974) and the fifth and present encumbent, Archbishop Elias Michael Chaccour, the first Palestinian to hold the See and the founder of the Mar Elias Educational Institutions in Ibillin, Galilee who was consecrated a bishop in his own church in Ibillin and enthroned in the cathedral of Haifa in 2006. Archbishop Joseph M. Raya (1992) Archbishop Joseph Raya (August 15, 1916–June 10, 2005), born in Zahlé, Lebanon, was a prominent Melkite Greek Catholic archbishop, theologian and author. ... Archbishop Elias Chaccour Elias Chacour (born 1939) is the Archbishop of Galilee of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. ...


Church traditions

The Melkite Catholic Church is in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church but fully follows traditions and customs of Byzantine Christianity. The traditional language of worship was Greek and Syrian Aramaic. Today, services are held in a variety of languages depending on the country where the Church is located. In the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States and Australia; English and French are used in addition to the Arabic of the Middle Eastern immigrants. Portuguese is also used in Brazil and the Spanish speaking South American countries. What is very important to know is that this Church is still following the Byzantine traditions Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ...


Modern church dioceses

The current Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarch of Antioch and All the East, and Alexandria and Jerusalem is Gregory III Laham. The patriarchate is based in the Syrian capital Damascus. In the Middle East, the church has dioceses in: Gregory III Laham (Arabic,غريغوريوس الثالث لحام)(b. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ...

Throughout the rest of the world, the church has dioceses in: Nickname: Alexandria on the map of Egypt Map of Alexandria Coordinates: , Country Egypt Founded 334 BC Government  - Governor Adel Labib Population (2001)  - City 3,500,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Twin Cities  - Baltimore  United States  - Cleveland  United States  - ConstanÅ£a  Romania  - Durban  South Africa... A protosyncellus is the principal deputy of the bishop of an eparchy for the exercise of administrative authority in a Byzantine Eastern Orthodox or Eastern Catholic church. ... The Old City of Acre in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... In the broadest sense, a vicar (from the Latin vicarius) is anyone acting in the person of or agent for a superior (compare vicarious). In this sense, the title is comparable to lieutenant. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... Temple of Bacchus Details inside Temple of Bacchus Baalbek (Arabic: ) is a town in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude 3,850 ft (1,170 m), situated east of the Litani River. ... Baniyas (Arabic: بانياس) is a city of northwestern Syria that is located 55 km to the south of Latakia, and 35 km north of Tartous. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Zahlé (Arabic: زحلة; also transliterated Zahlah or Zahleh) is the capital of Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... For the town in Jordan, see Bozrah. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... Homs (Arabic: , transliteration: ) is a western city in Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ...

The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 4. ... In the Roman Empire, an eparchy was one of the political subdivisions of the Empire. ... This article is about the city. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Nickname: Motto: Ciudad en movimiento Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... The Eparchy of Newton is an eparchy of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church (an Eastern Rite church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church), covering the entire United States. ... Nickname: La Sultana del Avila (English:The Avilas Sultan) La Sucursal del paraiso Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...

See also

The term Melkite (also written Melchite) is used to refer to various Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. ... This is a list of Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarchs of Antioch. ... Patriarch of Antioch is the traditional title carried by the Bishop of Antioch. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Gregory III Laham (Arabic,غريغوريوس الثالث لحام)(b. ... Archbishop Cyril Salim Bustros (born. ... Archbishop Joseph M. Raya (1992) Archbishop Joseph Raya (August 15, 1916–June 10, 2005), born in Zahlé, Lebanon, was a prominent Melkite Greek Catholic archbishop, theologian and author. ... Abuna Elias Chaccour Abuna Elias Chaccour (born 1939) is a Palestinian born, Israeli archbishop, currently the Archbishop of Galilee of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, an Eastern Byzantine Rite Church in communion with Rome (Abuna, Arabic for Our Father, is the affectionate and respectful term given by Arab Christians to... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Maximos IV Sayegh (Saïgh) (April 10, 1878 – November 5, 1967) was Patriarch of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church from 1947 to 1967. ... Maximos V Hakim was elected Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarch in 1967 and served until 2000. ... The Courage to be Ourselves is the Christmas 1970 pastoral letter of Melkite Catholic Archbishop Joseph Tawil of the Eparchy of Newton. ... The Byzantine Discalced Carmelites [1] are a community of cloistered nuns of the Byzantine Ruthenian Catholic Church living committed to a life of prayer, according to the tradition and lifestyle of the Discalced Carmelites. ...

External links

References

  • Descy, Serge (1993). The Melkite Church. Boston: Sophia Press. 
  • Dick, Iganatios (2004). Melkites: Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholics of the Patriarchates of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem. Boston: Sophia Press. 
  • Faulk, Edward (2007). 101 Questions and Answers on Eastern Catholic Churches. New York: Paulist Press. 978-0-8091-4441-9. 
  • Roccasalvo, Joan L. (1992). The Eastern Catholic Churches: An Introduction To Their Worship and Spirituality. Collegeville, MN.: The Liturgical Press. 0-8146-2047-7. 
  • Tawil, Joseph (2001). The Patriarchate of Antioch Throughout History: An Introduction. Boston: Sophia Press. 

Archbishop Joseph Tawil (December 25, 1913 - February 17, 1999) was the Melkite Greek Catholic eparch for the United States, teacher and theologian. ...

Notes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Dick (2004), p. 9
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ Dick (2004), p. 21
  5. ^ Dick (2004, p. 21
  6. ^ http://phoenicia.org/melkites.html

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m