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Encyclopedia > Melito of Sardis
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Saint Melito of Sardis (died c.180) was the bishop of Sardis, near Smyrna in Asia Minor, and a great authority: Jerome, speaking of the Old Testament canon established by Melito, quotes Tertullian to the effect that he was esteemed a prophet by many of the faithful. His feast is celebrated on April 1. Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s - 190s - 200s - 210s - 220s - 230s 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 Events and trends Significant people Commodus, Roman Emperor Categories: 180s ... Map of Sardis and other cities within the Lydian Empire The See of Sardis is an episcopal see in Sardis, currently part of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. ... Agora of Smyrna Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded at a very early period at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Aside from a homily "Concerning the Passover" in the Bodmer Papyri, only fragments of his works survive, Melito was a prolific early Christian writer, judging from lists of them preserved by Eusebius and Jerome. He wrote a celebrated Apology for Christianity which he sent to Marcus Aurelius. In the Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church, a homily is usually given during Mass (or Divine Liturgy for Orthodox) at the end of the Liturgy of the Word. ... The Bodmer Papyri are a group of twenty-two papyri found in 1952 at Pabau near Dishna, Egypt, the ancient headquarters of the Pachomian order of monks; the discovery site is not far from Nag Hammadi. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ... Look up apology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ...


Melito provides us with what is probably the earliest known Christian canon of the Old Testament (accounting for the uncertainty with regards to the precise date of the Muratorian fragment). The Catholic Encyclopedia states that "Melito's Canon consists exclusively of the protocanonicals minus Esther". However, Melito includes Wisdom, which is part of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Deuterocanon. Among Christians, the Muratorian fragment is known as a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of New Testament books that were accepted as canonical by the churches known to its anonymous compiler. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Megillah redirects here. ... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The deuterocanonical books are the books that Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy include in the Old Testament that were not part of the Jewish Tanakh. ...


Melito's Peri Pascha ("Concerning the Passover") is a text that was assembled from surviving fragments in the 1930s, and translated into English in the 1940s. Prior to the recovery of the full text less the opening folio among the Bodmer Papyri the order in which the fragments had been assembled was a possible reconstruction.[1] It is clear from Eusebius that Melito celebrates Passover on the fourteenth of Nisan, rather than the Sunday following (Eusebius Historia Ecclesiastica 5.24), hence he was a Quartodeciman. Quartodecimanism (fourteenism) was the practice of fixing the date of Easter (in the Bible called Pesach) to the 14th day of Nisan in the Bibles Hebrew Calendar which, according to the Gospels, was the time Jesus was crucified in Jerusalem. ...


In this homily, Melito formulated the charge of deicide, namely that Jews were responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus. He proclaimed that "God has been murdered; the king of Israel has been slain by an Israelite hand." His preaching would later inspire pogroms against the Jews.[2] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ...


According to the Catholic Encyclopedia Melito believed in a Millennial reign of Christ on Earth. He wrote against idolatry or relying on teachings of fathers to condone it (Melito's Apology addressed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus). He presented elaborated parallels between the Old Testament, the form or mold, and the New Testament, as the truth that broke the mold, in a series of Eklogai, six books of extracts from the Law and the Prophets presaging Christ and the Christian faith; a passage cited by Eusebius contains Melito's famous canon of the Old Testament. Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years, is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where Christ will reign prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ...


Origen, in a brief note, relates that Melito ascribed corporeality to God, and believed that the likeness of God is preserved in the human body. The note is too brief to tell exactly what Melito might have meant by this. Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


A letter of Polycrates of Ephesus to Pope Victor about 194, mentioned by Eusebius, (H.E. 5.24) states that "Melito the eunuch" was interred at Sardis. Polycrates of Ephesus was a bishop (chief pastor) in Ephesus in the late 2nd century. ... Pope Victor I was Bishop of Rome (now called pope) from 189 to 199 (the Vatican cites 186 or 189 to 197 or 201). ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ...


Melito's reputation as a writer remained strong into the Middle Ages: numerous works were pseudepigraphically ascribed to him. Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Floyd V. Filson, "More Bodmer Papyri" The Biblical Archaeologist 25.2 (May 1962, pp. 50-57) p 5
  2. ^ Perry, Marvin and Schweitzer, Frederick (2002), Anti-Semitism: Myth and Hate from Antiquity to the Present, p. 18. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-16561-7

References

  • Hansen, Adolf, and Melito. 1990. The "Sitz im Leben" of the paschal homily of Melito of Sardis with special reference to the paschal festival in early Christianity. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Northwestern University, 1968.
  • Melito, and Bernhard Lohse. 1958. Die Passa-Homilie des Bischofs Meliton von Sardes. Textus minores, 24. Leiden: E.J. Brill.[1]
  • Melito, J. B. Pitra, and Pier Giorgio Di Domenico. 2001. Clavis Scripturae. Visibile parlare, 4. Città del Vaticano: Libreria editrice vaticana. [2]
  • Melito, J. B. Pitra, and Jean Pierre Laurant. 1988. Symbolisme et Ecriture: le cardinal Pitra et la "Clef" de Méliton de Sardes. Paris: Editions du Cerf. [3]
  • Melito, and Josef Blank. 1963. Vom Passa: die älteste christliche Osterpredigt. Sophia, Quellen östlicher Theologie, Bd. 3. Freiburg im Breisgau: Lambertus-Verlag. [4]
  • Melito, and Othmar Perler. 1966. Sur la Pâque et fragments. Sources chrétiennes, 123. Paris: Éditions du Cerf. [5]
  • Melito, and Richard C. White. 1976. Sermon "On the Passover.". Lexington Theological Seminary Library. Occasional studies. Lexington, Ky: Lexington Theological Seminary Library. [6]
  • Melito, and Stuart George Hall. 1979. On Pascha and fragments. Oxford early Christian texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [7]
  • Waal, C. van der, and Melito. 1973. Het Pascha der verlossing: de schriftverklaring in de homilie van Melito als weerspiegeling van de confrontatie tussen kerk en synagoge. Thesis--Universiteit van Suid-Afrika. [8]
  • Waal, C. van der, and Melito. 1979. Het Pascha van onze verlossing: de Schriftverklaring in de paaspreek van Melito van Sardes als weerspiegeling van de confrontatie tussen kerk en synagoge in de tweede eeuw. Johannesburg: De Jong. [9]

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Melito (429 words)
Bishop of Sardis, prominent ecclesiastical writer in the latter half of the second century.
Holy Spirit", was interred at Sardis, and had been one of the great authorities in the Church of Asia who held the Quartodeciman theory.
Melito, quotes Tertullian's statement that he was esteemed a prophet by many of the faithful.
Melito of Sardis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (506 words)
Saint Melito of Sardis was the bishop of Sardis, near Smyrna in Asia Minor, and a great authority: Jerome, speaking of the Old Testament canon established by Melito, quotes Tertullian to the effect that he was esteemed a prophet by many of the faithful.
Melito's Homily on the Passover (Peri Pascha) is a text that was assembled in the 1930s from surviving quotations and translated into English in the 1940s.
Melito's reputation as a writer remained strong into the Middle Ages: numerous works were pseudepigraphically ascribed to him.
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