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Encyclopedia > Melilla
Ciudad Autónoma de Melilla
Autonomous City of Melilla
Flag Coat of arms
Capital
Official language(s) Spanish
Area
 – Total
 – % of Spain
Ranked
 20 km²
 
Population
 – Total (2006)
 – % of Spain
 – Density
Ranked
 66,871
 
 3,343.55/km²
Demonym
 – English
 – Spanish

 
 melillense
Statute of Autonomy March 14, 1995
Parliamentary
representation

 – Congress seats
 – Senate seats


 1
 2
President Juan José Imbroda Ortíz (PP)
ISO 3166-2 ES-ML
Ciudad Autónoma de Melilla

Melilla (Berber: Mrič) is a Spanish exclave on the Mediterranean Rif coast of North Africa, neighbouring Morocco. It was conquered by Spain in 1497. Traditionally considered part of Andalusia for historical reasons, it was administered as part of Málaga province prior to the March 14, 1995 Statute of Autonomy, and was a free port before Spain joined the European Union. As of 1994 it had a population of 63,670. Its population consists of Christians, Muslims, Jews and a small minority of Hindus. Both Spanish and Tamazight (Amazigh language) are spoken there. Image File history File links Flag_of_Melilla. ... Image File history File links Melilla. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Melilla consists of a pale blue background with the Coat of Arms of Melilla in the centre. ... Similar to the Coat of arms of Ceuta, the Coat of arms of Melilla combine elements from different earlier coats-of-arms, in this instance those of Castile and Leon. ... Image File history File links Localización_de_Melilla. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Here is a list of the autonomous communities of Spain in order of area. ... To help compare sizes of different geographic regions, we list here areas between 10 km² (1000 hectares) and 100 km² (10,000 hectares). ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... Here is a list of the autonomous communities of Spain in order of population. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... ... The Spanish Senate (Spanish: Senado) is the upper house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... From the left: Mariano Rajoy, Josep Piqué and José María Aznar during the proclamation act of Josep Piqué in September 2003 The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular) is a large liberal-conservative political party in Spain. ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... Málaga province The Province of Málaga (Spanish Provincia de Málaga) is located on the southern coast of Spain, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... A free port (porto franco) or free zone (US: Foreign-Trade Zone) is a port or area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...

Contents

Political status

Morocco has claimed Melilla, along with Ceuta and various small Spanish islands off the coast of Africa (Plazas de soberanía), drawing comparisons with Spain's territorial claim to Gibraltar. The Spanish government rejects these comparisons (as do the inhabitants of the cities), on the grounds that both Ceuta and Melilla are integral parts of the Spanish state, whereas Gibraltar, an overseas territory, is not considered part of the United Kingdom. The history of Melilla is similar to that of many towns in the south of mainland Spain, passing through Phoenician, Punic, Roman, Byzantine, Vandal, Visigothic, Muslim and then Christian possession. Area  â€“ Total   28 km² Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ Density  75,276  2688. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Plazas de soberanía (literally meaning places of sovereignty) is the term that has been historically given to the Spanish possesions in North Africa (as the opposite to what was a protectorate over the North of Morocco). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... The Punics, (from Latin pÅ«nicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Melilla and Ceuta are the only two remaining European territories located in mainland Africa. The amateur radio call sign used for both cities is EA9. They count as one separate "entity". Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called Ham radio, is a hobby enjoyed by about six million people[1] throughout the world. ... Call sign can refer to different types of call signs: Airline call sign Aviator call sign Cosmonaut call sign Radio and television call signs Tactical call sign, also known as a tactical designator See also: International Callsign Allocations, Maritime Mobile Service Identity This is a disambiguation page — a navigational...


Economy

The principal industry is fishing; cross-border commerce (legal or smuggled) and Spanish and European grants and wages are the other income sources. Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ...


Melilla is regularly connected to the Peninsula by plane and vessels and also economically connected to Morocco: most of its fruits and vegetables are imported across the border. Also, Moroccans in the city's influence area are attracted to it: 36,000 Moroccans cross the border daily to work, shop, or trade goods[citation needed].

Map of Melilla, Spain
Map of Melilla, Spain

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (978x1038, 287 KB) Other versions Polish labels, Spanish labels File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Melilla ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (978x1038, 287 KB) Other versions Polish labels, Spanish labels File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Melilla ...

History

Melilla was a Phoenician and later Punic establishment under the name of Rusadir. Later it became a part of the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana. As centuries passed, it went through Vandal, Byzantine and Hispano-Visigothic hands. Melilla was on the frontier of the Kingdom of Tlemcen and the Kingdom of Fez when Juan Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, known as Guzmán el Bueno, the 3rd Duke of Medina Sidonia conquered it in 1497, a few years after Castile had taken control of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, the last remain of Al-Andalus. Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... In the first century A.D., the Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. ... The Kingdom of Fez was a powerful kindgom in what is today know as Algeria and Morocco. ... Don Alonso Pérez de Guzmán (1256-1309), surnamed El Bueno, the good, in the sense of good at need, or stout-hearted, was the founder of the line which the dukes of Medina Sidonia belonged to. ... Dukes of Medina Sidonia (1445) Juan Alfonso de Guzman El Bueno, 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia (1410-1468) Enrique de Guzman El Bueno, 2nd Duke of Medina Sidonia (d. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Nasrid is the name referring to the royal dynasty that ruled the kingdom of Granada in southern Spain from the mid 13th century to the 15th century, which is considered to be one of the longest Islamic dynasties in the history of Islamic Spain. ... The City of Granada Alhambra, Courtyard of the Lions Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in Spain. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


The limits of the Spanish territory around the fortress were fixed by treaties with Morocco in 1859, 1860, 1861 and 1894. In the late 19th century, as Spanish influence expanded, Melilla became the only authorized centre of trade on the Rif coast between Tetuan and the Algerian frontier. The value of trade increased, goat skins, eggs and beeswax being the principal exports, and cotton goods, tea, sugar and candles being the chief imports. Combatants Morocco Spain Commanders Mohammed IV of Morocco Juan Prim Leopoldo ODonnell Strength 40,000 140,000 Casualties 6,000 dead or wounded 4,000 dead or wounded The Spanish-Moroccan War of 1859, known as the African War in Spain (Spanish: La Guerra de África), was a war... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Beeswax cake Fresh wax scales (in the middle of the lower row) Beeswax is a product from a bee hive, specifically the hive of any species of honey bee (the genus Apis). ...


The Spaniards had had much trouble with the neighboring tribes—the turbulent Rif, independent Berbers (Amazighs) hardly subject to the sultan of Morocco. The Berbers are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... This is a partial list of Kings of Morocco. ...


In 1893 the Rif berbers besieged Melilla, and 25,000 men had to be dispatched against them. In 1908 two companies, under the protection of El Roghi, a chieftain then ruling the Rif region, started mining lead and iron some 20 kilometers from Melilla. A railway to the mines was begun. In October of that year the Roghi's vassals revolted against him and raided the mines, which remained closed until June 1909. By July the workmen were again attacked and several of them killed. Severe fighting between the Spaniards and the tribesmen followed. In 1910, the Rif having submitted, saw the Spaniards restarting the mines and undertaking harbour works at Mar Chica. But hostilities broke out again in 1911 and the Abd el Krim forces inflicted a grave defeat on the Spanish (see Battle of Annual), and were not pacified until 1927, when the Spanish Protectorate finally managed to control the area again. Combatants Spain Rif Confederacy (Morocco) Commanders Juan García Margallo † Arsenio Martínez de Campos Hassan I of Morocco Baja-el-Arbi Strength 25,000 regulars and militia 40,000 irregulars The Rif War of 1893, also called the Melilla War or the Margallo War (after an unfortunate Spanish general... Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Time Magazine, August 17, 1925 Abd el-Krim (c. ... Combatants Republic of the Rif Spain Commanders Abd el-Krim El Khattabi Manuel Fernández Silvestre Strength 3,000 combatants 25,700 Spanish troops plus 5,100 Moroccan auxillaries Casualties ~1,000 dead ~13,192 dead ~1,100 captured The Battle of Annual was a battle fought in Spanish Morocco... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ...


General Francisco Franco used the city as one of his staging grounds for his rebellion in 1936, and a statue of him is still prominently featured. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ...


City culture and society

Lighthouse of Melilla
Lighthouse of Melilla

Melilla's Capilla de Santiago or James's Chapel, by the city walls, is the only genuine Gothic architecture in Africa. Image File history File links Faro_de_Melilla. ... Image File history File links Faro_de_Melilla. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...


During the change from the 19th to the 20th century, Melilla was thriving in the context of the Spanish Protectorate. A new bourgeois class expressed its prestige in the architectural style of Modernisme, the Catalan version of Art Nouveau, which was then in vogue in Spain. The workshops inspired by the Catalan architect, Enrique Nieto, continued in the modernist style, even after it went out of fashion elsewhere. So Melilla has the second most important concentration of Modernist works in Spain, after Barcelona. Fin de siècle is French for End of the Century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... Modernisme in Catalan, (not to be confused with modernism) is the Catalan variant of Art Nouveau. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (Catalan) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...


Melilla has been praised as an example of multiculturalism, how people of three different religions can live side-by-side in harmony within a small area. However, the Christian majority of around 65% has been shrinking while the number of Muslims has been steadily increasing from its present 30% of the population, and Jews have been leaving for years (from 20% of the population before World War II to less than 2% today). Almost all of its residents consider themselves Spanish, although many Muslims of Moroccan origin also call themselves Imazighen or Amazigh, which is the local word for Berber. Multiculturalism is the idea that modern societies should embrace and include distinct cultural groups with equal social status. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Berbers are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...


Immigration

There is considerable pressure by African refugees to enter Melilla, a part of the (European Union). The border is secured by the Melilla border fence, a six-meter-tall double fence with watch towers, yet refugees frequently manage to cross it illegally, avoiding the attempts by Spanish police to take them back to their home countries. Detection wires, tear gas dispensers, radar, and day/night vision cameras are planned to increase security and prevent illegal immigration. In October 2005, over 700 sub-Saharan migrants tried to enter Spanish territory from the Moroccan border. Many of them were shot in the back by the Moroccan Gendarmerie. Amnesty International and Médecins Sans Frontières have accused the Moroccan government of dumping over 500 refugees in the Sahara Desert without food or water supplies. The Melilla border fence is a separation barrier between Morocco and Melillas city, in Spain. ... Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara Desert, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... Médecins Sans Frontières ( (help· info)) (English: Doctors Without Borders) is a secular humanitarian-aid non-governmental organisation best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing endemic disease. ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ...


Museums

There are several museums in the old part of the city.


Transport

The most common means to reach Melilla are by flights to Melilla Airport from Malaga or Madrid, by the land border with Morocco, or by ferry to Melilla. Melilla Airport is an airport in Melilla, Spain (IATA: MLN, ICAO: GEML). ...


See also

The Melilla border fence is a separation barrier between Morocco and Melillas city, in Spain. ... Area  â€“ Total   28 km² Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ Density  75,276  2688. ... In addition to its autonomous communities, Spain has five plazas de soberanía (places of sovereignty) near Morocco administrated directly by Madrids Government. ... List of wars and disputes relating to the colonial presence of Spain in Morocco War of 1859 First Rif War or Rif War (1893) Second Rif War Third Rif War or Rif War (1920) Ifni War Recuperar Soberanía the dispute for the island Isla Perejil Scramble for Africa Berlin... Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... In Spanish-speaking countries, people normally have at least two surnames. ...

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • Wilkinson, Tracy, "Spain's Little Piece of Africa", Los Angeles Times, January 11, 2006

The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Melilla
  • (Spanish) Official pages
  • Official Tourism
  • (Spanish) Melilla en Internet Journal
  • (Spanish) Monuments of Melilla Official
  • Spain's North African enclaves
  • A Childhood Lost in the Cracks of Europe's Border
  • Melilla in Google Maps
  • Map of Melilla
  • (Spanish) Easter of Melilla
  • Pictures of Melilla

Coordinates: 35°19′N, 2°57′W The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Melilla - Tourist Promotion of Melilla - Modernist Melilla (1225 words)
The modernist Melilla that we know today was built at the beginning of the 20th Century, and is the result of a mixture of styles practiced by architects who believed in the city, imbuing it with a serene and vigorous elegance.
This modernist essence was brought to Melilla by the architect Enrique Nieto, a disciple of Gaudí, who, at the start of the last century escaped from the shadow of the Catalan genius to let his imagination run free in the streets of this north-African city.
As the 20th century began, Melilla was undergoing a transformation due to the consequences of significant economic, social and political changes.
Melilla - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1112 words)
Melilla is a Spanish exclave on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, neighbouring Morocco.
Melilla was a Phoenician and later Punic establishment under the name of Rusadir.
The border is secured by the Melilla border fence, a six-meter-tall double fence with watch towers, yet refugees frequently manage to cross it illegally, avoiding the attempts by Spanish police to take them back to their home countries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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