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Encyclopedia > Melbourne
Melbourne
Victoria

Central Melbourne's core business district
Population: 3,806,092 [1] (2nd)
Density: 430/km² (1113.7/sq mi)
Established: 30 August 1835
Area: 8831 km² (3409.7sq mi)
Time zone:

 • Summer (DST) VIC redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 163 KB) Summary Author: Vincent Pac Soo Url: http://www. ... This list of Australian cities by population briefly explains the three different population figures given for Australian cities, and provides rankings for each. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ...

AEST (UTC+10)

AEDT (UTC+11) Time Zone is also a historical computer game. ... UTC+10 time zone Australia (AEST—Australian Eastern Standard Time) Australian Capital Territory**, New South Wales** (except Broken Hill, which observes South Australia time), Queensland, Tasmania** (which observes DST starting on the first weekend of October instead of the last), Victoria** Guam (Chamorro Standard Time via US Law) Federated States... In Australia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Australian Eastern Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time and Australian Western Standard Time. ... as non DST time Federated States of Micronesia Kosrae, Pohnpei, and surrounding area New Caledonia Russia Kuril Islands* Magadan Oblast* Sakha Republic* (eastern portion) Solomon Islands Vanuatu as DST Australia (Australian Eastern Daylight Time) Australian Capital Territory** New South Wales** Tasmania** (where daylight saving time starts on the first weekend...

Location:
LGA: various (31)
County: Bourke
State District: various (54)
Federal Division: various (23)
Mean Max Temp Mean Min Temp Rainfall
19.8 °C
68 °F
10.2 °C
50 °F
646.9 mm
25.5 in

Melbourne (pronounced /ˈmelbən/) is the second most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 3.8 million (2007 estimate).[1] “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Municipalities of Greater Melbourne City of Banyule City of Bayside City of Boroondara City of Brimbank Shire of Cardinia City of Casey City of Darebin City of Frankston City of Glen Eira City of Greater Dandenong City of Hobsons Bay City of Hume City of Kingston City of Knox City... Municipalities of Greater Melbourne City of Banyule City of Bayside City of Boroondara City of Brimbank Shire of Cardinia City of Casey City of Darebin City of Frankston City of Glen Eira City of Greater Dandenong City of Hobsons Bay City of Hume City of Kingston City of Knox City... Most of the Western and Central parts of Australia were never divided into counties;  No counties  Has been subdivided into counties Cadastral divisions of Australia refers to the parts of Australia which are divided into the cadastral units of counties, parishes, hundreds, and other divisions for the purposes of land... Location of Bourke county within Victoria 1866 map of Bourke County showing the parishes 1885 map of Bourke County (pink) 1886 map of Bourke County The County of Bourke is one of the 37 counties of Victoria which are part of the cadastral divisions of Australia, used for land titles. ... State Electoral District is a term used to refer to a voting area within Australian states. ... Image File history File links Vic_inner_regions. ... The Australian House of Representatives is elected from 150 single-member districts called Divisions. ... Download high resolution version (1064x597, 18 KB)Map by Adam Carr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about a local government area. ... This article is about the area with the postcodes 3000 and 3004 in Victoria, Australia known as Melbourne. ... Melbourne is the name of several places. ... Australian English is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians. ... This list of Australian cities by population briefly explains the three different population figures given for Australian cities, and provides rankings for each. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Located around Port Phillip Bay in Australia's south-east, Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria. A person from Melbourne is called a Melburnian.[2] There is also Local Government Area called the City of Port Phillip. ... Each jurisdiction of Australia has its own capital, where local judicial, administrative and legislative duties are centred. ... VIC redirects here. ...


Melbourne is a major centre of commerce, industry and cultural activity. The city is often referred to as Australia's 'sporting and cultural capital'[3] and it is home to many of the nation's most significant cultural and sporting events and institutions. It has been recognised as a gamma world city by the Loughborough University group's 1999 inventory.[4] Melbourne is notable for its mix of Victorian and contemporary architecture, its extensive tram network and Victorian parks and gardens, as well as its diverse, multicultural society. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “World city” redirects here. ... Loughborough University is located in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire in the East Midlands of England. ... Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ... Contemporary architecture is the architecture being made at the present time. ... The city of Melbourne, the second-largest city in Australia, is home to the third largest tram network in the world, consisting of 245 kilometres of track, 500 trams[1], and 1813 tram stops [2]. Operated by the private company Yarra Trams since privatisation in 1999, Melbournes trams contribute... One of many delightful vistas in Melbournes Royal Botanic Gardens. ... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ... The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were held in 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, although the equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. ... The 2006 Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne, Australia between March 15 and March 26, 2006. ...


Melbourne was founded by free settlers in 1835, 47 years after the first European settlement of Australia, as a pastoral settlement situated around the Yarra River.[5] Transformed rapidly into a major metropolis by the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s, 'Marvellous Melbourne' became Australia's largest and most important city by 1865,[6] but was overtaken by Sydney as the largest city in Australia during the early 20th century.[7] The history of Australia from 1788-1850 covers the early colonies period of Australias history, from the first English settlement and penal colony at Port Jackson in 1788 to the establishment of other colonies and the spread of settlers. ... For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... The Yarra River is a river in southern Victoria, Australia. ... For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ... The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria in Australia between approximately 1851 and the early 1860s. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


Melbourne served as the federal seat of government from the time of the new nation's federation in 1901, until Federal Parliament moved to the purpose-built capital, Canberra, in 1927.[8] The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Representatives Senate Speaker of the House of Representatives David Hawker, Liberal Party since 16 November 2004 President of the Senate Alan Ferguson, Liberal Party since 14 August 2007 Members 226 (150 Representatives, 76 Senators) Political groups Liberal Party ALP National Party Country Liberal Party Greens... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Melbourne Landing, 1840; watercolour by W. Liardet (1840).
Melbourne Landing, 1840; watercolour by W. Liardet (1840).
The Windsor Hotel, one of the surviving grand buildings from the 1880s boom.
The Windsor Hotel, one of the surviving grand buildings from the 1880s boom.
Flinders Street Station, intersection of Swanston and Flinders Streets, 1927.
Flinders Street Station, intersection of Swanston and Flinders Streets, 1927.
ICI House, commenced in 1955, was a powerful symbol of the Olympic city's modern aspirations.
ICI House, commenced in 1955, was a powerful symbol of the Olympic city's modern aspirations.
Main article: History of Melbourne
See also: Timeline of Melbourne history
See also: History of Victoria

The area of the Yarra River and Port Phillip that is now Melbourne was originally inhabited by the Wurundjeri people of the Kulin nation. It is believed that the area was occupied by indigenous Australians for at least 40,000 years.[5] The first British penal colony in the Port Phillip district was established in 1803 on Sullivan Bay, but this settlement was abandoned after a few months.[9] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (873x459, 79 KB) Summary scanned image of watercolor by W. F. E. Liardet (1830) Copyright held by State Library of Victoria-may be used for non-commercial exploitation Low quality scanned image by EAWarbuton Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (873x459, 79 KB) Summary scanned image of watercolor by W. F. E. Liardet (1830) Copyright held by State Library of Victoria-may be used for non-commercial exploitation Low quality scanned image by EAWarbuton Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is... Image File history File links Hotel_Windsor. ... Image File history File links Hotel_Windsor. ... Built in 1883, the Hotel Windsor is a grand hotel in Melbourne, Australia, and bills itself as Australia’s only remaining grand hotel. ... Download high resolution version (1115x885, 197 KB)Intersection of Swanston Street (running left-right) and Flinders Street (running diagonally top-bottom), Melbourne, 1927. ... Download high resolution version (1115x885, 197 KB)Intersection of Swanston Street (running left-right) and Flinders Street (running diagonally top-bottom), Melbourne, 1927. ... The Swanston Street Extension frontage of the pre-1910 station Flinders Street Station in 1908 during construction of the current station building Flinders Street Station and the intersection of Flinders and Swanston Streets, 1927 Flinders Street Station is the central railway station of the suburban rail network of Melbourne, Australia. ... Orica is an Australian-headquartered multinational manufacturer of various chemical products, from paints to explosives. ... The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were held in 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, although the equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a timeline of major events in the history of the city of Melbourne, Australia. ... This article describes the history of Victoria. ... The Yarra River is a river in southern Victoria, Australia. ... Landsat 7 composite imagery of the bay. ... The Wurundjeri are Aboriginal people of the Kulin nation, who occupied what is now Melbourne, Australia prior to European settlement of the area. ... The Kulin alliance is one of the Indigenous Australian nations of Australia who lived in central Victoria, Australia, around Port Phillip and Western Port, up into the Great Dividing Range and the Loddon and Goulburn River valleys. ... Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... Sullivan Bay lies 60kms due south of Melbourne on Port Phillip Bay, one km east of Sorrento, Victoria. ...


In May and June 1835, the area that is now central and northern Melbourne was explored by John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association, who negotiated a transaction for 600,000 acres (2,400 km²) of land from eight Wurundjeri chiefs.[5] He selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village", and returned to Launceston in Tasmania (then known as Van Diemen's Land). However, by the time a settlement party from the Association arrived to establish the new village, a separate group led by John Pascoe Fawkner had already arrived aboard the Enterprize and established a settlement at the same location, on 30 August 1835. The two groups ultimately agreed to share the settlement. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by the New South Wales government (then governing all of eastern mainland Australia), which compensated the Association.[5] Although this meant the settlers were now trespassing on Crown land, the government reluctantly accepted the settlers' fait accompli and allowed the town (known at first by various names, including 'Bearbrass'[5]) to remain. John Batman Statue of John Batman at former National Mutual Plaza off Collins Street in Melbourne unveiled 26 January 1979 John Batman (born 21 January 1801 - 5 May 1839) was an Australian farmer and businessman who was one of the first settlers of the Melbourne area and known for founding... The Port Phillip Association was an early nineteenth century investment and pastoral company. ... Launceston is a city in the north of the state of Tasmania, Australia, population approximately 90,000 (Greater urban and 99,100 statistical division), located at the juncture of the North Esk, South Esk, and Tamar rivers. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... 1663 map of Van Diemens Land, showing the parts discovered by Tasman, including Storm Bay, Maria Island and Schouten Island. ... Portrait of John Pascoe Fawkner, founder of Melbourne, by William Strutt, 1856: oil on canvas; 61. ... The Enterprize at the site of Melbourne The topsail schooner, Enterprize, was built in Hobart in 1829 by William Pender. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Batmans Treaty was a treaty made on 6 June 1835 between John Batman, Australian farmer and businessman, and a group of Wurundjeri elders, for the sale of land around Port Phillip Bay, near the present site of the city of Melbourne. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... NSW redirects here. ...


In 1836 Governor Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, and commissioned the first plan for the Hoddle Grid in 1837. The settlement was named Melbourne in the same year after the British Prime Minister William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, who resided in the village of Melbourne in Derbyshire. Melbourne was declared a city by letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847.[10] The City of Port Phillip is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... Melbourne CBD Trees surrounded by buildings - King St. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ... Melbourne is a small Georgian market town in South Derbyshire, England. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The state of Victoria was established as a separate colony in 1851 with Melbourne as its capital. With the discovery of gold in Victoria in the 1850s, leading to the Victorian gold rush, Melbourne grew rapidly, providing the majority of service industries and serving as the major port for the region. The city became a major finance centre, home to several banks and to Australia's first stock exchange (founded in 1861). During the 1880s Melbourne was one of the largest cities in the British Empire, and reputedly the richest city in the world.[11] This period saw the construction of many high-rise Victorian buildings, Coffee Palaces, terrace housing, grand boulevards and gardens throughout the city. Examples of this Victorian architecture still abound in Melbourne. Journalist George Augustus Henry Sala, during an 1885 visit, coined the phrase 'Marvellous Melbourne' to describe the booming city, which stuck long into the twentieth century. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria in Australia between approximately 1851 and the early 1860s. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The term Coffee Palace was used for 1880s hotels that did not serve alcohol as part of the Temperance movement in Australia. ... A street of British terraced housing In architecture and city planning, a terrace, rowhouse, or townhouse (United States) is a style of housing since the late 18th century where identical individual houses are cojoined into rows. ... Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ... Portrait of George Augustus Sala by Mathew Brady, ca. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


The brash boosterism which typified Melbourne during this time came to a halt in 1891 when a world economic depression hit the city's economy, sending the finance and property industries into chaos. The effects of the depression on the city were profound, although it did continue to grow slowly during the early twentieth century. Boosterism is the act of huge boobs or promoting, ones town, city, or organization, with the goal of improving public perception of it. ... WORLD OF WARCRAFT IS THE BEST GAME EVER INVENTED AND PLAY IT. IF YOU DONT PLAY WORLD OF WARCRAFT, YOU ARE A nOOb. ...


At the time of Australia's Federation on 1 January 1901, Melbourne was specified as the temporary seat of government and remained the national capital until 1927, when the Federal parliament was moved to the planned city of Canberra. The first Federal parliament was convened on 9 May 1901 in the Royal Exhibition Building. The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The seat of government is the location of the government for a political entity. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Parliament House, Canberra The Parliament of Australia is a bicameral parliament consisting of the Queen of Australia, the House of Representatives (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house or house of review). Section 1 of the Constitution of Australia provides that: The legislative power of the Commonwealth shall... A New town or planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Royal Exhibition Building from the main avenue of the Carlton Gardens The Royal Exhibition Building, viewed from the west The Royal Exhibition Building is located in Melbourne, Australia. ...


Melbourne was the Allied Pacific Headquarters from 1942 to 1944 as General Douglas MacArthur established Australia as a launch base for Pacific operations. During World War II, Melbourne industries thrived on wartime production and the city became Australia's leading manufacturing centre. After the war, Melbourne expanded rapidly, with its growth boosted by an influx of immigrants and the prestige of hosting the Olympic Games in 1956. Australia's mining boom between 1969 and 1970 proved beneficial to Melbourne, with the headquarters of many of the major companies (BHP and Rio Tinto, among others) based in the city. Nauru's booming mineral economy fuelled several ambitious investments in Melbourne such as Nauru House. Melbourne remained Australia's business and finance capital until the late 1970s, when it began to lose this primacy to Sydney.[12] This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Exactly when Immigration to Australia began is unknown but estimates typically range from 40,000 - 50,000 years ago,[1] when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. ... The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were held in 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, although the equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. ... Billiton redirects here. ... Rio Tinto is a multinational mining and resources group founded originally in 1873. ... Nauru House (also called 80 Collins Street) is a 52 story building in Melbourne, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


Melbourne experienced the worst of Victoria's economic slump between 1989 to 1992. In 1992 the newly elected Kennett Coalition government began a campaign to revive the economy with an aggressive development campaign of public works and major events centred on Melbourne and the promotion of the city as a tourist destination. Major projects included the Melbourne Museum, Federation Square, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre, Crown Casino and CityLink tollway. Other strategies included the privatisation of some of Melbourne's services including power and public transport, and a reduction in funding to public services such as health and education. Jeffrey Gibb Kennett AC (born 25 July 1948), Australian politician, was the 43rd Premier of Victoria (6th October, 1992 to 20th October, 1999). ... The Coalition in Australian politics refers to the grouping of two political parties that has existed in the form of a coalition agreement since 1922, with only brief breaks (e. ... Look up Public works in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A tourist destination is a city, town or other area the economy of which is dependent to a significant extent on the revenues accruing from tourism. ... Exhibition space Museum hall The Melbourne Museum is located in the Carlton Gardens in Melbourne, Australia. ... Federation Square (also colloquially known as Fed Square) is a cultural precinct in the city of Melbourne, Australia. ... View from Crown Casino The Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre is not located in Hong Kong, China 50000km north of the Central Business District. ... Crown Casino is the largest casino in Australia and it relocated to the Crown Casino and Entertainment Complex at Southbank in 1997. ... CityLink is a tolled freeway system in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ...


Since 1997 Melbourne has maintained significant population and employment growth. There has been substantial international investment in the city's industries and property market, and 2006 figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics show that since 2000 Melbourne has sustained the highest population and economic growth rate of any Australian capital city.[13] Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ...


Geography

Map of greater Melbourne
Map of greater Melbourne

Melbourne is located in the south-eastern part of mainland Australia. Geologically, it is built on the confluence of Quaternary lava flows to the west, Silurian mudstones to the east[14] and Holocene sand accumulation to the southeast along Port Phillip. The city's suburbs extend along the Yarra Valley toward the Yarra and Dandenong Ranges to the east, down towards the Mornington Peninsula and the city of Frankston, along the Maribyrnong River and its tributaries north towards the foothills of the Macedon Ranges, and along the flat volcanic plain country towards Werribee and Geelong to the south-west. Download high resolution version (532x674, 85 KB)Map of Melbourne, Australia. ... Download high resolution version (532x674, 85 KB)Map of Melbourne, Australia. ... This article is about the geomorphological/geopolitical term; MAINLAND is also a cheese brand owned by Fonterra, a New Zealand dairy company. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... In computer programming jargon, lava flow is a problem in which computer code, usually written under less than optimal conditions, is put into production and then built on when still in a developmental state. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... Mudstone is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... Landsat 7 composite imagery of the bay. ... The Yarra Valley of the Yarra River, originating in the Yarra Ranges approximately 60 kilometres east of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... The Shire of Yarra Ranges is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... The Dandenong Ranges are a set of mountain ranges, east of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... A beach on the Mornington Peninsula A beach on the Mornington Peninsula A beach on the Mornington Peninsula The Mornington Peninsula is a peninsula located south-east of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, surrounded by Port Phillip, Western Port Bay and Bass Strait. ... Frankston can refer to: Frankston, Victoria - a suburb of Melbourne, Australia The City of Frankston - a Local Government Area in the same city The Frankston railway line in the same city Frankston railway station - the last station on the aforementioned railway line This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Maribyrnong river at West Essendon The Maribyrnong River rises about 50 km north of Melbourne Victoria (Australia), near Mount Macedon. ... Werribee is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... - - Nickname: City by the Bay Geography Area: 1,240 km² Coordinates: Time Zone UTC +10:00 Population (2003) 200,067 Among Australian cities: Density: persons/km² Political Mayor: Shane Dowling Governing body: City of Greater Geelong Geelong is a port city of 200,067 people (2003 census) located on Corio...

Looking across Hobsons Bay towards the central business district
Looking across Hobsons Bay towards the central business district
Victoria Avenue, Canterbury is one of many London Plane Tree lined streets in Melbourne.
Victoria Avenue, Canterbury is one of many London Plane Tree lined streets in Melbourne.

Melbourne is typical of Australian capital cities in that after the turn of the century, it expanded with the underlying notion of a 'quarter acre home and garden' for every family, often referred to locally as the Australian Dream. Much of metropolitan Melbourne is accordingly characterised by low density sprawl. The provision of an extensive railway and tram service in the earlier years of development encouraged this low density development, mostly in radial lines along the transport corridors. The City of Hobsons Bay is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... Schematic plan of Hoddles allotments for the village of Melbourne, March,1837 Each block was further subdivided into 20 allotments each 76 perches in area Map of central Melbourne Melbournes CBD. The Hoddle Grid is the layout of the streets in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 583 pixelsFull resolution (1782 × 1299 pixel, file size: 598 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 583 pixelsFull resolution (1782 × 1299 pixel, file size: 598 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Binomial name Platanus x hispanica Muenchh. ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... The Australian Dream or Great Australian Dream is a belief that in Australia, home ownership can lead to a better life and is an expression of success and security. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ...


The original city (known today as the central business district or CBD) is laid out in the mile-by-half-a-mile Hoddle Grid, its southern edge fronting onto the Yarra. The city centre is well known for its historic and attractive lanes and arcades which contain a variety of shops and cafes.[15] The CBD and surrounds contain many historic buildings such as the Royal Exhibition Building, the Melbourne Town Hall and Parliament House. The Central Business District of Sydney, Australia. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Melbourne CBD Trees surrounded by buildings - King St. ... The Royal Exhibition Building from the main avenue of the Carlton Gardens The Royal Exhibition Building, viewed from the west The Royal Exhibition Building is located in Melbourne, Australia. ... During the Melbourne International Comedy Festival the Melbourne Town Hall acts as venue to a large number of the performances. ... Parliament House, Melbourne Parliament House, Melbourne, has been the seat of the Parliament of Victoria, Australia, since 1855, except for the years 1901 to 1928, when it was occupied by the Parliament of Australia. ...


Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city, and the state of Victoria was once known as the garden state. There is an abundance of parks and gardens in Melbourne, many close to the CBD with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped vistas, pedestrian pathways and tree-lined avenues. There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of Melbourne, such as in the municipalities of Stonnington, Boroondara and Port Phillip, south east of the CBD. One of many delightful vistas in Melbournes Royal Botanic Gardens. ... Schematic plan of Hoddles allotments for the village of Melbourne, March,1837 Each block was further subdivided into 20 allotments each 76 perches in area Map of central Melbourne Melbournes CBD. The Hoddle Grid is the layout of the streets in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. ... Stonnington City Centre (Malvern Town Hall) is now the corporate headquarters of the City of Stonnington. ... Camberwell Town Hall The City of Boroondara is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... Mayor/President Cr BOLITHO, Janet CEO Mr SPOKES, David Electoral Divisions WARDS (Alma, Albert Park, Blessington, Emerald Hill, Ormond, Sandridge, St Kilda) Councillors Cr RAY, Darren, Cr KLEPNER, Judith, Cr GROSS, Dick, Cr LOGAN, Peter, Cr CRIBBES, Janet, Cr BOLITHO, Janet, Cr SAIT, Karen. ...


Climate

Melbourne has a moderate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb).[16] and is notorious for its changeable weather conditions. This is due in part to the city's flat topography, its situation on Port Phillip Bay, and the presence of the Dandenong Ranges to the east, a combination that creates weather systems that often circle the bay. The phrase "four seasons in one day" is part of popular culture and observed by many visitors to the city.[17] World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... Landsat 7 composite imagery of the bay. ... The Dandenong Ranges are a set of mountain ranges, east of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ...


Melbourne is colder than most other Australian capital cities in the winter. The lowest maximum on record is 4.4 degrees Celsius, on July 4, 1901.[18] However, snowfalls are extremely rare: the most recent occurrence of sleet in the CBD was on July 25, 1986 and the most recent snowfalls in the Dandenongs were on August 10, 2005,[19] November 15, 2006 and December 25th 2006[20] There has not been a major snowfall in Melbourne since 1951, when moderate cover was recorded in both the CBD and suburbs.[21] More commonly, Melbourne experiences frosts and fog in winter. For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ...


During the spring, Melbourne commonly enjoys extended periods of mild weather and clear skies. Melbourne is also known to have extremely hot, and dry summers, with maximum temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius. The hottest temperature on record was 45.6 degrees Celsius on 13 January 1939 during a four-day nationwide heat wave.[22] On 8 February 1983, the city was enveloped by a massive dust storm, which turned day to night. is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Heat wave (disambiguation). ...

Weather averages for Melbourne
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25.8 (78) 25.8 (78) 23.8 (75) 20.3 (69) 16.7 (62) 14.0 (57) 13.4 (56) 14.9 (59) 17.2 (63) 19.6 (67) 21.9 (71) 24.2 (76) 19.8 (68)
Average low °C (°F) 14.2 (58) 14.5 (58) 13.2 (56) 10.7 (51) 8.6 (47) 6.9 (44) 6.0 (43) 6.6 (44) 7.9 (46) 9.5 (49) 11.1 (52) 12.9 (55) 10.2 (50)
Precipitation mm (inches) 48.0 (1.9) 47.7 (1.9) 50.1 (2) 57.7 (2.3) 56.3 (2.2) 49.4 (1.9) 47.7 (1.9) 50.2 (2) 58.5 (2.3) 66.8 (2.6) 59.5 (2.3) 59.0 (2.3) 650.9 (25.6)
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[23] Sept 2007
Other daily elements
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Yearly
Mean number of rain days 8.3 7.4 9.3 11.5 14.0 14.2 15.1 15.6 14.8 14.3 11.8 10.5 146.7
Mean number of clear days 6.3 6.3 5.7 4.4 3.0 2.5 2.7 2.9 3.4 3.6 3.5 4.4 48.5
Mean number of cloudy days 11.2 9.7 13.4 14.9 18.0 16.8 17.2 16.8 15.7 16.4 15.1 14.2 179.5
Source: Bureau of Meteorology

Culture

The Federation Square cultural precinct
Main article: Culture of Melbourne

Melbourne is widely known as the Australian cultural and sport capital. In recent years, the city has claimed the SportsBusiness title "World's Ultimate Sports City".[24]. It is considered the spiritual home of Australian cricket and Australian rules football - the most popular sports in Australia. Nine teams (Not including Geelong) from the Australian Football League are based in Melbourne and its surrounding suburbs. The first ever official cricket Test match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in March 1877. The city is also home to a Rugby League and Soccer team, the Melbourne Storm,[25] who play in the NRL competition, Melbourne Victory who play in the A-league, netball team Melbourne Vixens who play in the trans-Tasman trophy ANZ Championship and basketball team Melbourne Tigers who play in the NBL Hummer Championship Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 900 pixels, file size: 332 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Federation Square from Eureka Tower Skydeck, August 2007. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 900 pixels, file size: 332 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Federation Square from Eureka Tower Skydeck, August 2007. ... Federation Square (also colloquially known as Fed Square) is a cultural precinct in the city of Melbourne, Australia. ... Melbourne is an Australian city known for its culture and society. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 364 pixelsFull resolution (1996 × 908 pixel, file size: 540 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Melbourne Cricket Ground, August 2007. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 364 pixelsFull resolution (1996 × 908 pixel, file size: 540 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Melbourne Cricket Ground, August 2007. ... “MCG” redirects here. ... This article is about the sport. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... This article is about the national league in Australian rules football. ... This article is about the sport. ... “MCG” redirects here. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The Melbourne Storm are a professional rugby league football club based in the city of Melbourne, Australia. ... NRL may refer to: National Rugby League Namespace Routing Language National Rookie League Numaligarh Refinery Limited US Naval Research Laboratory North Ronaldsay Airport, the IATA airport code Category: ... Melbourne Victory FC is a football (soccer) club based in Melbourne, Australia. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A netball game in Australia Netball is a non contact sport similar to, and derived from, basketball. ... The ANZ Championship will be a netball competition contested between five teams each from both Australia and New Zealand. ... This article is about the sport. ... The Melbourne Tigers is a team in the Australian National Basketball League (NBL), and along with the South Dragons is one of two teams based in Melbourne. ...


It has thrice shared top position[26] in a survey by The Economist of the World's Most Livable Cities on the basis of its cultural attributes, climate, cost of living, and social conditions such as crime rates and health care, in 2002,[27] 2004 and 2005.[28] However, in recent years rising property prices have led to Melbourne being named one of the least affordable cities in the world.[29] The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... The Worlds Most Livable Cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on a reputable annual survey of living conditions. ... For other uses, see The Cost of Living. ... This graph shows the rate of non-fatal firearm-related crime in the United States from 1993 to 2003. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ...


The city celebrates a wide variety of annual cultural events, performing arts and architecture. Melbourne is also considered to be Australia's live music capital with a large proportion of successful Australian artists emerging from the Melbourne live music scene. Melbourne has become popular for its street art (see Melbourne street art) with the lonely planet guides listing it as a major attraction. Owl on a wall in Melbourne. ... Lonely Planet logo Lonely Planet Publications (usually known as Lonely Planet or LP for short) claims to be the largest independently owned travel guidebook publisher in the world. ...


Economy

Southbank, a new icon of Melbourne
Southbank, a new icon of Melbourne
The Hoddle Grid, Melbourne's original Central Business District
Melbourne GPO building on the corner of Elizabeth Street and Bourke Street in the heart of the Melbourne CBD
Melbourne GPO building on the corner of Elizabeth Street and Bourke Street in the heart of the Melbourne CBD
Melbourne Yarra Twilight
Melbourne Yarra Twilight

Melbourne is home to Australia's busiest seaport and much of Australia's automotive industry, which include Ford and Toyota manufacturing facilities, and the engine manufacturing facility of Holden. It is home to many other manufacturing industries, along with being a major business and financial centre.[30] In mid-November 2006, the city was host to the G20 summit, amid violent protests. International freight is an important industry. The city's port, Australia's largest, handles more than $75 billion in trade every year and 39% of the nation's container trade.[31][32] Southbank is an inner city suburb of Melbourne, Australia in the state of Victoria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 163 KB) Summary Author: Vincent Pac Soo Url: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 163 KB) Summary Author: Vincent Pac Soo Url: http://www. ... Melbourne CBD Trees surrounded by buildings - King St. ... This article is about the area with the postcodes 3000 and 3004 in Victoria, Australia known as Melbourne. ... Former Melbourne General Post Office Inside the sorting hall after conversion into upmarket shopping arcade The Melbourne General Post Office or GPO, is a landmark building in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia on the corner of Elizabeth Street and Bourke Street in the heart of the Melbourne CBD. The foundation stone was... Elizabeth Street is one of the main north-south streets in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia, part of the Hoddle Grid laid out in 1837. ... Bourke Street Mall The newly redeveloped Bourke Street Mall East Bourke Street Mall during redevelopment Bourke Street is a major street in the central business district(CBD) of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... The Hoddle Grid is the layout of the streets of the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1517x700, 396 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Melbourne ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1517x700, 396 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Melbourne ... The Yarra River is a river in southern Victoria, Australia. ... The Port of Melbourne is Australias largest port for containerised and general cargo. ... Automakers, also known as carmakers, automobile manufacturers, motor manufacturers, or the automobile industry are companies that design and manufacture automobiles. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... This article is about the automaker. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about the G-20 of industrial nations. ... The Port of Melbourne is Australias largest port for containerised and general cargo. ...


Melbourne is also a major technology hub, with an ICT industry that employs over 60,000 people (one third of Australia's ICT workforce), has a turnover of $19.8 billion and export revenues of $615 million.[33] Information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT) is the technology required for information processing. ...


Melbourne retains a significant presence of being a financial centre for Asia-Pacific. Two of the big four banks, NAB and ANZ, are headquartered in Melbourne. The city has carved out a niche as Australia’s leading centre for superannuation (pension) funds, with 40 per cent of the total, and 65 per cent of industry super-funds.[34] Melbourne is also home to the $40 billion-dollar Federal Government Future Fund, and could potentially be home to the world's largest company should the proposed merger between BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto Group be carried out.[35] Big Four is the name given to the four biggest banks in a certain area: In England & Wales as a whole. ... NAB may stand for: National Association of Broadcasters, the industry group representing the commercial radio stations and television stations of the United States National Australia Bank Needle aspiration biopsy, a medical technique Neodymium aluminium borate New American Bible, an English Bible translation that was produced by members of the Roman... The ANZ Bank (Australia And New Zealand Banking Group Limited) is one of the largest Australia. ... Superannuation is a pension scheme in Australia. ... Industry superannuation funds in Australia refer to the group of retirement superannuation funds managed by industry bodies and unions. ... The Australian Government Future Fund is an independently managed investment fund into which the government deposits its surplus. ... Billiton redirects here. ... Rio Tinto is a multinational mining and resources group founded originally in 1873. ...


Tourism plays an important role in Melbourne's economy, with approximately 7.6 million domestic visitors and 1.88 million international visitors in 2004.[36] The Rialto Towers Melbourne tourism is attractive to large numbers of tourists, particularly young backpackers. ...


The city is headquarters for many of Australia's largest corporations, including five of the ten largest in the country (based on revenue)[37] (ANZ, BHP Billiton, the National Australia Bank, Rio Tinto and Telstra); as well as such representative bodies and thinktanks as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Council of Trade Unions. The Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited (Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited; ASX: , NZX: ANZ, NYSE: ANZ), commonly called ANZ, is the third largest bank in Australia, after the National Australia Bank and the Commonwealth Bank. ... Billiton redirects here. ... The National Australia Bank or nab (ASX: NAB, LSE: NAB, NYSE: NAB, TYO: 8637) colloquially the National or the NAB. The NAB is part of the NAB Group. ... Rio Tinto is a multinational mining and resources group founded originally in 1873. ... Telstra Corporation (ASX: , NZX: TLS, NYSE: TLS) (formed from Telecom Australia) is an Australian telecommunications and media company under private ownership, with a dominant position in landline telephone services, a large share of mobile phone services, domestic consumer (including dial-up access, 50% of Broadband internet broadband cable modem, satellite... The Business Council of Australia (BCA) is an employers organization, which represents the chief executives of approximately 100 large Australian corporations. ... The Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) is the peak national body representing workers in Australia. ...


Melbourne rated 34th within the top 50 financial cities as surveyed by the Mastercard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index (2007),[38] between Barcelona and Geneva, and second only to Sydney (14th) in Australia.


Most recent major infrastructure projects, such as the redevelopment of Southern Cross Station (formerly Spencer Street Station), have been centred around the 2006 Commonwealth Games, which were held in the city from 15 March to 26 March 2006. The centrepiece of the Commonwealth Games projects was the redevelopment of the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the stadium used for the opening and closing ceremonies of the Games. The project involved rebuilding the northern half of the stadium and laying a temporary athletics track at a cost of $434 million.[39] Interior of Southern Cross Station at the trailing end of rush hour. ... The 2006 Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne, Australia between March 15 and March 26, 2006. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “MCG” redirects here. ... Au. ...


Melbourne has also been attracting an increasing share of domestic and international conference markets. Construction began in February 2006 of a $1 billion 5000-seat international convention centre, Hilton Hotel and commercial precinct adjacent to the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre to link development along the Yarra River with the Southbank precinct and multi-billion dollar Docklands redevelopment.[40] Au. ... View from Crown Casino The Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre is not located in Hong Kong, China 50000km north of the Central Business District. ... The Yarra River is a river in southern Victoria, Australia. ... Southbank is an inner city suburb of Melbourne, Australia in the state of Victoria. ... The Melbourne Docklands is a new inner city suburb and Urban renewal project in Melbourne, Australia. ...


Demographics

Melbourne's Chinatown, established in 1854, is the oldest in Australia and one of the oldest worldwide
Melbourne's Chinatown, established in 1854, is the oldest in Australia and one of the oldest worldwide
Significant overseas born populations[41]
Country of Birth Population (2006)
United Kingdom 156,457
Italy 73,801
Vietnam 57,926
Mainland China 54,726
New Zealand 52,453
Greece 52,279
India 50,686
Sri Lanka 30,594
Malaysia 29,174
Philippines 24,568
Germany 21,182
Malta 18,951
South Africa 17,317
Rep. Macedonia 17,287
Hong Kong 16,917
Poland 16,439
Croatia 15,367
Lebanon 14,645

Today Melbourne is a diverse and multicultural city. Almost a quarter of Victoria's population was born overseas, and the city is home to residents from 233 countries, who speak over 180 languages and dialects and follow 116 religious faiths.[42] Melbourne has the second largest Asian population in nation, which includes the largest Vietnamese, Indian and Sri Lankan communites in the country. Overall, citizens of Asian heritage represent approximately 18% of Melbournes population, compared to 7% of Australia's population. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ...


The earliest inhabitants of the broad area that later became Melbourne were Indigenous Australians — specifically, the Bunurong, Wurundjeri and Wathaurong peoples. Melbourne is still a centre of Aboriginal life — consisting of local groups and indigenes from other parts of Australia — with the Aboriginal community in the city numbering over 20,000 persons (0.6 per cent of the population).[43] Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group...


The first European settlers in Melbourne were British and Irish. These two groups accounted for nearly all arrivals before the gold rush, and supplied the predominant number of immigrants to the city until the Second World War. Melbourne was transformed by the 1850s gold rush; within months of the discovery of gold in August 1852, the city's population had increased by nearly three-quarters, from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants.[44] Thereafter, growth was exponential and by 1865, Melbourne had overtaken Sydney as Australia's most populous city.[6] Large numbers of Chinese, German and United States nationals were to be found on the goldfields and subsequently in Melbourne. The various nationalities involved in the Eureka Stockade revolt nearby give some indication of the migration flows in the second half of the nineteenth century. Exactly when Immigration to Australia began is unknown but estimates typically range from 40,000 - 50,000 years ago,[1] when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Australian gold rushes started in 1851 when prospector Edward Hargraves discovered gold near Bathurst, New South Wales, at a site Hargraves called Ophir. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The Eureka Flag The Eureka Stockade was a gold miners revolt in 1854 in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, against the officials supervising the mining of gold in the region of Ballarat. ...


In 2007, demographer Bernard Salt predicted that if current trends continue, Melbourne will again become the most populous city in Australia by 2028.[45]


Postwar immigration

In the first half of the twentieth century, Melbourne saw influxes of Italians and Greeks. Italian Australian is the third largest ethnic group in Australia, numbering 800,256 or 3. ...


In the aftermath of the Second World War, Melbourne experienced unprecedented inflows from Mediterranean Europe, primarily Greece and Italy, but also Cyprus and Turkey. Ever larger Greek and Italian migrant numbers soon led to Melbourne being referred to as 'largest Greek city out side of Greece' and 'Little Italy'.[citation needed] According to the 2001 Census, there were 151,785 ethnic Greeks in the metropolitan area.[citation needed] Nearly half of all Greek Australians live in Melbourne.[citation needed] Ethnic Chinese and Vietnamese also maintain significant presences.


Melbourne enjoys comparatively high levels of migrant integration to the other capital cities. Many ethnic groups are associated with the suburb in which they first settled – Italians in Carlton and Brunswick, Macedonians in Thomastown, Indians and Sri Lankans in the South-Eastern suburbs such as Hampton Park and Narre Warren , Greeks in Oakleigh, Northcote and Hughesdale, Vietnamese in Richmond, Springvale and Footscray, Maltese in Sunshine, Serbs in St Albans, Turks in Coburg, Lebanese in Broadmeadows, Russians in Carnegie, Spaniards in Fitzroy, North Africans in Flemington and Sub-Saharan Africans in Noble Park. The cities of Dandenong, Monash, Casey and Whittlesea on Melbourne's fringe are particular current migrant hotspots.[46] Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... Carlton is an inner city suburb to the north-east of the city of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Brunswick is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Motto: Anthem: Today Over Macedonia (Macedonian: Денес Над Македонија, Denes Nad Makedonija) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 1. ... Thomastown is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Indian or Indians can refer to: Anything from or related to the country of India, including: The people of India, sometimes called Asian Indians to differentiate from American Indians The many languages of India The Indian subcontinent or the adjoining Indian Ocean Native Americans, the aboriginal people of the Americas... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Hampton Park is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Narre Warren is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Oakleigh is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Northcote is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Hughesdale is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Richmond is an inner city suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Springvale is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia about 25 kilometres south-east of the central business district. ... Footscray is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Sunshine (37°46′ S 144°49′ E) is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... St Albans is a suburb 18 km north-west of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia. ... Coburg is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Of lesser importance than religious belonging, ethnic background is still a factor in Lebanon. ... Broadmeadows is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 17 km from Melbournes central business district. ... Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an ethnic group of East Slavic people, which live primarily in Russia and neighboring countries. ... Carnegie is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, in the state of Victoria. ... Fitzroy is an inner city suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Flemington is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area African countries considered sub-Saharan Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially... Noble Park is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... The City of Greater Dandenong is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... The City of Monash is a Local Government Area of Victoria (Local Government Area) in Victoria, Australia. ... The City of Casey is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... The City of Whittelsea is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ...


Melbourne exceeds the national average in terms of proportion of residents born overseas: 34.8 per cent compared to a national average of 23.1 per cent. In concordance with national data, Britain is the most commonly reported country of birth, with 4.7 per cent, followed by Italy (2.4 per cent), Greece (1.9 per cent) and then China (1.3 per cent). Melbourne also features substantial Vietnamese-, Indian- and Sri Lankan-born communities, in addition to recent South African and Sudanese influxes. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


Linguistically, Melbourne is one of Australia's most diverse urban centres, though according to 2001 Census data, over two-thirds of people in Melbourne speak only English at home (68.8 per cent). Italian is the second most common home language (4.0 per cent), with Greek third and the Chinese languages fourth, each with over 100,000 speakers. Of foreign-born Melburnians who spoke English exclusively, 84.2 per cent reported speaking it either 'very well' or 'well'. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngwén) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: Hànyǔ, Huáyǔ, or Zhōngwén) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...


Religion

Christianity is the most professed faith in Melbourne with 2,097,493 followers accounting for 62.3 percent of residents[citation needed]. The largest denominations are Catholicism (29.2 per cent), Anglicanism (13.6 per cent) and Greek Orthodoxy (6.2 per cent)[citation needed]. However the largest churches in Melbourne are generally Assemblies of God[citation needed]: CityLife Church (4,600 weekly attendance)[citation needed], Planetshakers City Church (3,000)[citation needed] and Faith! Christian Church (2,000)[citation needed]. In its outskirts is a large Baptist church called Crossway Baptist Church (4500)[citation needed]. It is the seat of both the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Melbourne and the Anglican Diocese of Melbourne. St Patricks Cathedral, Melbourne Patricks Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, and seat of its archbishop, currently Denis J. Hart. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... in Christianity: Eastern Christianity Oriental Orthodoxy Orthodox Christianity Orthodoxy by country in Judaism: Orthodox Judaism Modern Orthodox Judaism Jewish organisations: Orthodox Union Categories: ... For other uses, see Assemblies of God (disambiguation). ... CityLife Church, formerly known as Waverley Christian Fellowship, is a non-denominational megachurch in Australia. ... Planetshakers was originally a Christian conference that began in South Australia and founded by Russell Evans at Paradise Community Church. ... Faith! Christian Church (formerly known as Dandenong AOG) is a Pentecostal church of over 2000 people in Dandenong North, in the southeast of Melbourne, Australia. ... Crossway Baptist Church is Australia’s largest Baptist church, located in Melbourne’s eastern suburbs. ... The Anglican Diocese of Melbourne is the metropolitan diocese of the Province of Victoria in the Anglican Church of Australia. ...

Melbourne
Population by year
1836 177
1854 123,000 (gold rush)
1880 280,000 (property boom)
1956 1,500,000
1981 2,806,000
1991 3,156,700 (economic slump)
2001 3,366,542
2006 3,744,373
2021 4,500,000 (projected)
2030 > 5,000,000 (projected)
Melbourne
Urban area density
(people/ha)
1951 23.4[47]
1961 21.4[48]
1971 18.1[49]
1981 15.9[50]
1986 16.05[51]
1991 16.8[52]
1996 17.9[53]
1999 17.05[54]
2001 15.9[55]

Melburnians professing no religion number 17.1 per cent. Buddhists, Muslims, Jews and Hindus collectively account for 7.5 per cent of the population. Four out of ten Australian Jews call Melbourne home. The city is also residence to the largest number of Holocaust survivors of any Australian city,[56] indeed the highest per capita concentration outside Israel itself.[57] A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The history of the Jews in Australia began with the transportation of several Jewish convicts aboard the First Fleet in 1788 when the first European settlement was established on the continent in present-day Sydney. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Population growth

Although Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the Melbourne statistical division has grown by approximately 50,000 people a year since 2003. Melbourne has now attracted the largest proportion of international overseas immigrants (48,000) finding it outpacing Sydney's international migrant intake, along with having strong interstate migration from Sydney and other capitals due to more affordable housing and cost of living, which have been two recent key factors driving Melbourne's growth. The Resurgence of Marvellous Melbourne Trends in Population Distribution in Victoria, 1991-1996. [58] In recent years, Melton, Wyndham and Casey, part of the Melbourne statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all local government areas in Australia. It has been suggested that if population growth continues at its current rate, Melbourne could become Australia's largest city once again by 2028.[59] The Shire of Melton is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... The City of Wyndham is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... The City of Casey is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... Local Government Area (abbreviated LGA) is a term used in Australia (and especially by the Australian Bureau of Statistics) to refer to areas controlled by each individual Local Government. ...


Melbourne's population density declined following the Second World War, with the private motor car and the lures of space and property ownership causing a suburban sprawl, mainly eastward. After much discussion both at general public and planning levels in the 1980s, the decline has reversed since the recession of the early 1990s. The city has seen increased density in the inner and western suburbs. Since the 1970s, Victorian Government planning blueprints, such as Postcode 3000 and Melbourne 2030, have aimed to curtail the urban sprawl. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Car redirects here. ... Postcode 3000 was a planning policy for Melbourne, Australia begun by the Kennett (LIB) government. ... Melbourne 2030 is a Victorian Government urban planning blueprint for the metropolis of Melbourne covering the period 2000-2030 in which the population of the urban area is expected to grow to just under 5 million people. ... Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ...


Government

The Melbourne City Council governs the City of Melbourne, which takes in the CBD and a few adjoining inner suburbs. However the head of the Melbourne City Council, the Lord Mayor of Melbourne, is frequently treated as a representative of greater Melbourne (the entire metropolitan area),[60] particularly when interstate or overseas. The Lord Mayor is John So, who was crowned the 2006 World Mayor[61]. The arms of the City of Melbourne The flag of the City of Melbourne The City of Melbourne is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. ... This article is about a local government area. ... This is a list of the Mayors and Lord Mayors of the City of Melbourne Local Government Area, Melbourne, Australia. ... Dr. John Chun Sai So JP (Traditional Chinese: 蘇震西, pinyin: Sū Zhèn Xī; born 2 October 1946 in Hong Kong) is the Lord Mayor of City of Melbourne, the capital of Victoria, Australia. ... World Mayor is a now annual award organized by City Mayors, which intends to raise the profile of mayors worldwide, as well as honour those who have served their communities well and who have contributed to the well-being of cities, nationally and internationally. ...

The South Melbourne Town Hall, one among many surviving civic buildings from the Victorian era
The South Melbourne Town Hall, one among many surviving civic buildings from the Victorian era

The rest of the metropolitan area is divided into 30 local government areas. All these are designated as Cities, except for five on the city's outer fringes which have the title of Shire. The local government authorities have elected councils and are responsible for a range of functions (delegated to them from the State Government of Victoria under the Local Government Act of 1989[62]), such as urban planning and waste management. Image File history File linksMetadata South_melbourne_town_hall. ... Image File history File linksMetadata South_melbourne_town_hall. ... South Melbourne Town Hall. ... South Melbourne Town Hall. ... Municipalities of Greater Melbourne City of Banyule City of Bayside City of Boroondara City of Brimbank Shire of Cardinia City of Casey City of Darebin City of Frankston City of Glen Eira City of Greater Dandenong City of Hobsons Bay City of Hume City of Kingston City of Knox City... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ...


Most city-wide government activities are controlled by the Victorian state government, which governs from Parliament House in Spring Street. These include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, and planning of major infrastructure projects. Because three quarters of Victoria's population lives in Melbourne, state governments have traditionally been reluctant to allow the development of citywide governmental bodies, which would tend to rival the state government. The semi-autonomous Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works was abolished in 1992 for this reason. This is not dissimilar to other Australian states where State Governments have similar powers in greater metropolitan areas. The form of the Government of Victoria is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1855, although it has been amended many times since then. ... Parliament House, Melbourne Parliament House, Melbourne, has been the seat of the Parliament of Victoria, Australia, since 1855, except for the years 1901 to 1928, when it was occupied by the Parliament of Australia. ... Spring Street is a major street in the central business district of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... The Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works is a public utility board in Melbourne, Australia set up to provide water supply, sewerage and sewage treatment functions for the city. ...


Education

State Library of Victoria La Trobe Reading Room (5th floor view)
State Library of Victoria La Trobe Reading Room (5th floor view)

Education is overseen statewide by the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD), whose role is to 'provide policy and planning advice for the delivery of education'.[63] It acts as advisor to two state ministers, that for Education and for Children and Early Childhood Development. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x2142, 1127 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x2142, 1127 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A panoramic view of the library facade, forecourt and lawns from Swanston Street The State Library lit up at night. ... Charles La Trobe (March 20, 1801 - December 4, 1875) was the first lieutenant-governor of the state of Victoria. ...


Preschool, primary and secondary

Primary and secondary assessment, curriculum development and educational research initiatives[64] throughout Melbourne and Victoria is undertaken by the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (VCAA), which offers the Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) and Achievement Improvement Monitor (AIM) certificates from years Prep through Year 10, and the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) and Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL) as part of senior secondary programs (Years 11 to 12).[65] The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority are responsible for the provision of high quality curriculum and assessment programs for all students in Victoria, Australia. ...


Many high schools in Melbourne are called 'Secondary Colleges', a legacy of the Kirner Labor government. There are two selective public schools in Melbourne (mentioned above), but all public schools may restrict entry to students living in their regional 'zone'.[66][67] High school, or secondary school, is the last segment of compulsory education in Hong Kong, United States, Australia, Canada, China, Korea and Japan. ... Joan Kirner Joan Elizabeth Kirner (born 20 June 1938), Australian politician, was the first female Premier of Victoria. ...


Although non-tertiary public education is free, 35 per cent of students attend a private primary or secondary school.[68] The most numerous private schools are Catholic, and the rest are independent (see Public and Private Education in Australia). // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ... An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... Education in Australia is sometimes divided into two categories public education and private education. ...


Tertiary and vocational

Melbourne's two largest universities are the University of Melbourne (also called Melbourne University) and Monash University, the largest university in Australia. Both are members of the Group of Eight. Melbourne University ranked second among Australian universities in the 2006 THES international rankings.[69] While The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne as the 22nd best university in the world, Monash University was ranked the 38th best university in the world. Ormond College is the largest of the residential colleges of the University of Melbourne. ... The University of Melbourne, is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. ... The University of Melbourne, is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. ... Robert Menzies Building at the Clayton Campus Monash University is a public university with campuses located in Australia, Malaysia and South Africa. ... The Group of Eight (Go8) is a lobby group for eight Australian tertiary institutions which are the leading universities in Australia. ... The Times Higher Education Supplement, known as The Times Higher or The THES for short, is a newspaper based in London, England, that reports specifically on issues related to education. ... The Times Higher Education Supplement, also known as The Times Higher or The THES for short, is a newspaper based in London that reports specifically on issues related to higher education. ... Robert Menzies Building at the Clayton Campus Monash University is a public university with campuses located in Australia, Malaysia and South Africa. ...


Melbourne is home to some of the nation's oldest educational institutions, including the oldest Law (1857), Engineering (1860), Medical (1862), Dental (1897) and Music (1891) schools, all at the University of Melbourne. The University of Melbourne is also the oldest university in Victoria and the second oldest university in Australia. // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution — or part of such an institution — that teaches medicine. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... A music school or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is an institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship, music history, and music theory. ...


Other universities located in Melbourne include La Trobe University, RMIT University, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria University and the St Patrick's campus of the Australian Catholic University. Deakin University maintains two major campuses in Melbourne and Geelong, and is the third largest university in Victoria. In recent years, the number of international students at Melbourne's universities has risen rapidly, a result of an increasing number of places being made available to full fee paying students.[70] La Trobe University is a multi-campus university in Victoria, Australia. ... RMIT University (officially the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology) is an Australian university based in Melbourne, Victoria. ... Swinburne University of Technology is a university based in a number of campuses in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. ... Victoria University (formerly known as the Victoria University of Technology), located in Melbourne, Australia, is one of the five dual-sector universities in Australia offering both Higher Education and Technical and Further Education courses. ... Australian Catholic University The Australian Catholic University, or ACU National, is a Roman Catholic, public, multi-campus, multi-state university, based in eastern Australia, open to all staff and students regardless of their religious beliefs. ... Deakin University is a large Australian public university with around 32,000 students studying Bachelor, Masters, Doctoral and Professional programs as of 2004. ... International students are students, usually in early adulthood, who study in foreign schools. ...

Further information: List of schools in Victoria

// Abbotsford Primary School Aberfeldie Primary School Airly Primary School Albanvale Primary School Albany Rise Primary School Albert Park Primary School Alberton Primary School Albion North Primary School Albion Primary School Aldercourt Primary School Alexandra Primary School Alfred Education Centre Alfredton Primary School Allansford And District Primary School Alphington Primary School...

Infrastructure

Health

The Government of Victoria's Department of Human Services oversees approximately 30 public hospitals in the Melbourne metropolitan region, and 13 health services organisations.[71] The major public hospitals are the Royal Melbourne Hospital, The Alfred Hospital and Austin Hospital, while major private hospitals include Epworth Hospital and St Vincent's. The city is also home to major medical and biotechnology research centres such as St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, the Burnet Institute, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, The Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Baker Heart Institute and the Australian Synchrotron. The form of the Government of Victoria is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1855, although it has been amended many times since then. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... The Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH) in Parkville is one of Australia’s leading public hospitals. ... The Alfred Hospital, also known as Alfred Hospital or The Alfred, is the second oldest hospital in Victoria, and the oldest Melbourne hospital still operating on its original site. ... The Austin Hospital is a major teaching public hospital located in Melbournes north eastern suburb of Heidelberg, and is administrated by Austin Health, along with the Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital and the Royal Talbot Rehabilitation Centre. ... The Epworth Hospital is a leading private hospital in Melbourne. ... St Vincents Hospital, Melbourne is owned and operated by the Sisters of Charity. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... The Burnet Institute is Australias largest communicable diseases research institute. ... Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre is the main Australian centre for cancer treatment and research. ... The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research is one of Australias foremost medical research institutes. ... Australian Synchrotron schema 1. ...


Transport

The centre of public transport in the Melbourne CBD, Flinders Street Station
The centre of public transport in the Melbourne CBD, Flinders Street Station

Melbourne has an integrated public transport system promoted under the Metlink brand. Originally laid out late in the 19th century when trains and trams were the primary methods of travelling to the suburbs, the 1950s saw an increase in private vehicles and freeway construction.[72] This trend has continued with successive governments despite relentless traffic congestion,[73][74] with a resulting drop in public transport modeshare from the 1940s level of around 25 per cent to the current level of around 9 per cent.[75] Melbourne's public transport system was privatised in 1999.[76] A ferry operating on the Yarra River // Public transport Melbourne is served with a robust public transportation network. ... This article is about the area with the postcodes 3000 and 3004 in Victoria, Australia known as Melbourne. ... The Swanston Street Extension frontage of the pre-1910 station Flinders Street Station in 1908 during construction of the current station building Flinders Street Station and the intersection of Flinders and Swanston Streets, 1927 Flinders Street Station is the central railway station of the suburban rail network of Melbourne, Australia. ... Bolte Bridge - Photo by Takver (www. ... Bolte Bridge - Photo by Takver (www. ... The Bolte Bridge is a large twin Cantilever bridge in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Mass transit redirects here. ... This article is about the Melbourne public transport network. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Melbourne's tram network is the largest tram network in the world.[77] Melbourne's is Australia's only tram network to comprise more than a single line. Sections of the tram network are on road, others are separated or light rail routes. Trams are not only a form of transport, but a tourist icon and cultural asset. Visitors are served by a free City Circle Tram, as well as fleet of restaurant trams. The city of Melbourne, the second-largest city in Australia, is home to the third largest tram network in the world, consisting of 245 kilometres of track, 500 trams[1], and 1813 tram stops [2]. Operated by the private company Yarra Trams since privatisation in 1999, Melbournes trams contribute... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... The City Circle is a tram loop running around the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. ... Colonial Tramcar Restaurant in Bourke Street Mall, Melbourne The Colonial Tramcar Restaurant is a restaurant which operates from a converted fleet of three vintage trams in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ...


A mostly-electric train network serves Melbourne with 19 lines, all of them radiating from a loop which circles the Central Business District. Flinders Street Station is Melbourne's busiest railway station. In 1926 it was the world's busiest passenger station. It remains a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place.[78] The city has rail connections with several regional cities in the state, as well as interstate rail services to Sydney and Adelaide, which depart from Melbourne's other major rail terminus, Southern Cross Station. The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... Melbourne, capital city of the State of Victoria, Australia, has a long history of railway development. ... The Swanston Street Extension frontage of the pre-1910 station Flinders Street Station in 1908 during construction of the current station building Flinders Street Station and the intersection of Flinders and Swanston Streets, 1927 Flinders Street Station is the central railway station of the suburban rail network of Melbourne, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Interior of Southern Cross Station at the trailing end of rush hour. ...


There are almost 300 bus routes which mainly service the outer suburbs fill the gaps in the network between rail and light rail services. Autobus redirects here. ...


Melbourne has a high dependency on private cars for transport, with 7.1 per cent of trips made by public transport.[79] However there has been a significant rise in patronage in the last two years mostly due to higher fuel prices.[80][81] Since 2006, public transport patronage has grown by over 20%.[82] The largest number of cars are bought in the outer suburban area, while the inner suburbs with greater access to train and tram services (Met zone 1 and 2) enjoy higher public transport patronage. Melbourne has a total of 3.6 million private vehicles using 22,320 km of road, and one of the highest lengths of road per capita.[79] Major highways feeding into the city include the Eastern Freeway, Monash Freeway and West Gate Freeway (which spans the large Westgate Bridge), whilst other road systems include CityLink and the Western Ring Road, Calder Freeway, Tullamarine Freeway (main airport link) and the Hume Freeway which links Melbourne and Sydney. The Eastern Freeway is one of Melbournes major freeways, connecting Alexandra Parade and Hoddle St in the inner suburbs, with Springvale Road in Melbournes east. ... Monash Freeway is a freeway linking Melbournes CBD to its southeastern suburbs and the Gippsland region. ... West Gate Freeway citybound before the Williamstown Road interchange. ... The West Gate Bridge, Melbourne The West Gate Bridge is a large cable-stayed bridge in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... CityLink is a tolled freeway system in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... Western Ring Road is a freeway in Melbourne connecting the northern suburbs and the western suburbs to interstate freeways. ... Calder Freeway M79 is freeway linking Melbourne to Bendigo. ... Heading through the Sound Tube on the Tullamarine Freeway Tullamarine Freeway is a Melbourne freeway linking the citys international airport to the CBD. History Tullamarine Freeway is one of the oldest freeways in Melbourne. ... The Hume Highway (also known as the Hume Freeway) is one of the most important roads in Australia, linking the countrys two largest cities - Sydney and Melbourne. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port and also its busiest. In 2007, the port handled two million shipping containers in a 12 month period, making it one of the top five ports in the Southern Hemisphere.[83] Station Pier in Port Phillip Bay handles cruise ships and the Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to Tasmania. The Port of Melbourne is Australias largest port for containerised and general cargo. ... Station Pier is a historic pier on Port Phillip Bay, in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... There is also Local Government Area called the City of Port Phillip. ... Legend of the Seas moored at San Diego, California A cruise ship, or less commonly cruise liner, is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the amenities of the ship are considered an essential part of the experience. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Spirit of Tasmania (first ship). ... Map of Australia with Bass Strait marked in light blue Bass Strait (IPA: ) is a sea strait separating Tasmania from the south of the Australian mainland (Victoria in particular). ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product...


Melbourne has four airports. Melbourne International Airport located at Tullamarine is the city's main international and domestic (Qantas, Virgin Blue and Jetstar) gateway. Tullamarine is the headquarters for low cost airlines Jetstar and Tiger Airways Australia. Avalon Airport, located between Melbourne and Geelong, is a secondary hub of Jetstar. It is also used as a freight and maintenance facility. Moorabbin Airport is a significant general aviation airport in the city's south east. Essendon Airport, which was once the city's main airport before the construction of the airport at Tullamarine, handles general aviation and some cargo flights. For other uses, see Melbourne Airport (disambiguation). ... Qantas Airways Limited (IPA: ) is the national airline of Australia. ... Virgin Blue Airlines Pty Ltd is an Australian low-cost airline and Australias second-biggest airline. ... For the aircraft, see Lockheed JetStar. ... For the aircraft, see Lockheed JetStar. ... Tiger Airways Australia Pty Ltd is a low cost airline which intends to commence services in the Australian domestic airline market on 23rd November 2007, subject to regulatory approval. ... Avalon Airport (IATA: AVV, ICAO: YMAV) is an airport located in Avalon, Victoria, Australia. ... - - Nickname: City by the Bay Geography Area: 1,240 km² Coordinates: Time Zone UTC +10:00 Population (2003) 200,067 Among Australian cities: Density: persons/km² Political Mayor: Shane Dowling Governing body: City of Greater Geelong Geelong is a port city of 200,067 people (2003 census) located on Corio... For the aircraft, see Lockheed JetStar. ... Moorabbin (Harry Hawker) Airport is an airport specifically for light aircraft located in the southeastern suburbs of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... A general aviation scene at Kemble Airfield, England. ... Essendon Airport (IATA airport code: MEB) is located at Essendon North, in Melbournes northern suburbs, Victoria, Australia. ...


Utilities

See also: Energy in Victoria

Water storage and supply for Melbourne is managed by Melbourne Water, which is owned by the Victorian Government. The organisation is also responsible for management of sewerage and the major water catchments in the region. Water is mainly stored in the largest dam, the Thomson River Dam which is capable of holding around 60% of Melbourne's water capacity,[84] while smaller dams such as the Upper Yarra Dam and the Cardinia Reservoir carry secondary supplies. The Shrine of Remembrance, located in St Kilda Road, Melbourne, is one of the largest war memorials in Australia. ... The Royal Exhibition Building from the main avenue of the Carlton Gardens The Royal Exhibition Building, viewed from the west The Royal Exhibition Building is located in Melbourne, Australia. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Exhibition space Museum hall The Melbourne Museum is located in the Carlton Gardens in Melbourne, Australia. ... The State of Victoria, Australia uses many forms of energy for domestic, commercial, and industrial uses. ... Melbourne Water is the organisation that controls much of the water system in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia including the citys reservoirs, sewerage and drainage system. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (yellow outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (blue lines) of a contiguous area. ... The Thomson River Dam is located about 130km east of Melbourne in Gippsland near the township of Beardmore and the Baw Baw National Park. ... The Upper Yarra Reservoir is located east of Melbourne, past Warburton. ... Cardinia Reservoir is a 287,000 megalitre water storage located in the south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. ...


Water restrictions are in place and the state government has considered water recycling schemes for the city. In June 2007, the Bracks Government announced a $4.9 billion water plan to secure the future of water supplies in Melbourne, including the construction of a $3.1 billion desalination plant on Victoria's south-east coast, capable of treating 150 billion litres of water per year.[85] Other projects included in this package is a 70 km pipeline from the Goulburn area in Victoria's north to Melbourne and a new water pipeline linking Melbourne and Geelong. These projects will be run and managed by Melbourne Water.[86] Level 5 water restrictions in Goulburn in 2006. ... Recycled water is wastewater that has been recovered for potable or nonpotable use, such as reclaimed water. ... - - Nickname: City by the Bay Geography Area: 1,240 km² Coordinates: Time Zone UTC +10:00 Population (2003) 200,067 Among Australian cities: Density: persons/km² Political Mayor: Shane Dowling Governing body: City of Greater Geelong Geelong is a port city of 200,067 people (2003 census) located on Corio... Melbourne Water is the organisation that controls much of the water system in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia including the citys reservoirs, sewerage and drainage system. ...


Supply of town gas to Melbourne was initially provided by private companies such as the Melbourne Metropolitan Gas Company from the 1850s, with gasworks being scattered throughout the suburbs. The Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria was formed in 1951 to manage gas supply state wide, and to build a centralised gasworks at Morwell. The discovery of natural gas in Bass Strait in the 1960s saw gas supplies converted to the new fuel by the 1970s.[87] The Gas and Fuel Corporation was privatised in the late 1990s. Town gas is a generic term referring to manufactured gas produced for sale to consumers and municipalities. ... The Australian state of Victoria has a number of defunct energy supply and distribution utility companies. ... Gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous materials, such as coal or biomass, into carbon monoxide and hydrogen. ... The Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria was a government-owned monopoly supplier of household gas in Victoria, Australia. ... Morwell () is a large country town in central Gippsland, a region in the east of Victoria. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Map of Australia with Bass Strait marked in light blue Bass Strait (IPA: ) is a sea strait separating Tasmania from the south of the Australian mainland (Victoria in particular). ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ...


The first electricity supplies to Melbourne were also provided by private companies, with a number of small power stations such as those at Spencer Street and Richmond operating. These small operations were merged into the State Electricity Commission of Victoria that was formed in 1921,[88] the SECV also building the first of many brown coal fired power stations at Yallourn in the Latrobe Valley. The responsibilities of the SECV were privatised between 1995 and 1999. Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric company redirects here. ... The Australian state of Victoria has a number of defunct energy supply and distribution utility companies. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... The power station undergoing demolition in 2007 Spencer Street Power Station was a Victorian era coal fired power station which operated on Spencer Street in central Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... The turbine hall following conversion to office space. ... SEC Logo The Electricity Commissioners were established by an act of parliament in 1918 and became the State Electricity Commission (known as the SEC, or SECV) in 1921 . ... Coal Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by mining. ... Yallourn W Power Station at Yallourn is the third largest power station in Victoria, Australia. ... The Latrobe Valley is nestled between the Strzelecki Ranges and the Great Dividing Range in Victoria, Australia. ...


Numerous telecommunications companies operate in Melbourne providing terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services.


Cityscape

Melbourne Docklands - Yarra’s Edge at twilight
Melbourne Docklands - Yarra’s Edge at twilight

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4789x1200, 1461 KB) Summary A panorama of the Melbourne Skyline from Yarras Edge, Docklands at twilight. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4789x1200, 1461 KB) Summary A panorama of the Melbourne Skyline from Yarras Edge, Docklands at twilight. ... The Melbourne Docklands is a new inner city suburb and Urban renewal project in Melbourne, Australia. ...

Sister cities

The City of Melbourne has six sister cities.[89] They are: Boston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ... This article is about a local government area. ... This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ...

Some other local councils in the Melbourne metropolitan area have sister city relationships; see Local Government Areas of Victoria. Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Osaka Castle (ÅŒsaka-jō) Location in Japan Osaka Aquarium (Kaiyukan) Osaka railway station The Osaka Tower (TsÅ«tenkaku) Osaka City   listen? (大阪市; ÅŒsaka-shi) is the third-largest city in Japan, with a population of 2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Boston redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Municipalities of Greater Melbourne City of Banyule City of Bayside City of Boroondara City of Brimbank Shire of Cardinia City of Casey City of Darebin City of Frankston City of Glen Eira City of Greater Dandenong City of Hobsons Bay City of Hume City of Kingston City of Knox City...


See also

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... This is a timeline of major events in the history of the city of Melbourne, Australia. ... The Rialto Towers Melbourne tourism is attractive to large numbers of tourists, particularly young backpackers. ... Melburnian is the term used to describe a resident of Melbourne, Australia. ... This is a list of Municipalities and their suburbs and townships in the greater metropolitan area of Melbourne, in the State of Victoria, Australia. ... This is a list of the Mayors and Lord Mayors of the City of Melbourne Local Government Area, Melbourne, Australia. ... Municipalities of Greater Melbourne City of Banyule City of Bayside City of Boroondara City of Brimbank Shire of Cardinia City of Casey City of Darebin City of Frankston City of Glen Eira City of Greater Dandenong City of Hobsons Bay City of Hume City of Kingston City of Knox City... Melbourne, Victoria, Australia has a lower crime rate than Sydney, and it is a reasonably safe city by world standards. ... One of the unique characteristics of the Music of Australia and most particularly the rock, pop and indie rock music of Australia has been a fascination with the local environment be it urban or rural. ... This is an non-exhaustive list of buildings in Melbourne, Australia and surrounding suburbs listed on the Victorian Heritage Register. ... An example of Gothic Revival, St. ... The Front Cover of the Melway 35th Edition The Melway (also commonly referred to as the Melways) is the most ubiquitous street directory for Melbourne, Australia and its immediate surrounds, including the city of Geelong. ... Hook turn sign, Melbourne A hook turn is a special right-turn manouvre required in parts of Melbourne, Australia. ... The Worlds Most Livable Cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on a reputable annual survey of living conditions. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... The Large Cities Climate Leadership Group is a group of cities committed to the reduction of urban carbon emissions and adapting to climate change. ...

Gallery

Photo Gallery of Melbourne


Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2006-07. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 2008-03-31.
  2. ^ The variant spelling 'Melbournian' is sometimes found but is considered grammatically incorrect. The term 'Melbournite' is also sometimes used. Right Words: A Guide to English Usage in Australia. Stephen Murray-Smith. 2nd ed. Ringwood, Vic. Viking, 1989
  3. ^ Australian Government Culture and Recreation Portal
  4. ^ Beaverstock, J.V.; Smith, R.G.; Taylor, P.J. Research Bulletin 5: A Roster of World Cities. Globalization and World Cities.
  5. ^ a b c d e City of Melbourne - History and heritage - Settlement – foundation and surveying. City of Melbourne. Retrieved on 7 October 2006.
  6. ^ a b The Snowy Mountains Scheme and Multicultural Australia
  7. ^ Linking a Nation: Australia's Transport and Communications 1788 - 1970
  8. ^ When Melbourne was Australia’s capital city
  9. ^ James Button Secrets of a forgotten settlement The Age, 4 October 2003
  10. ^ Melbourne the city's history and development, 2nd ed pg 25, Miles Lewis, 1995
  11. ^ Robert B. Cervero, The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry, 1998, Island Press, ISBN 1559635916, p.320
  12. ^ Elias, David Tell Melbourne it's over, we won Sydney Morning Herald, December 31, 2003
  13. ^ Marino, Melissa; Colebatch, Tim Melbourne's population booms The Age, March 24, 2005 accessed November 7, 2006
  14. ^ [1] accessed November 10, 2007
  15. ^ Suzy Freeman-Greene, Melbourne's love affair with lanes , The Age, August 10, 2005, accessed September 21, 2007
  16. ^ Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 4, 439–473, 2007, 'Updated world map of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification system' accessed March 10, 2007
  17. ^ Welcome to Melbourne - Introduction, City of Melbourne
  18. ^ Waldon, Steve and Medew, Julia, 'Snow misses CBD lunch appointment' article from The Age dated August 10, 2005, accessed November 7, 2006
  19. ^ Snow falls in Melbourne Sydney Morning Herald, August 10, 2005 accessed online November 7, 2006
  20. ^ Rain hits the target from the Herald Sun
  21. ^ Waldon and Medew, loc. cit.
  22. ^ Record heat and stupidity as Melbourne swelters, The Age, January 25 2003
  23. ^ Climate statistics for Australian locations (English). Retrieved on Sept 5, 2007.
  24. ^ http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23463520-2862,00.html
  25. ^ Melbourne Storm: "The Beginning"
  26. ^ The Age: "Melbourne 'world's top city'" - February 6, 2004
  27. ^ Melbourne and Vancouver are the world’s best cities to live in Economist Intelligence Unit (2002).
  28. ^ Vancouver Melbourne and Vienna named world's most liveable cities Economist Intelligence Unit (2005)
  29. ^ 4th Annual Demographia International Affordability Survey: 2008 http://www.demographia.com/dhi.pdf (2008)
  30. ^ Business Victoria
  31. ^ Port Of Melbourne Sets Shipping Record
  32. ^ Growth of Australia's largest port essential, The Age, December 18, 2004
  33. ^ Industry Snapshot from Multimedia Victoria
  34. ^ Funds Management Fact Sheet
  35. ^ BHP chief spruiks up bid to take over Rio Tinto, The Age, November 13, 2007
  36. ^ Melbourne Airport Passenger Figures Strongest on Record
  37. ^ BRW 1000
  38. ^ http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/en/wcoc/pdf/index_2007_us.pdf
  39. ^ MCG Redevelopment completed, MCG, February 17, 2006
  40. ^ Councillors furious about convention centre deal, The Age, May 1, 2006
  41. ^ 2006 Census Tables : Country of Birth of Person by Year of Arrival in Australia - Melbourne. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 2008-04-16.
  42. ^ Victiorian Cultural Diversity Week
  43. ^ VicNet - Strategy for Aboriginal Managed Land in Victoria: Draft Report [Part 1-Section 2
  44. ^ ~ GOLD ~. Special Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 8 October 2006.
  45. ^ Jamie Walker and Natasha Robinson Population pushing Melbourne to top The Australian 12 November 2007
  46. ^ The streets of our town from theage.com.au
  47. ^ Melbourne Metropolitan Planning Scheme 1954, p. 23
  48. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics 1961
  49. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics 1971
  50. ^ Social Atlas, 1981
  51. ^ Soc. Atlas/"Supermap" Census Data, 1986
  52. ^ Social Atlas/Supermap, 1991
  53. ^ Department of Infrastructure, 1998
  54. ^ Melbourne Urbanized Area: Statistical Local Areas by Population Density: 1999
  55. ^ http://www.vcec.vic.gov.au/CA256EAF001C7B21/WebObj/MelbourneSD/$File/Melbourne%20SD.pdf
  56. ^ Holocaust Remembrance in Australian Jewish Communities Judith Berman
  57. ^ The Kadimah & Yiddish Melbourne in the 20th Century. Jewish Cultural Centre and National Library: "Kadima".
  58. ^ Article by John O'Leary. Monash University Press
  59. ^ Population pushing Melbourne to top | The Australian
  60. ^ Dunstan, David The evolution of 'Clown Hall', The Age, November 12, 2004, accessed online November 7, 2006
  61. ^ World Mayor - The Results of World Mayor 2006
  62. ^ Local Government Act 1989
  63. ^ Department of Education and Early Childhood Development - About the Department
  64. ^ Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority - Functions of the VCAA
  65. ^ Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority - About Us
  66. ^ Schools inequality calls for bold reform, The Age, October 17, 2003
  67. ^ How Much Do Public Schools Really Cost? Estimating the Relationship Between House Prices and School Quality, ANU, 6 August 2006
  68. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics - Schools, 2005
  69. ^ "ANU up there with the best", Sydney Morning Herald, 6 October 2005. Retrieved on 12 October. 
  70. ^ University of Melbourne's international student offers rise - as its demand leaps
  71. ^ Melbourne public hospitals and Metropolitan Health Services Victorian Department of Health
  72. ^ The cars that ate Melbourne article from the Age
  73. ^ Bid to end traffic chaos
  74. ^ Melbourne's traffic on the move? article from the ABC
  75. ^ Trial by public transport: why the system is failing article from The Age
  76. ^ $1.2bn sting in the rail from theage.com.au
  77. ^ DoI (2008). [2]. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
  78. ^ Melbourne and scenes in Victoria 1925-1926 from Victorian Government Railways From the National Library of Australia
  79. ^ a b Most Liveable and Best Connected? The Economic Benefits of Investing in Public Transport in Melbourne, by Jan Scheurer, Jeff Kenworthy, and Peter Newman
  80. ^ 2006 figures showed 12 per cent commute using public transport.
  81. ^ Still Addicted to Cars from heraldsun.com.au
  82. ^ Public transport makes inroads, but not beyond the fringe from theage.com.au January 14, 2008
  83. ^ Port Of Melbourne Sets Shipping Record
  84. ^ Melbourne Water
  85. ^ Desal plant to be public-private deal, The Age, September 20, 2007
  86. ^ Seawater Desalination Plant Announced, Melbourne Water
  87. ^ Energy Safe Victoria: Natural Gas in Victoria
  88. ^ [State Electricity Commission Act 1920 (No.3104)]
  89. ^ City of Melbourne - International relations - Sister cities. City of Melbourne. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.

Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian is a national daily broadsheet newspaper published by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter William Geoffrey Newman, born in Perth, Western Australia, August 20th, 1945. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Tourism

  • Visitvictoria.com - The official travel and accommodation site for Melbourne Victoria Australia
  • That's Melbourne - The official City of Melbourne guide to what's on in the City!
  • Melbourne travel guide from Wikitravel
  • City of Melbourne official site

Maps Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

  • WikiSatellite view of Melbourne at WikiMapia
  • Google Satellite Images
  • Zoom Map from TerraPages
  • Street-Directory.com.au - includes online version of the Melway Melbourne street directory.

Public transport The Front Cover of the Melway 35th Edition The Melway (also commonly referred to as the Melways) is the most ubiquitous street directory for Melbourne, Australia and its immediate surrounds, including the city of Geelong. ...

  • Metlink - official public transport web site

Photos

  • Melbourne Photos - a comprehensive collection of photos including panoramas, historical comparison shots and various specific city locations and local events.

Coordinates: 37°48′49″S, 144°57′47″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
City of Melbourne - Home - Home Page (178 words)
The Melbourne Business Festival is on again this October, offering a jam-packed program of events for small-to-medium businesses in the city.
City West Water and South East Water together with the City of Melbourne are delivering the Showerhead Exchange Program across the municipality.
Melbourne Library Services: Game on - feedback form
Melbourne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5449 words)
Melbourne is typical of Australian capital cities in that it was built with the underlying notion of a "quarter acre home and garden" for every family, often referred to locally as the Australian Dream.
Melbourne's overwhelming dominance of the state of Victoria's population and economy means the Victorian state government is also effectively the city government of greater Melbourne.
A panorama of the Melbourne skyline from the Melbourne Docklands.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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