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Encyclopedia > Melatonin
Melatonin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]
ethanamide
Identifiers
CAS number 73-31-4
ATC code N05CM17
PubChem 896
DrugBank APRD00742
Chemical data
Formula C13H16N2O2 
Mol. mass 232.278 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 30 – 50%
Metabolism Hepatic via CYP1A2 mediated 6-hydroxylation
Half life 35 to 50 minutes
Excretion Urine
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? Image File history File links Melatonin2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixelsFull resolution (936 × 641 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

POM(UK) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ...

Routes  ?

Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Acetyl is the radical of acetic acid. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Diurnal may mean: in biology, a diurnal animal is an animal that is active in the daytime. ...


Many biological effects of melatonin are produced through activation of melatonin receptors,[2] while others are due to its role as a pervasive and extremely powerful antioxidant[3] with a particular role in the protection of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.[4] A melatonin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds melatonin. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Nuclear DNA is DNA contained within a nucleus of eukaryotic organisms. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ...


Melatonin was released into the general health supplement market in the United States in 1993, and met with good consumer acceptance and enthusiasm.[5] However, it was banned for over-the-counter sales in many other countries, including the members of the European Union, Australia, and New Zealand.[6] A dietary supplement (also known as food supplement) is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ...

Contents

Production

In higher animals, melatonin is produced by pinealocytes in the pineal gland (located in the brain) and also by the retina, lens and GI tract. It is naturally synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan (via synthesis of serotonin) by the enzyme 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. Pinealocytes are the main cells of the pineal gland. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Tryptophan is an essential amino acid involved in human nutrition. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase is a gene involved in the conversion of serotonin to melatonin in pinealocytes. ...


Production of melatonin by the pineal gland is under the influence of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus which receives information from the retina about the daily pattern of light and darkness. This pattern that entrains both the SCN rhythmicity and melatonin production occurs through recently defined pathways of non visual light detection. Light reaches the SCN through a subpopulation of inner retinal ganglion cells (intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells which are photoreceptor cells distinct from those involved in the visual system). These cells represent approximately 2% of retinal ganglion cells and express the non-visual photopigment melanopsin (1). The sensitivity of melanopsin fits with that of a vitamin A-based photopigment with a peak sensitivity at 484 nm (blue) (2). This photoperiod cue entrains the circadian rhythm and the resultant production of specific “dark” and “ light” induced neural and endocrine signals regulates behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms ).[7] The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus situated immediately above the optic chiasm, on either side of the third ventricle. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... A ganglion cell (or sometimes called a gangliocyte) is a type of neuron located in the retina that receives visual information from photoreceptors via various intermediate cells such as bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and horizontal cells. ... A photoreceptor, or photoreceptor cell, is a specialized type of neuron found in the eyes retina that is capable of phototransduction. ...


However, melatonin may be produced by a variety of peripheral cells such as bone marrow cells (3,4), lymphocytes and epithelial cells. Usually, the melatonin concentration in these cells is much higher than that found in the blood but it does not seem to be regulated by the photoperiod.[8] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ...


Melatonin is also synthesized by various plants, such as rice, and ingested melatonin has been shown to be capable of reaching and binding to melatonin binding sites in the brains of mammals.[9][10] For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... A binding site is a region on a protein to which specific ligands bind. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex...


Distribution

Melatonin produced in the pineal gland acts as an endocrine hormone since it is released into the blood. By contrast, melatonin produced by the retina and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract acts as a paracrine hormone. The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ...


Roles

Biological clock

See also: Phase response curve

In humans, melatonin is produced by the pineal gland, a gland about the size of a pea, that is located in the center of the brain, on the dorsal surface of diencephalon. The melatonin signal forms part of the system that regulates the circadian cycle by chemically causing drowsiness to fall upon the mind, but it is the Central nervous system that controls the daily cycle in most components of the paracrine and endocrine systems[11][12] rather than the melatonin signal (as was once postulated). Phase response curve (PRC) illustrates the relationship between the timing of administration of a sleep phase affecting drug or treatment, and the effect on the sleep phase (a/k/a sleep timing). ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ... A circadian rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the physiological processes of living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Paracrine signalling is a form of signalling in which the target cell is close to the signal releasing cell, and the signal chemical is broken down too quickly to be carried to other parts of the body. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ...


Normally, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is inhibited by light and permitted by darkness. For this reason melatonin has been called "the hormone of darkness". The secretion of melatonin peaks in the middle of the night, and gradually falls during the second half of the night. Until recent history, humans in temperate climates were exposed to up to 18 hours of darkness in the winter. In this modern world, artificial lighting reduces this to typically eight hours or less per day all year round. Even low light levels inhibit melatonin production to some extent, but over-illumination can create significant reduction in melatonin production. Reduced melatonin production has been proposed as a likely factor in the significantly higher cancer rates in night workers,[13] and the effect of modern lighting practice on endogenous melatonin has been proposed as a contributory factor to the larger overall incidence of some cancers in the developed world.[14] As inadequate as blood concentrations may be in brightly lit environments, some scientists now believe that a person's overnight output of melatonin can be further jeopardized each time he or she interrupts his or her sleep and turns on a bright light (suggesting that using a less-bright nightlight would be safer). Others suggest that such short exposures do no harm.[15] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Darkness is the absence of light. ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Coleman lantern style nightlight A nightlight is a small, usually electrical, light source placed for comfort or convenience in indoor dark areas or areas that become dark at certain times. ...


Antioxidant

Although the primary site of melatonin's action in humans is the melatonin receptors, its most basic biological function is as an antioxidant. In many lower life forms, it serves only this purpose.[16]


Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that can easily cross cell membranes and the blood-brain barrier.[3] Unlike other antioxidants, melatonin does not undergo redox cycling, the ability of a molecule to undergo reduction and oxidation repeatedly. Redox cycling may allow other antioxidants (such as vitamin C) to act as pro-oxidants, counterintuitively promoting free radical formation. Melatonin, once oxidized, cannot be reduced to its former state because it forms several stable end-products upon reacting with free radicals. Therefore, it has been referred to as a terminal (or suicidal) antioxidant.[17] Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... Redox Cycling Warning:needs verification and may need more information Redox cycling involves the use of flavoenzymes that use NAD(P)H as an electron source and these enzymes facilitate the mediation of electrons to the quinone of the anticancer agent. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Pro-oxidants are chemicals that induce oxidative stress, either through creating reactive oxygen species or inhibiting antioxidant systems. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ...


Recent research indicates that the beginning of the melatonin antioxidant pathway may be N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine or AFMK rather than the common, excreted 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate. AFMK alone is detectable in unicellular organisms and metazoans. A single AFMK molecule can neuralize up to 10 ROS/RNS since many of the products of the reaction/derivatives (including melatonin) are themselves antioxidants, and so on. This capacity to absorb free radicals extends at least to the quaternary metabolites of melatonin, a process referred to as "the free radical scavenging cascade". This is not true of other, conventional antioxidants.[16] Animalia redirects here. ...


In animal models, melatonin has been demonstrated to prevent the damage to DNA by some carcinogens, stopping the mechanism by which they cause cancer.[18] In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ...


The antioxidant activity of melatonin may reduce damage caused by some types of Parkinson's disease, may play a role in preventing cardiac arrhythmia and may increase longevity; it has been shown to increase the average life span of mice by 20% in some studies.[19][20][21] A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... Longevity is a term that generally refers to long life or great duration of life.[1] Reflections on longevity have usually gone beyond acknowledging the basic shortness of human life and have included thinking about methods to extend life. ... Life expectancy is the average number of years remaining for a living being (or the average for a class of living beings) of a given age to live. ... This article is about the animal. ...


Immune system

While it is clear that melatonin interacts with the immune system,[22][23] the details of those interactions are unclear. There have been few trials designed to judge the effectiveness of melatonin in disease treatment. Most existing data are based on small, incomplete, clinical trials. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


In general , melatonin acts on the immune system via high affinity receptors (MT1 and MT2) expressed in immunocompetent cells. In preclinical studies, melatonin may enhance cytokine production and by doing this counteract secondary immunodeficiences. Some studies also suggest that melatonin might be useful to fight infectious disease including viral and bacterial infections. Endogenous melatonin in human lymphocytes has been related to interleukin-2(IL-2)production and to the expression of IL-2 receptor. This suggests that melatonin is involved in the clonal expansion of antigen-stimulated human T lymphocytes. When taken in conjunction with calcium, it is an immunostimulator and is used as an adjuvant in some clinical protocols; conversely, the increased immune system activity may aggravate autoimmune disorders. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, melatonin production has been found increased when compared to age-matched healthy controls. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of biological response modifier, a substance that can improve the bodys natural response to disease. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Immunostimulators are the drugs which stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. ... In medicine, adjuvants are agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ...


Dreaming

Many supplemental melatonin users have reported an increase in the vividness or frequency of dreams. High doses of melatonin (50mg) dramatically increased REM sleep time and dream activity in both narcoleptics and those without narcolepsy.[24] Rapid eye movement (REM) is the stage of sleep during which the most vivid (though not all) dreams occur. ... Narcolepsy is a neurological condition characterized by severe fatigue, irresistible episodes of sleep and general sleep disorder. ...


Many psychoactive drugs, such as LSD and cocaine, increase melatonin synthesis.[24] It has been suggested that nonpolar (lipid-soluble) indolic hallucinogenic drugs emulate melatonin activity in the awakened state and that both act on the same areas of the brain.[24] An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Some common lipids. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ...


In a 2005 editorial of the British Journal of Psychiatry, Ben Sessa suggested that psychotropic drugs be readmitted in the field of scientific enquiry and therapy.[25] Melatonin, being two endogenous hallucinogenic indoles like N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is likely to be research priorities in this reemerging field of psychiatry.[26] Dimethyltryptamine, also known as DMT or N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a short-acting psychedelic hallucinogenic drug. ...


Use as medicinal supplement

Melatonin appears to have some use against circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as jet lag and delayed sleep phase syndrome. It has been studied for the treatment of cancer, immune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, depression, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and sexual dysfunction. A study by Alfred J. Lewy and other researchers at Oregon Health & Science University found that it may ameliorate SAD and circadian misalignment,[27] but as of 2006 it is known to affect the timing of endogenous melatonin production, raising the risk that it can exacerbate both clinical depression and SAD.[28] Basic research indicates that melatonin may play a significant role in modulating the effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine.[29] Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a family of sleep disorders affecting the timing of sleep. ... Jet lag (or jet-lag) is a physical condition caused by crossing multiple time zones during flight. ... Delayed sleep-phase syndrome (DSPS) is a chronic disorder of sleep timing. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, also known as winter depression or winter blues is an affective, or mood, disorder. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... Alfred J. Lewy, M.D., Ph. ... Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) is a public university in Oregon with a main campus, including three hospitals, in Portland and a smaller campus in Hillsboro. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...


Proposed medical indications

Preventing ischemic damage

Melatonin has been shown to reduce tissue damage in rats due to ischemia in both the brain[30] and the heart;[31] however, this has not been tested in humans. In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ...


Sleep aid

Melatonin is used as an adjunct to sleep in children, for certain diagnostic tests.[32] For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ... Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ...


Learning, memory and Alzheimer's

Melatonin receptors appear to be important in mechanisms of learning and memory in mice,[33] and melatonin can alter electrophysiological processes associated with memory, such as long-term potentiation (LTP). Melatonin has been shown to prevent the hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein in rats. Hyperphosphorylation of tau protein can result in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, a pathological feature seen in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, melatonin may be effective for treating Alzheimer's Disease.[34] These same neurofibrillary tangles can be found in the hypothalamus in patients with Alzheimer's, adversely affecting their body's production of melatonin. Those Alzheimer's patients with this specific affliction often show heightened afternoon agitation, called sundowning, which has been shown in many studies to be effectively treated with melatonin supplements in the evening.[35] Long-term potentiation is the persistent increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation of a synapse. ... Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. ... Tau proteins are normal proteins found within the brain. ... Neurofibrillary tangles are pathological protein aggregates found within neurons in cases of Alzheimers disease. ...


ADHD

ADHD is most commonly treated with methylphenidate which may cause insomnia in approximately 94% of its users.[citation needed] Research shows that after melatonin is administered to the patients, the time needed to fall asleep is significantly reduced. Before the melatonin was administered, the time needed to fall asleep ranged from 15 minutes to 240 minutes. After the melatonin was administered, the time needed to fall asleep ranged from 15 minutes to 64 minutes. Furthermore, the effects of the melatonin after three months showed no change from its effects after one week of use.[36] DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Vitamin R redirects here. ...


Fertility

Recent research has concluded that melatonin supplementation in perimenopausal women produces a highly significant improvement in thyroid function and gonadotropin levels, as well as restoring fertility and menstruation and preventing the depression associated with the menopause.[37] Menopause is the physiological cessation of menstrual cycles associated with advancing age in women. ... Gonadotropins are protein hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the pituitary gland of vertebrates. ...


Some resources warn women trying to conceive not to take a melatonin supplement.[38]


Headaches

Several clinical studies indicate that supplementation with melatonin is an effective preventative treatment for migraines and cluster headaches.[39][40] A 1930 Soviet poster propagating breast care. ... Cluster headaches are rare, extremely painful and debilitating headaches that occur in groups or clusters. ...


Depression

Melatonin has been shown to be effective in treating one form of depression, seasonal affective disorder. [1] Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, also known as winter depression or winter blues is an affective, or mood, disorder. ...


Other

Some studies have shown that melatonin has potential for use in the treatment of various forms of cancer, HIV, and other viral diseases; however, further testing is necessary to confirm this.[41] Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Histologically speaking, it is also believed that melatonin has some effects for sexual growth in higher organisms. (*Quoted from Ross Histology and Wheather's Functional Histology.)


Use as a dietary supplement

The primary motivation for the use of melatonin as a supplement is as a natural aid to better sleep, with other incidental benefits to health and well-being due to its role as an antioxidant and its stimulation of the immune system and several components of the endocrine system. The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... Major endocrine glands. ...


Studies from Massachusetts Institute of Technology say that melatonin pills sold as supplements contain three to ten times the amount needed to produce the desirable physiologic nocturnal blood melatonin level for enhancement of nighttime rest. Dosages are designed to raise melatonin levels for several hours to enhance quality of sleep, but some studies suggest that smaller doses are just as effective at improving sleep quality.[42] High dose melatonin can even be counterproductive: Lewy & al[43] provide support to the "idea that too much melatonin may spill over onto the wrong zone of the melatonin phase-response curve." In their study, 0.5 mg of melatonin was effective while 20 mg wasn't. A practical implication of these results is that effective melatonin supplementation (for sleep problems) thus becomes very accessible: it costs a fraction of what most researchers thought it might cost. Melatonin supplementation for sleep problems is available without prescription in most cases in the United States and Canada, while it is available only by prescription or not at all in some other countries. Melatonin supplements are available as oral supplements and transdermal melatonin or "melatonin sleep patch". “MIT” redirects here. ...


Melatonin is involved in the regulation of body weight, and may be helpful in treating obesity (especially when combined with calcium).[44]


Safety of supplementation

Melatonin is practically nontoxic and exhibits almost no short-term side effects. However, melatonin derived from animal sources may be contaminated with viral material; synthetic melatonin may be taken to avoid this risk.[45] No studies have been conducted yet to determine whether there are any long-term side effects. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...


Even though it is seen as a relatively safe, benign drug, especially to herbal enthusiasts, it can cause some unwanted side effects, especially at high doses. Ingesting melatonin supplements can cause hormone fluctuations,[2] irritability,[3] reduced blood flow (see below), and increased sleep disturbances, including vivid nightmares.[4]


Melatonin taken in combination with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) can lead to overdose because MAOIs inhibit the breakdown of melatonin by the body. Exogenous melatonin normally does not affect the endogenous melatonin profile in the short or medium-term, merely advancing the phase of endogenous melatonin production in time if taken at an appropriate time of day. MAOI redirects here. ... A drug overdose occurs when a chemical substance (i. ... Exogenous (or exogeneous) (from the Greek words exo and gen, meaning outside and production) refers to an action or object coming from outside a system. ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In individuals with auto-immune disorders, there is concern that melatonin supplementation may exacerbate symptoms due to stimulation of the immune system.[46] ...


Melatonin causes somnolence, and therefore should not be taken within five hours[citation needed] before driving, operating machinery, etc. As melatonin is almost always taken at the end of the waking day, this is generally not an issue. Somnolence (or drowsiness) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods. ...


Individuals who experience orthostatic intolerance, a cardiovascular condition that results in reduced blood pressure and blood flow to the brain when a person stands, may experience a worsening of symptoms when taking melatonin supplements, a study at Penn State College of Medicine's Milton S. Hershey Medical Center suggests. Melatonin can exacerbate the symptoms by reducing nerve activity in those who experience the condition, the study found.[47] Orthostatic intolerance is the failure of the body to properly adjust to an upright position, especially with respect to blood flow, heart rate, and blood pressure. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Blood flow is the flow of blood in the cardiovascular system. ... The sprawling complex of the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center from above. ...


Role in zoology

Many animals use the variation in duration and quantity of melatonin production in each day as a seasonal clock.[48] In seasonal breeders which do not have long gestation periods, and which mate during longer daylight hours, the melatonin signal controls the seasonal variation in their sexual physiology, and similar physiological effects can be induced by exogenous melatonin in animals including mynah birds[49] and hamsters.[50] Melatonin can suppress libido by inhibiting secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary gland, especially in mammals that have a breeding season when daylight hours are long. The reproduction of long-day breeders is repressed by melatonin and the reproduction of short-day breeders is stimulated by melatonin. For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ... The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ... The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ...


Melatonin is also related to the mechanism by which some amphibians and reptiles change the color of their skin.[51][52] For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ...


In popular culture

Radiohead are an English rock band. ... In recorded music, the terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 7 inch vinyl records on which singles have been released since the 1950s. ... Airbag/How Am I Driving? is an EP by Radiohead, released in 1998 specifically to the North American market, but is currently out of print. ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... Book cover Pattern Recognition (G. P. Putnams Sons 2003, ISBN 0-425-19293-8) is William Gibsons eighth novel, the first to be set in the contemporary world. ... Silver Lake, Los Angeles, California. ... Silversun Pickups (also simply known as sspu) is an American indie rock band from Los Angeles, California, signed to Dangerbird Records, and headed by Brian Aubert. ... Carnavas is Silversun Pickupss first full-length studio album. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Smoke or Fire is punk band from Richmond, Virginia, USA. Clearly influenced by predecessors like Hot Water Music and Avail, these young upstarts also blend in some additional elements of Americana with their hints of The Replacements and Bruce Springsteen. ...

See also

A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ...

References

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The Life Extension Foundation is a membership organization that informs people about the latest advances in the life extension sciences, sells dietary supplements, and funds life extension research by offering grants to scientists in universities and by supporting startup biotech companies. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cerebral ischemia is an ischemic condition where the brain or parts of the brain do not receive enough blood flow to maintain normal neurological function. ... The double blind is ray charles is ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesof the scientific method, used to prevent research... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Melatonin (4117 words)
Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in the brain that helps regulate other hormones and maintains the body's circadian rhythm.
Since melatonin levels may be lower in some older individuals such as postmenopausal women, current studies are investigating whether decreased melatonin levels contribute to the development of osteoporosis, and whether treatment with melatonin can help prevent this condition.
Melatonin disturbances in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Melatonin (2475 words)
Melatonin is the principal hormone of the vertebrate pineal gland, and it is also produced by extra-pineal tissues in amphibians.
Melatonin is synthesized endogenously by the pinealocytes of the pineal gland.
The bioavailability of oral melatonin is increased by coadministration of fluvoxamine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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