FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Melamine" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Melamine
Melamine[1]
IUPAC name 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triamine
Other names Cyanurotriamide
Cyanurotriamine
Cyanuramide
Identifiers
CAS number [108-78-1]
PubChem 7955
SMILES Nc1nc(N)nc(N)n1
Properties
Molecular formula C3H6N6
Molar mass 126.12 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Density 1574 kg/m3
Melting point

250 °C, 523 K, 482 °F Image File history File links Melamine. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

Sublimes The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ...

Solubility in water 3.1g/l (20°C)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references
This article is about the chemical substance called melamine. The term "melamine" is also used to describe melamine resin, a plastic material made from melamine by polymerization.

Melamine is an organic base with the chemical formula C3H6N6, with the IUPAC name 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine. It is only slightly soluble in water. Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... Melamin resin or melamine formaldehyde (also incorrectly, melamine) is a plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...


Melamine is a trimer of cyanamide. Like cyanamide, it is 66% nitrogen (by mass) and provides fire retardant properties to resin formulas by releasing nitrogen when burned or charred. Dicyandiamide (or cyanoguanidine), the dimer of cyanamide, is also used as a fire retardant. In chemistry a trimer is a reaction product of three identical molecules. ... Cyanamide (CN2H2) is an amide of cyanogen, a white, crystalline compound. ... Cyanamide (CN2H2) is an amide of cyanogen, a white, crystalline compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... A fire retardant is a substance that helps to delay or prevent combustion. ... Cyanamide (CN2H2) is an amide of cyanogen, a white, crystalline compound. ...


Melamine is a metabolite of cyromazine, a pesticide. It is formed in the body of mammals who have ingested cyromazine.[2] It was also reported that cyromazine is converted to melamine in plants.[3][4] A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... Cyromazine is a triazine insect growth regulator used as an insecticide and an acaricide. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ...

Contents

Synthesis

Melamine was first synthesized by Liebig in 1834. In early production, first calcium cyanamide is converted into dicyandiamide, then heated above its melting temperature to produce melamine. However, today most industrial manufacturers use urea in the following reaction to produce melamine Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany – April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... CaCN2 Calcium compound. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ...

6 (NH2)2CO → C3H6N6 + 6 NH3 + 3 CO2

It can be understood as two steps. First, urea decomposes into cyanic acid in an endothermic reaction (NH2)2CO → HCNO + NH3. Then cyanic acid polymerizes to form melamine and carbon dioxide: 6 HCNO → C3H6N6 + 3 CO2. The second reaction is exothermic and the overall process is endothermic. Cyanic acid is a colourless poisonous liquid with a boiling point of 23. ... In Chemistry an endothermic reaction is one in which the reactants have less energy than the products, and thus a net input of energy, usually in the form of heat, is required. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ...


The above reaction can be carried out by either of two methods:catalyzed gas-phase production or high pressure liquid-phase production. In one method, molten urea is introduced onto a fluidized bed with catalyst for reaction. Hot ammonia gas is also present to fluidize the bed and inhibit deammonization. The effluent then is cooled. Ammonia and carbon dioxide in the off-gas are separated from the melamine-containing slurry. The slurry is further concentrated and crystallized to yield melamine.[5] Major manufacturers such as DSM and BASF have developed some proprietary methods. In chemistry and biology, catalysis is the acceleration (increase in rate) of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself not consumed by the overall reaction. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... High pressure science and engineering is studying the effects of high pressure on materials and the design and construction of devices, such as a diamond anvil cell, which can create high pressure. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... A fluidized bed is formed when a quantity of a solid particulate substance (usually retained in a holding tank) is forced to behave as a fluid; usually by the forced introduction of pressurised gas through the particulate medium. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... DSM (in full Koninklijke DSM N.V., or Royal DSM N.V.) is a multinational chemicals company. ... BASF may also historically refer to EMTEC, which was known as BASF for a short time after its founding. ...


The off-gas contains large amounts of ammonia. Therefore melamine production is often integrated into urea production which uses ammonia as feedstock.


Crystallization and washing of melamine generates a considerable amount of waste water, which is a pollutant if discharged directly into the environment. The waste water may be concentrated into a solid (1.5-5% of the weight) for easier disposal. The solid may contain approximately 70% melamine, 23% oxytriazines (ammeline, ammelide and cyanuric acid), 0.7% polycondensates (melem, melam and melon). [6] Ammeline (4,6-Diamino-2-Hydroxy-1,3,5-Triazine) is a triazine. ... Ammelide (6-Amino-2,4-Dihydroxy-l,3,5-Triazine) is a triazine and the hydrolysis product of ammeline. ... Cyanuric acid or 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triol is an organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H3N3O3. ... Tri-s-triazines or heptazines are chemical compounds that consist of a triangular core group, C6N7 or three fused triazine rings. ... Melam (N2-(4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-Triamine) is a condensation product of melamine. ... Tri-s-triazines or heptazines are chemical compounds that consist of a triangular core group, C6N7 or three fused triazine rings. ...


Uses

Melamine is used combined with formaldehyde to produce melamine resin, a very durable thermosetting plastic, and of melamine foam, a polymeric cleaning product. The end products include countertops, fabrics, glues and flame retardants. Melamine is one of the major components in Pigment Yellow 150, a colorant in inks and plastics. The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ... Melamin resin or melamine formaldehyde (also incorrectly, melamine) is a plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization. ... Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) are polymer materials that cure, through the addition of energy, to a stronger form. ... The microfine structure of melamine foam, creating very hard, tiny fibres which scour some surfaces clean. ... A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Look up glue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Melamine is also used to make fertilizers.


Melamine derivatives of arsenical drugs are potentially important in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis [7] ... Trypanosomiasis is the name of the diseases caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus trypanosoma in vertebrates. ...


Melamine use as non-protein nitrogen (NPN) for cattle was described in a 1958 patent.[8] In 1978, however, a study concluded that melamine "may not be an acceptable nonprotein N source for ruminants",because its hydrolysis in cattle is slower and less complete than other nitrogen sources such as cottonseed meal and urea.[9] The Chinese protein export scandal was first identified after the wide recall of many brands of cat and dog food starting in March 2007. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... Cottonseed meal is the byproduct remaining after cotton is ginned and the seeds crushed and the oil extracted. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ...


Regulation

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides a test method for analyzing cyromazine and melamine in animal tissues in its Chemistry Laboratory Guidebook which "contains test methods used by FSIS Laboratories to support the Agency's inspection program, ensuring that meat, poultry, and egg products are safe, wholesome and accurately labeled."[10][11] In 1999, in a proposed rule published in the Federal Register regarding cyromazine residue, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed "remov[ing] melamine, a metabolite of cyromazine from the tolerance expression since it is no longer considered a residue of concern."[12] The United States Food Safety and Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat, poultry, and processed egg products in the United States are safe to consume and accurately labeled. ... The United States Department of Agriculture (also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA) is a United States Federal Executive Department (or Cabinet Department). ... Cyromazine is a triazine insect growth regulator used as an insecticide and an acaricide. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ... EPA redirects here. ...


Toxicity

Little is known with respect to melamine toxicity in human subjects. Animal studies have shown that melamine is not metabolized in rats, and is excreted unchanged.[13]


Acute toxicity

Melamine is reported to have an oral LD50 of >3000 mg/kg based on rat data, which makes it only minimally toxic (table salt has a similar LD50 value). It is also an irritant when inhaled or in contact with the skin or eyes. The reported dermal LD50 is >1000mg/kg for rabbits.[14] In a 1945 study, large doses of melamine were given orally to rats, rabbits and dogs with "no significant toxic effects" observed. [15] An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... MG may refer to: Mel Gibson, actor Match Game, U.S 1970s Game Show Champion Air IATA airline designator Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease MG (car), British automobile manufacturer, now part of Chinas Nanjing Automobile Group mg (editor), Emacs-compatible Unix text editor Machine gun Madagascar (ISO 3166-1... KG, Kg or kg may indicate: A Kampfgeschwader, a bomber squadron of the former German Luftwaffe Basketball Player Kevin Garnett An abbreviation for kilogram (always kg) Knight of the Garter, a British decoration Kommanditgesellschaft, German version of a limited partnership Kongo language (ISO 639 alpha-2) An abbreviation for konig... Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


There does not seem to be any reported human case of acute intoxication directly caused by melamine.


A study by USSR researchers in the 1980s suggested melamine cyanurate (a salt formed between melamine and cyanuric acid, commonly used as a fire retardant[16]) could be more toxic than either melamine or cyanuric acid alone.[17] For rats and mice, the reported LD50 for melamine cyanurate was 4.1g/kg (given inside the stomach) and 3.5g/kg (via inhalation), compared to 6.0 and 4.3 g/kg for melamine and 7.7 and 3.4 g/kg for cyanuric acid, respectively. Cyanuric acid or 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triol is an organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H3N3O3. ...


Chronic toxicity

Ingestion of melamine may lead to reproductive damage, or bladder or kidney stones, which can lead to bladder cancer.[18][14][19][20][21] For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... A bladder is a pouch or other flexible enclosure with waterproof or gasproof walls. ... Kidney stones, or Renal calculi, are solid concretions (crystal aggregations) of dissolved minerals in urine; calculi typically form inside the kidneys or ureters. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


A study in 1953 reported that dogs fed 3% melamine for a year had the following changes in their urine: (1) reduced specific gravity, (2) increased output, (3) melamine crystalluria, and (4) protein and occult blood.[22] 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Crystalluria refers to crystals found in the urine when performing a urine test. ...


2007 pet food crisis

This section is related to a current event.
For the main article on the event, see 2007 pet food crisis.

Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.

Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Highlights The so-called iTunes Law, which Apple has called state-sponsored piracy, is approved by the French Parliament (coat of arms pictured). ... The 2007 pet food crisis involves the massive contamination and recall of many brands of cat and dog foods beginning in March 2007 and the ensuing developments involving the human food supply. ...

Official US statements

On April 27 US FDA subjected all vegetable proteins imported from China, intended for human or animal consumption, to detention without physical examination, including: Wheat Gluten, Rice Gluten, Rice Protein, Rice Protein Concentrate, Corn Gluten, Corn Gluten Meal, Corn By-Products, Soy Protein, Soy Gluten, Proteins (includes amino acids and protein hydrosylates), and Mung Bean Protein.[23] April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


On April 28, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the FDA, in a joint press release acknowledged that pork from hogs fed melamine-contaminated feed had entered the human food supply, stating: "Based on information currently available, FDA and USDA believe the likelihood of illness after eating pork from swine fed the contaminated product would be very low."[24] April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


On April 30, the USDA and the FDA updated their April 28 food safety position to include poultry, reflecting contaminated feed being fed to chickens in Indiana.[25] April 30 is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ...


On May 7, the USDA and the FDA issued a joint press release reflecting the combined judgment of five federal agencies with regard to the risk to humans in consuming meat from animals fed feed contaminated with tainted pet food scraps, concluding: "There is very low risk to human health" in such cases involving pork and poultry. The risk assessment was conducted by scientists from FDA, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of USDA, CDC, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Customs and Border Protection: "In the most extreme risk assessment scenario, when scientists assumed that all the solid food a person consumes in an entire day was contaminated with melamine at the levels observed in animals fed contaminated feed, the potential exposure was about 2,500 times lower than the dose considered safe"[26] using criteria established prior to current research focusing on the apparent increased toxicity related to the interaction of melamine and cyanuric acid in vivo[27], for which there is no established safe dosage. FDA and USDA are in the process of identifying a group of experts to convene a scientific advisory board that would be charged with reviewing the risk assessment and contributing to future scientific analysis related to the risk of melamine and its compounds to humans and animals.[26] May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... The United States Food Safety and Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat, poultry, and processed egg products in the United States are safe to consume and accurately labeled. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... CDC is an abbreviation which can mean any of the following: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Communicable Disease Control Community of Democratic Choice, a group of nine Eastern-European states Change data capture, in data warehousing Clock Domain Crossing, or simply clock-crossing in computing Cedar City Regional Airport... EPA redirects here. ... U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), a bureau of the United States Department of Homeland Security, is charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. trade laws. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ...


Risks to human health from this mode of entering the human food supply have been said to be low according to a number of FDA, CDC and university toxicologists, though it was acknowledged that how melamine had harmed cats and dogs remains something of a mystery.[28] CDC is an abbreviation which can mean any of the following: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Communicable Disease Control Community of Democratic Choice, a group of nine Eastern-European states Change data capture, in data warehousing Clock Domain Crossing, or simply clock-crossing in computing Cedar City Regional Airport...


On May 10, on further inquiry into the risk to animal and human health of ingesting melamine and cyanuric acid in combination, Dr. David Acheson, Assistant Commissioner for Food Protection with the FDA said: "I'm not aware of any published studies on that. I have seen some preliminary data that would indicate that they are additive. When you put the two together, they are additive rather than synergistic.... The risk assessors also estimated that even if synergism were to occur, it would be unlikely to result in more than a tenfold increase in overall toxicity, and that still gives you a very large margin of safety." No data supporting additivity was produced at this time. No basis for estimating a tenfold increase in risk in the case of synergism was offered.[29] May 10 is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Additive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary When used as a noun, additive refers to something that is introduced to a larger quantity of something else, usually to alter characteristics of the larger quantity. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


On May 15 USDA announced that pigs that ate melamine-tainted food has been cleared for human consumption. About 56,000 pigs have been affected in several states. However, no tests have been carried out on the effects of cyanuric acid in pork as well as possible affects of interaction with melamine in the body. While the statement also said that there is no evidence of bioaccumulation of melamine alone, no mention was made whether bioaccumulation might be affected by the interaction of melamine and cyanuric acid in vivo.[30] May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... If the input of a toxic substance to an organism is greater than the rate at which the substance is lost, the organism is said to be bioaccumulating that substance. ...


On May 25, in a US FDA/CSFAN Interim Melamine and Analogues Safety/Risk Assessment, FDA stated: "While it is entirely possible that the analogues are more or less potent than the parent compound, melamine, we have no information that assesses the relative potency of the three analogues as compared to melamine; therefore, for the purpose of this interim assessment, we have made an assumption of equal potency. It has been hypothesized that melamine may interact synergistically with its three analogues, but no studies have been conducted that specifically test this hypothesis. Very preliminary work suggests that if it does occur, the formation of lattice crystals, particularly between melamine and cyanuric acid, takes place at very high dose levels and is a threshold and concentration dependent phenomenon that would not be relevant to low levels of exposure. Although still under investigation, it now appears that the combination of melamine and cyanuric acid has been linked to the acute renal failure in cats and dogs that have eaten the suspect pet foods...."[31] May 25 is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition to now testing a wide variety of imported food products and ingredients for melamine contamination, FDA has also "asked the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to use its surveillance network to monitor for signs of human illness, such as increased renal failure, that could indicate contamination of the human food supply."[32] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ...


On May 30 the FDA issued a press release stating that two US-based animal feed manufacturers had been adulterating livestock feed and fish/shrimp feed with melamine.[33] May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ...


Brief description and background

In 2007 a pet food recall was initiated by Menu Foods and other pet food manufacturers who had found their products had been contaminated and caused serious illnesses or deaths in some of the animals that had eaten them.[34][35][36] On 30 March 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration reported finding white granular melamine in the pet food, in samples of white granular wheat gluten imported from a single source in China, Xuzhou Anying Biologic Technology [37] as well as in crystalline form in the kidneys and in urine of affected animals.[38] Further vegetable protein imported from China was later implicated. See 2007 pet food crisis. 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Menu Foods Limited[1], based in Streetsville, Ontario, Canada, is the largest maker of wet cat and dog food in North America, with its products sold under 95 brand names[2], which the company identifies as supermarkets, big box and pet product retailers and wholesalers. ... FDA logo The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics in the United States. ... A piece of seitan Wheat gluten - also called seitan (pronounced SAY-tahn), wheat meat, wheat-meat, wheatmeat, gluten meat, or simply gluten - is a foodstuff made from the gluten of wheat. ... The 2007 pet food crisis involves the massive contamination and recall of many brands of cat and dog foods beginning in March 2007 and the ensuing developments involving the human food supply. ...


The practice of adding "melamine scrap" to animal feed is reported to be widespread in China in order to give the appearance of increased protein content in animal feed.[39] The presence of melamine has not been conclusively linked to the deaths of animals, as this chemical was previously thought to be relatively non-toxic at low doses. The Chinese protein export scandal was first identified after the wide recall of many brands of cat and dog food starting in March 2007. ...


Focus on melamine and cyanuric acid

Melamine (green) and cyanuric acid (red) easily form hydrogen bonds (blue dotted lines) with each other

Researchers have focused on the role of melamine and related compounds in causing renal failure. Beginning on April 19, it was reported that researchers had ruled out aminopterin contamination and had found a "spoke-like crystal" in contaminated wheat gluten and rice protein concentrate and the tissues and urine of affected animals. (It was previously known that melamine and cyanuric acid can form networks of hydrogen bonds, creating a tile-like planar structure through molecular self-assembly.)[40] The crystal has been said to serve as a biomarker for contamination and is approximately 30% melamine. The remainder has been identified as cyanuric acid, ammelide and ammeline, with crystals recovered from urine reported to be approximately 70% cyanuric acid. While some researchers have theorized that the three latter chemicals might have been formed as the animals metabolized the melamine, or as by-products of bacterial metabolism (cyanuric acid is a known intermediate byproduct of bacterial metabolism of melamine), their presence in the crystals found in contaminated protein itself, combined with media reports of widespread adulteration with both melamine and cyanuric acid in China, has focused research efforts on their combined effects in animals. Neither melamine nor cyanuric acid, a chemical commonly used in pool chlorination, have been thought to be particularly toxic by themselves. The current hypothesis is that, although these contaminants are not very toxic individually, their potency appears to be increased when they are present together. [41][42][43][44][45] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cyanuric acid or 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triol is an organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H3N3O3. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Aminopterin (4-aminopteroic acid), a 4-amino analog of folic acid, is an antineoplastic drug with immunosuppressive properties used in chemotherapy. ... In chemistry, a hydrogen bond is a type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity. ... An example of a molecular self-assembly through hydrogen bonds reported by Meijer and coworkers in Angew. ... Biomarker is an occasionally used synonym for biosignature, which is a term used in astrobiology to indicate a measurable phenomenon that indicates the presence of life. ... Cyanuric acid or 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triol is an organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H3N3O3. ... Ammelide (6-Amino-2,4-Dihydroxy-l,3,5-Triazine) is a triazine and the hydrolysis product of ammeline. ... Ammeline (4,6-Diamino-2-Hydroxy-1,3,5-Triazine) is a triazine. ... This article is about the chemical substance called melamine. ...


On April 27 researchers from the University of Guelph, in Ontario announced that they had created crystals chemically similar to the ones found in contaminated animals by combining melamine and cyanuric acid in the laboratory under pH conditions similar to that in animal kidneys.[46][47] April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... It has been suggested that Ontario Veterinary College be merged into this article or section. ... The correct title of this article is . ...


In light of these findings, on May 1, the American Veterinary Medical Association noted in a press release that the "extremely insoluble" crystals formed in animal kidneys are suspected of blocking kidney function.[48] On May 7, however, Barbara Powers, president of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians and a professor of veterinary diagnostics at Colorado State University cautioned "There's something more going on than just the mechanical blockage. Because you wouldn't see so much necrosis (cell death) and inflammation.”[49] May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), founded in 1863, is a not-for-profit association representing more than 73,000 US veterinarians working in academia, private and corporate practice, industry, government, and uniformed services. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... Colorado State University is a public land grant institution of higher learning located in Fort Collins, Colorado in the United States. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Death) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...


On May 2, in further inquiry into the source of the cyanuric acid in the contaminated ingredients and the toxic effects of the chemical combination, Richard Goldstein of the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, in response to reports that the contaminant might be "melamine scrap" left over from processing coal into melamine, hypothesized: “It’s possible the other stuff they were left with was the bottom-of-the-barrel stuff, leftover melamine and possibly cyanuric acid. I think it’s this melamine with other compounds that is toxic.”[50] The composition of the crystals analyzed in contaminated pet food ingredients is similar to the composition of a waste product produced in melamine production.[51] May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the chemical substance called melamine. ...


Testing methods for melamine and cyanuric acid

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides a test method for analyzing cyromazine and melamine in animal tissues in its Chemistry Laboratory Guidebook which "contains test methods used by FSIS Laboratories to support the Agency's inspection program, ensuring that meat, poultry, and egg products are safe, wholesome and accurately labeled."[10][11] The United States Food Safety and Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat, poultry, and processed egg products in the United States are safe to consume and accurately labeled. ... The United States Department of Agriculture (also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA) is a United States Federal Executive Department (or Cabinet Department). ...


On April 24, Stephen Sundlof, director of the FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine, told reporters: "We have found cyanuric acid. It is somewhat related to melamine. Another compound that is very high in nitrogen and we are testing for that compound as well."[52] April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (115th in leap years). ...


On May 7, the FDA sent a letter to food manufacturers, to remind them "of their legal responsibility to ensure that all ingredients used in their products are safe for human consumption."[53] The FDA has made available to food manufacturers a procedure providing a general guide for the sample preparation and analysis of wheat gluten and pet food matrices for melamine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the same methodology used by the FERN laboratories.[54] May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... CoopersBold textBold textBold textItalic text Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ...


On May 15, the process for testing meat from swine was validated by USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). [30] May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... The United States Food Safety and Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat, poultry, and processed egg products in the United States are safe to consume and accurately labeled. ...


Reported widespread use in Chinese feed and food

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Recent production of melamine

Between the late 1990s and early 2000s, both consumption and production of melamine grew considerably in China. In the United States Geological Survey 2004 Minerals Survey Yearbook, in a report on worldwide nitrogen production, the author stated that "China continued to plan and construct new ammonia and urea plants using coal gasification technology."[55] In 2004, the Dutch company DSM signed on a joint venture with CNOOC to build a new melamine plant in Hainan Province, China.[56] The factory is to be completed in 2008 and has a planned capacity of 120K ton/year, which would make it the world's largest one.[57] InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... DSM (in full Koninklijke DSM N.V., or Royal DSM N.V.) is a multinational chemicals company. ... China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) HKEx: 0883 (中国海洋石油总公司) is the third-largest National Oil Company(NOC) in the Peoples Republic of China next to CNPC, Sinopec. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Henan and Hunan Hainan (海南; pinyin: Hǎinán) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located at the southern end of the country. ...


By early 2006, melamine production in China is reported to be in "serious surplus".[58] In April 2007, DSM's melamine industry update painted a grave global picture.[59] Between 2002 and 2007, while the global melamine price remained stable, a steep increase in the price of urea (feedstock for melamine) has reduced the profitability of melamine manufacturing. Currently, China is the world's largest exporter of melamine, while its domestic consumption still grows by 10% per year. However, reduced profit has already caused other joint melamine ventures to be postponed there.

This section is related to a current event.
For the main article on the event, see 2007 pet food crisis.

Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.

Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Highlights The so-called iTunes Law, which Apple has called state-sponsored piracy, is approved by the French Parliament (coat of arms pictured). ... The 2007 pet food crisis involves the massive contamination and recall of many brands of cat and dog foods beginning in March 2007 and the ensuing developments involving the human food supply. ...

Media reports of melamine adulteration

On April 30, 2007, The New York Times reported that the addition of "melamine scrap" into fish and livestock feed to give the false appearance of a higher level of protein was an "open secret" in many parts of China, reporting that this melamine scrap was being produced at at least one plant processing coal into melamine.[39] This production has been described as also producing "melamine scrap" which is not "pure melamine but impure melamine scrap that is sold more cheaply as the waste product after melamine is produced by chemical and fertilizer factories here.”[50] Shandong Mingshui Great Chemical Group, the company reported by the New York Times as producing melamine from coal, produces and sells both urea and melamine but does not list melamine resin as a product.[60] April 30 is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The 2007 pet food crisis involves the massive contamination and recall of many brands of cat and dog foods beginning in March 2007 and the ensuing developments involving the human food supply. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Melamin resin or melamine formaldehyde (also incorrectly, melamine) is a plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization. ...


As per melamine synthesis, the off-gas in production contains large amounts of ammonia. Therefore melamine production is often integrated into urea production which uses ammonia as feedstock. Crystallization and washing of melamine generates a considerable amount of waste water, which is a pollutant if discharged directly into the environment. The waste water may be concentrated into a solid (1.5-5% of the weight) for easier disposal. The solid may contain approximately 70% melamine, 23% oxytriazines (ammeline, ammelide and cyanuric acid), 0.7% polycondensates (melem, melam and melon). [61] This article is about the chemical substance called melamine. ... Ammeline (4,6-Diamino-2-Hydroxy-1,3,5-Triazine) is a triazine. ... Ammelide (6-Amino-2,4-Dihydroxy-l,3,5-Triazine) is a triazine and the hydrolysis product of ammeline. ... Cyanuric acid or 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triol is an organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H3N3O3. ... Tri-s-triazines or heptazines are chemical compounds that consist of a triangular core group, C6N7 or three fused triazine rings. ... Melam is a classic performance of different musical instruments that are unique to Kerala. ... Tri-s-triazines or heptazines are chemical compounds that consist of a triangular core group, C6N7 or three fused triazine rings. ...


On May 3 the New York Times reported that, despite the widely reported ban on melamine use in vegetable proteins in China, at least some chemical manufacturers continue to report selling it for use in animal feed and in products for human consumption. Said Li Xiuping, a manager at Henan Xinxiang Huaxing Chemical in Henan Province: "Our chemical products are mostly used for additives, not for animal feed. Melamine is mainly used in the chemical industry, but it can also be used in making cakes."[62] May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ...


Media reports of cyanuric acid adulteration

On May 8, 2007, The International Herald Tribune reported that three Chinese chemical makers have said that animal feed producers often purchase, or seek to purchase, the chemical, cyanuric acid, from their factories to blend into animal feed to give the false appearance of a higher level of protein, suggesting another potentially dangerous way that melamine and cyanuric acid might combine in protein products.[52] May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... The Chinese protein export scandal was first identified after the wide recall of many brands of cat and dog food starting in March 2007. ...


Detection of melamine in food

Because melamine resin is often used in food packaging and tableware, melamine at ppm level (1 part per million) in food and beverage has been reported due to migration from melamine-containing resins.[63] Small amounts of melamine have also been reported in foodstuff as a metabolite product of cyromazine, an insecticide used on animals and crops.[64] Melamin resin or melamine formaldehyde (also incorrectly, melamine) is a plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization. ... PPM or ppm may mean: parts per million, a measure of concentration pages per minute, a measure of speed often used to market printers or photocopiers portable pixmap, a graphics file format peak programme meter, a type of audio level meter, called peak meter Prediction by Partial Matching, a compression... Cyromazine is a triazine insect growth regulator used as an insecticide and an acaricide. ...


Melamine at even very low level can be detected through chromatography, or chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. However, until the 2007 pet food crisis melamine in foodstuff has not routinely been monitored, except in the context of plastic safety or insecticide residue. This could be due to the previously assumed low toxicity of melamine, and the relatively expensive methods of detection. Pictured is a sophisticated gas chromatography system. ... Mass spectrometry is a technique for separating ions by their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. ... The 2007 pet food crisis involves the massive contamination and recall of many brands of cat and dog foods beginning in March 2007 and the ensuing developments involving the human food supply. ...


See also

The chemical compound 1,3,5-triazine, also called s-triazine, is an organic chemical compound whose chemical structure has a six-membered heterocyclic aromatic ring consisting of three carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms. ... A triazine is one of three organic chemicals, isomeric with each other, whose empirical formula is C3H3N3. ...

References

  1. ^ Merck Index, 12th Edition, 5853.
  2. ^ Report on cyromazine of the European Medicines Agency
  3. ^ Lori 0. Lim, Susan J. Scherer, Kenneth D. Shuler, and John P. Toth. Disposition of Cyromazine in Plants under Environmental Conditions J. Agric. Food Chem. 1990, 38, 860-864 [1]
  4. ^ FAO report on cyromazine
  5. ^ Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, 3rd edition, Vol.7, p303-304, 1978.
  6. ^ SM Lahalih, M Absi-Halabi, "Recovery of solids from melamine waste effluents and their conversion to useful products", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol.28, 500-504 (1989).
  7. ^ Barrett MP, Gilbert IH. Targeting of toxic compounds to the trypanosome's interior.Adv Parasitol. 2006;63:125-83.
  8. ^ "Ruminant feed compositions, Robert W. Colby and Robert J. Mesler Jr., U.S. Patent No. 2819968, 1958
  9. ^ “Melamine as a dietary nitrogen source for ruminants", G.L.Newton and P.R.Utley, Journal of Animal Science, vol.47, p1338-44, 1978, Abstract
  10. ^ a b CYROMAZINE AND MELAMINE. USDA FSIS (July 1991). Retrieved on 2007-04-27.
  11. ^ a b Chemistry Laboratory Guidebook. USDA FSIS. Retrieved on 2007-04-27.
  12. ^ Environmental Protection Agency. Cyromazine; Pesticide Tolerance
  13. ^ RW Mast et al (December 1983). "Metabolism, disposition and excretion of [14C]melamine in male Fischer 344 rats". Food and Chemical Toxicology 21 (6): 807-810. PMID 6686586. 
  14. ^ a b MSDS
  15. ^ W.L. Lipschitz, E. Stokey, The mode of action of three new diuretics:melamine, adenine and formoguanamine, Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics, Vol. 83, Issue 4, 235-249, 1945.
  16. ^ Flame Retardants Center: Melamine Compounds
  17. ^ A.A. Babayan, A.V.Aleksandryan, "Toxicological characteristics of melamine cyanurate, melamine and cyanuric acid", Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Klinicheskoi Meditsiny, Vol.25, 345-9 (1985). Original article in Russian, English abstract retrieved from SciFinder on 05-07-2007.
  18. ^ International Chemical Safety Card
  19. ^ OSHA – Chemical sampling information
  20. ^ WHO – Some Chemicals that Cause Tumors of the Kidney or Urinary Bladder in Rodents and Some Other Substances
  21. ^ HD Heck and RW Tyl (September 1985). "The induction of bladder stones by terephthalic acid, dimethyl terephthalate, and melamine (2,4,6-triamino-s-triazine) and its relevance to risk assessment.". Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 5 (3): 294-313. PMID 3903881. 
  22. ^ T.W. Tusing, "Chronic Feeding - Dogs", cited by "Summary of toxicity data - trichloromelamine" by California Environmental Protection Agency, last revised on 04-02-2002, URL accessed on 05-09-2007
  23. ^ IMPORT ALERT #99-29, "DETENTION WITHOUT PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF ALL VEGETABLE PROTEIN PRODUCTS FROM CHINA FOR ANIMAL OR HUMAN FOOD USE DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF MELAMINE AND/OR MELAMINE ANALOGS". FDA (April 27, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  24. ^ Joint Update: FDA/USDA Update on Tainted Animal Feed. USDA and FDA (April 28, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  25. ^ Joint Update: FDA/USDA Trace Adulterated Animal Feed to Poultry. USDA and FDA (April 30, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  26. ^ a b FDA/USDA Joint News Release: Scientists Conclude Very Low Risk to Humans from Food Containing Melamine. USDA and FDA (May 7, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  27. ^ Barboza, David. "Another Chemical Emerges in Pet Food Case", New York Times, May 9, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-09. 
  28. ^ McNeil, Donald. "Pet Food Chemical Unlikely to Pose Threat to Humans, Experts Say, as U.S. Continues Inquiry", New York Times, May 2, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-06. 
  29. ^ TRANSCRIPT OF FDA-USDA UPDATE ON ADULTERATED ANIMAL FEED. USDA and FDA (May 10, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  30. ^ a b News Release. USDA (May 15, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  31. ^ Interim Melamine and Analogues Safety/Risk Assessment. FDA (May 25, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  32. ^ Testimony By Stephen F. Sundlof, D.V.M., Ph.D., Director, FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine, Department of Health and Human Services before The Senate Agriculture, Rural Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Subcommittee. FDA (April 12, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  33. ^ "Tembec and Uniscope Voluntary Recall Feed Ingredients, FDA Asks Feed Manufacturers to Avoid Ingredients Containing Melamine". FDA (May 30, 2007 }accessdate=2007-05-30).
  34. ^ CNN: Dry food added to pet food recall list
  35. ^ AVMA: Pet food recall
  36. ^ Press release by Natural Balance Pet Foods
  37. ^ FDA FAQ: Where did the contaminated wheat gluten come from?
  38. ^ FDA:Pet food recall
  39. ^ a b David Barboza and Alexei Barrionuevo. "Filler in Animal Feed Is Open Secret in China", The New York Times, April 30, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-30. 
  40. ^ E.E. Simanek, X. Li, I.S. Choi, G.M. Whitesides, "Cyanuric Acid and Melamine: A Platform for the Construction of Soluble Aggregates and Crystalline Materials", Comprehensive supramolecular chemistry, J.L. Atwood ed., New York:Pergamon, Vol.9, 495 (1996).
  41. ^ Roebuck, Karen. "Humans at risk from tainted pet food?", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 20, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-20. 
  42. ^ Swaminathan, Nikhil. "Were Our Pets Deliberately Poisoned?", Scientific American, April 25, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-26. 
  43. ^ Gang Cheng, Nir Shapir, Michael J. Sadowsky and Lawrence P. Wackett, Allophanate Hydrolase, Not Urease, Functions in Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Metabolism, Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 August; 71(8): 4437–4445. doi: 10.1128/AEM.71.8.4437-4445.2005. [2]
  44. ^ DCPAH Notices. Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health Michigan State University (May 1, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  45. ^ Barboza, David. "Another Chemical Emerges in Pet Food Case", New York Times, May 9, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-09. 
  46. ^ Patterson, Ashleigh. "Scientists track chemical reactions in pet food", CTV.ca, April 27, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. 
  47. ^ Pet Food Recall. University of Guelph Laboratory Services (April 27, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  48. ^ Melamine and Cyanuric Acid Interaction May Play Part in Illness and Death from Recalled Pet Food. American Veterinary Medical Association (May 1, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  49. ^ Weise, Elizabeth. "Poison pet food woes seem to hit cats harder", USA Today, May 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
  50. ^ a b Barboza, David. "China Food Mislabeled, U.S. Says", New York Times, May 3, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. 
  51. ^ SM Lahalih, M Absi-Halabi, "Recovery of solids from melamine waste effluents and their conversion to useful products", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol.28, 500-504 (1989).
  52. ^ a b Barboza, David. "Second chemical eyed in Chinese pet food scandal", New York Times, May 8, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. 
  53. ^ Letter to Food Manufacturers Regarding Legal Responsibilities for the Safety of Food Ingredients. FDA (May 7, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  54. ^ GC-MS Screen for the Presence of Melamine and Cyanuric Acid. FDA (April 25, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  55. ^ Kramer, Deborah (2005). Nitrogen. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  56. ^ "DSM Melamine in China", DSM China. Retrieved on 2007-05-04. 
  57. ^ "Hainan becomes home of world's largest melamine plant", People's Daily Online date=April 11, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-05-04. 
  58. ^ Ruilin, Wang. "Melamine capacity is serious surplus", China Chemical Reporter, January 6, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-04-21. 
  59. ^ Melamine industry update, by Royal DSM N.V., accessed on 2007-05-04
  60. ^ Products. Shandong Mingshui Great Chemical Group. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  61. ^ SM Lahalih, M Absi-Halabi, "Recovery of solids from melamine waste effluents and their conversion to useful products", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol.28, 500-504 (1989).
  62. ^ David Barboza and Alexei Barrionuevo. "China Makes Arrest in Pet Food Case", The New York Times, May 3, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. 
  63. ^ H. Ishiwata, T. Inoue, T. Yamazaki, K. Yoshihira, K. "Liquid chromatographic determination of melamine in beverages", J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. Vol.70, 457-60 (1987) PUBMED, accessed 05-06-2007.
  64. ^ J.V. Sancho, M. Ibanez, S. Grimalt, O.J. Pozo, F. Hernandez, "Residue determination of cyromazine and its metabolite melamine in chard samples by ion-pair liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry", Analytica Chimica Acta Vol.530, p237-243 (2005) Abstract accessed 05-06-2007.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The United States Food Safety and Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat, poultry, and processed egg products in the United States are safe to consume and accurately labeled. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The United States Food Safety and Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat, poultry, and processed egg products in the United States are safe to consume and accurately labeled. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society, and produces Chemical Abstracts, and related products. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (127th in leap years). ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (117th in leap years). ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a public university in East Lansing, Michigan. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Health: FAQs About Melamine Contamination - US News and World Report (606 words)
Melamine was considered non- or minimally toxic until veterinary scientists determined that it was the cause of possibly thousands of dog and cat renal (kidney) failures and deaths after pet food was contaminated with the industrial chemical.
Melamine has also been recently discovered in livestock feed that more than a million hogs and chickens are believed to have eaten.
Melamine is unlikely to pose a threat to humans even if small amounts of it are found in the American food supply, according to toxicologists monitoring for the industrial chemical in food.
Method of using non-resinous melamine to safen urea-formaldehyde-wood composite products and product produced thereby ... (5115 words)
In the method disclosed for preparing the bonding agent, the melamine is added during the condensation of the urea and formaldehyde and, accordingly, is incorporated as a component of the resin and not maintained in substantially free form.
The dispersed non-resinous melamine is reacted by the UF resin to form a strong bond between the melamine and the remainder of the UF-wood composite.
The non-resinous melamine is particularly effective because it reacts with the formaldehyde slowly as it becomes available during the curing of the UF resin and, more importantly, the non-resinous melamine reacts with the formaldehyde emitted during the slow decomposition of the cured resin throughout its long use life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m