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Encyclopedia > Mehmed II
Image:20pxOttomanicon.png Mehmed II
Ottoman Period
Preceded by
Murad II
Murad II
Ottoman Sultan
1444–46
1451–81
Succeeded by
Murad II
Bayezid II

Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى Meḥmed-i sānī, Turkish: II. Mehmet), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), "the Conqueror", in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople, bringing an end to the medieval Byzantine Empire. From this point onward, he claimed the title of Caesar in addition to his other titles. Image File history File links 20pxOttomanicon. ... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1576x2158, 262 KB) Portrait of Mehmed II by Venetian artist Gentile Bellini File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mehmed II Ottoman Empire Template talk:Infobox Ethnic group... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ...

Contents

Early reign

Mehmed II was born in Edirne capital city of the Ottoman state, on March 30, 1432. His father was Sultan Murad II (1404–51) and his mother Huma Hatun was a daughter of Abd'Allah of Hum, Huma meaning a girl/woman from Hum. When Mehmed II was 11 years old he was sent to Amasya to govern and thus gain experience, as per the custom of Ottoman rulers before his time. After Murad II made peace with the Karaman Emirate in Anatolia in August 1444, he abdicated the throne to his 12-year-old son Mehmed II. “Adrianople” redirects here. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Mother of Mehmed II, the Ottoman Sultan, also known as Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror). ... Zahumlje in the 9th century, according to De administrando imperio Zahumlje, also known as the Land of Hum and Chelm, was a medieval South Slavic principality located in todays Herzegovina (modern day Bosnia and Herzegovina), and southern Dalmatia (modern day Republic of Croatia). ... Ottoman houses and a Pontic tomb in Amasya Amasya (formerly Amaseia or Amasia from Greek: Αμάσεια) is a town in northern Turkey, the capital of Amasya Province with approximately 80,000 inhabitants. ... A Turkish tribe in Anatolia, Karamanid first arose following the decline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rüm in the early 13th century. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ...


During his first reign, Mehmed II asked his father Murad II to reclaim the throne in anticipation of the Battle of Varna, but Murad II refused. Enraged at his father, who had long since retired to a contemplative life in southwestern Anatolia, Mehmed II wrote: "If you are the Sultan, come and lead your armies. If I am the Sultan I hereby order you to come and lead my armies." It was upon this letter that Murad II led the Ottoman army in the Battle of Varna in 1444. It is said Murad II's return was forced by Chandarli Khalil Pasha, the grand vizier of the time, who was not fond of Mehmed II's rule, since Mehmed II's teacher was influential on him and did not like Chandarli. Chandarli was later executed by Mehmed II during the siege of Constantinople on the grounds that he had been bribed by or had somehow helped the defenders. Combatants Hungary, Poland and others Ottoman Empire Commanders Władysław III of Poland † Janos Hunyadi Murad II Strength ~ 20,000-30,000 ~ 60,000[1][2] Casualties ~ 11,000 ~ 8,000 The Battle of Varna took place on November 10, 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. ...


Conquest of the Byzantine Empire

The sultan tries to save his fleet during the siege of Constantinople
Mehmed II enters Constantinople with the army
Mehmed II enters Constantinople with the army

In 1451 Mehmed II reclaimed the throne upon his father's death. Two years later he brought an end to the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital during the Siege of Constantinople.[1] After this conquest, he conquered the Despotate of Morea in the Peloponnese in 1460, and the Empire of Trebizond in northeastern Anatolia in 1461. The last two vestiges of Byzantine rule were thus absorbed by the Ottoman Empire. The conquest of Constantinople bestowed immense glory and prestige on the country; as the Ottoman state was internationally recognized as an Empire for the first time. Image File history File links 1453_conquest2. ... Image File history File links 1453_conquest2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 440 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2487 × 3390 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 440 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2487 × 3390 pixel, file size: 3. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... The Despotate of Morea in 1450, showing Mystras. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ...


Some modern scholars believe that the following tale is merely one of a long series of attempts to portray Muslims as morally inferior, and point to the story of Saint Pelagius as its probable inspiration.[2] Steven Runciman recounts that during the siege of Constantinople Mehmed II promised his men "the women and boys of the city." Saint Pelagius of Cordova (ca. ...


Other explanations for this alleged departure from Mehmed II's nominal amnesty were that Loukas Notaras, a treasury official, had attempted to ingratiate himself with Mehmed II by retaining money from the Byzantine treasury as a gift for the Sultan[citation needed]. Mehmed II was neither impressed nor grateful, instead suggesting it should have been used for the defense of the city and viewed it as treason.


It is said that when Mehmed stepped into the Palace of the Caesars, founded over a thousand years before by Constantine the Great, he uttered the famous line of Persian poetry: "The spider weaves the curtains in the palace of the Caesars; the owl calls the watches in the towers of Afrasiab." Constantine. ...


After the Fall of Constantinople, Mehmed claimed the title of Roman Caesar (Kayzer-i Rûm), since Byzantium was the nominal successor of the Roman Empire after the transfer of its capital to Constantinople in 330 AD. Mehmed also had blood lineage to the Byzantine imperial family, as his predecessors like Sultan Orhan I had married a Greek princesses. He was not the only ruler to claim such a title, as there was the Holy Roman Empire in Western Europe, whose emperor, Frederick III, traced his titular lineage from Charlemagne who obtained the title of Roman Emperor when he was crowned by Pope Leo III in 800. Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Events By Place Roman Empire May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Orhan (Turkish: also Orhan Gazi or Orkhan) (1284–1359), was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Emperor Frederick III Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ...


Reference is made to the prospective conquest of Constantinople in an authentic hadith, attributed to a saying of the Prophet Muhammad. "Verily you shall conquer Constantinople. What a wonderful leader will he be, and what a wonderful army will that army be!"[3] Ten years after the conquest of Constantinople Mehmed II visited the site of Troy and boasted that he had avenged the Trojans by having conquered the Greeks (Byzantines)[4]. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Conquests in Asia

The conquest of Constantinople allowed Mehmed II to turn his attention to Anatolia. Mehmed II tried to create a single political entity in Anatolia by capturing Turkish states called Beyliks and the Greek Empire of Trebizond in northeastern Anatolia and allied himself with the Golden Horde in the Crimea. Uniting the Anatolian Beyliks was first accomplished by Sultan Bayezid I, more than fifty years earlier than Mehmed II but after the destructive Battle of Ankara back in 1402, the newly formed Anatolian unification was gone. Mehmed II recovered the Ottoman power on other Turkish states. These conquests allowed him to push further into Europe. Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... // Combatants Timurid Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Timur Beyazid I Strength 140,000 men 85,000 men [1] Casualties 15,000-25,000 killed and wounded[] 15,000-40,000 killed and wounded[] The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on July 20, 1402, took place at the field...


Another important political entity which shaped the Eastern policy of Mehmed II was the White Sheep Turcomans. With the leadership of Uzun Hasan, this Turcoman kingdom gained power in the East but because of their strong relations with the Christian powers like Empire of Trebizond and the Republic of Venice and the alliance between Turcomans and Karamanoğlu Tribe, Mehmed saw them as a treat to his own power. He leaded a successful campaign against Uzun Hasan in 1473 which resulted with the decisive victory of the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Otlukbeli. Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Uzun Hassan, prince of the Ak-Koyunla dynasty, or White Sheep Turkmen, ruled parts of western Persia, Iraq and Turkey between 1435 and 1478. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Statue depicting Karamanogullu Mehmet Bey declaring Turkish as the official language of the state and all its institutions Beylik of Karaman or of KaramanoÄŸlu (KaramanoÄŸulları in plural), also called Karamanids was the first Turkic kingdom to accept Turkish as its official language. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire White Sheep Turcomans Commanders Mehmed the Conqueror Uzun Hasan Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown but heavy Battle of Otlukbeli was a battle between White Sheep Turcomans and the Ottoman Empire that was fought on August 11, 1473. ...


Conquests in Europe

Mehmed II advanced toward Eastern Europe as far as Belgrade, and attempted to conquer the city from John Hunyadi at the Siege of Belgrade in 1456. Hungarian commander successfully defended the city and Ottomans retreated with heavy losses but at the end, Ottomans occupied nearly all of Serbia. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Mehmet II John Hunyadi Strength About 100,000 About 75,000 Casualties About 50,000 About 10,000 After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman sultan Mehmed II was rallying his resources in order to subjugate the Kingdom of Hungary. ... // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ... One of the first Serbian states, Raška, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been...


He also came into conflict with and was defeated by his former vassal, Prince Vlad III Dracula of Wallachia in 1462 at the Night Attack. Then, Mehmed II helped Radu, the brother of Vlad, to take the revenge of the Ottoman military losses and Radu managed to take the control of Wallachia in the same year. Vlad lost all his power and escaped from his country. Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle Vlad III Basarab (other names: Vlad Ţepeş IPA: in Romanian, meaning Vlad the Impaler; Vlad Draculea in Romanian, transliterated as Vlad Dracula in some documents; Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, meaning Impaler Prince), (November or December, 1431 – December 1476). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... // Combatants Wallachia Ottoman Empire Commanders Vlad III Dracula Mehmed II Strength up to 30,000[1] most realistic source mentions 60,000 regulars and 20-30,000 irregulars (90,000); 120 cannons[2] Casualties 5,000 [3] 15,000 [3] The Night Attack (Romanian: ) was a skirmish fought between Vlad... Radu cel Frumos (Radu the Handsome), (c. ...


In 1475, the Ottomans suffered a great defeat at the hands of Stephen the Great of Moldavia at the Battle of Vaslui. In 1476, Mehmed won a victory against Stephen at the Battle of Valea Albă and nearly destroyed all of the relatively small Moldovian army. Then, he sacked the capital of Suceava, but couldn't take the castle of Piatra Neamţ, nor the citadell of Suceava. With a plague running in his camp and food and water being very scarce, Mehmed was forced to retreat as Stephen was reinforcing his army and Dracula, turning from exile, was marching with a 30,000-strong army to aid the Moldavians. 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul ÃŽnalt) (January 10, 1475) was fought between the Moldavian (Romanian) Prince, Åžtefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great) and the Ottoman General Suleiman Pasha. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ... // Combatants Moldavia Ottoman Empire Commanders Åžtefan cel Mare Mehmed II Strength 90,000 50,000 Casualties 70,000 killed or wounded 30,000 killed or wounded The Battle of Valea Albă was an important event in the medieval history of Moldavia. ... County Suceava County Status County capital Mayor Ion Lungu, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Area 52 km² Population (2002) 105,865 (2002 census) 107,513 (as of July 1, 2004)[1] Density 2,032 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ...


Mehmed II invaded Italy in 1480. The intent of his invasion was to capture Rome and "reunite the Roman Empire", and, at first, looked like he might be able to do it with the easy capture of Otranto in 1480 but Otranto was retaken by Papal forces in 1481 after the death of Mehmed. Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Otranto is a town and commune in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), in a fertile region, and once famous for its breed of horses. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ...


A rebellion led by George Kastrioti Skanderbeg (İskender Bey), an Albanian noble and a former member of the Ottoman ruling elite, in Albania between 1443 and 1468 prevented the Ottoman expansion into the Italian peninsula. Skanderbeg was sent to Albania as the highest representative of the Ottoman Empire in the region by Mehmed's father Murad II. Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania. ... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ...


These military conflicts between the Ottomans and the European forces showed that the Ottoman presence in Europe is not a temporary situation. During the reign of Mehmed II, Balkan forces were not completely surpassed by the Ottoman war machine but they couldn't stop it either.


Administrative actions

Mehmed II amalgamated the old Byzantine administration into the Ottoman state. He first introduced the word Politics into Arabic "Siyasah" from a book he published and claimed to be the collection of Politics doctrines of the Byzantian Caeasars before him. He gathered Italian artists, humanists and Greek scholars at his court, kept the Byzantine Church functioning, ordered the patriarch to translate the Christian faith into Turkish and called Gentile Bellini from Venice to paint his portrait.[5] He was extremely serious about his efforts to continue the Roman Empire, with him as its Caesar, and came closer than most people realize to capturing Rome and conquering Italy. Mehmed II also tried to get Muslim scientists and artists to his court in Constantinople, started a University, built mosques e.g. the Fatih Mosque, waterways, and the Topkapı Palace. See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Portrait of Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus by Gentile Bellini, at the Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... The Fatih Mosque Complex extends along the Golden Horn side of Fevzipasa Street in Fatih. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ...


Mehmed II's reign is also well-known for the religious tolerance with which he treated his subjects, especially among the conquered Christians, which was very unusual for Europe in the Middle Ages. However, his army was recruited from the Devshirme. This group took Christian subjects at a young age. They were split up: those regarded as more able were destined for the sultans court, the less able but physically strong were put into the army or the sultan's personal guard - the Janissaries.


Within the conquered city, Mehmed established a millet or an autonomous religious community, and he appointed the former Patriarch as essentially governor of the city. His authority extended only to the Orthodox Christians of the city, and this excluded the Genoese and Venetian settlements in the suburbs, and excluded the coming Muslim and Jewish settlers entirely. This method allowed for an indirect rule of the Christian Byzantines and allowed the occupants to feel relatively autonomous even as Mehmed II began the Turkish remodeling of the city, eventually turning it into the Turkish capital, which it remained until the 1920s. The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: &#1497;&#1492;&#1493;&#1491;&#1497;) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


Details

Mehmed II spoke seven languages (including Turkish, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Persian and Latin) when he was 21 years old (the age at which he conquered Constantinople).[6][7] After the fall of Constantinople, he founded many universities and colleges in the city, some of which are still active. Mehmed II is also recognized as the first Sultan to codify criminal and constitutional law long before Suleiman the Magnificent (also "the Lawmaker" or "Kanuni") and he thus established the classical image of the autocratic Ottoman sultan (padishah). Mehmed II's tomb is located at Fatih Mosque in Istanbul; the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge is also named after him. Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... The Fatih Mosque Complex extends along the Golden Horn side of Fevzipasa Street in Fatih. ... The Asiatic side of the bridge. ...


Mehmed II's Firman on the Freedom of the Bosnian Franciscans

"I, the Sultan Khan the Conqueror, Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title. ...

hereby declare the whole world that,

The Bosnian Franciscans granted with this sultanate firman are under my protection. And I command that: The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Firman refers to a royal mandate or decree issued from a sovereign in Western Asian countries such as Iran under the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi or the Ottoman rulers. ...

No one shall disturb or give harm to these people and their churches! They shall live in peace in my state. These people who have become emigrants, shall have security and liberty. They may return to their monasteries which are located in the borders of my state.

No one from my empire notable, viziers, clerks or my maids will break their honour or give any harm to them! ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to...

No one shall insult, put in danger or attack these lives, properties, and churches of these people!

Also, what and those these people have brought from their own countries have the same rights...

By declaring this firman, I swear on my sword by the holy name of Allah who has created the ground and sky, Allah's prophet Mohammed, and 124.000 former prophets that; no one from my citizens will react or behave the opposite of this firman!" Firman refers to a royal mandate or decree issued from a sovereign in Western Asian countries such as Iran under the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi or the Ottoman rulers. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Prophets may refer to: The Prophets (Neviim), which is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Firman refers to a royal mandate or decree issued from a sovereign in Western Asian countries such as Iran under the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi or the Ottoman rulers. ...

This oath firman, which has provided independence and tolerance to the ones who are from another religion, belief, and race was declared by Mehmed II the Conqueror and granted to Angjeo Zvizdovic of the Franciscan Catholic Monastery in Fojnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina after the conquest of Bosnia and Herzegovina on May 28th of 1463.[8][9] The firman has been recently raised and published by the Ministry of Culture of Turkey for the 700th anniversary of the foundation of the Ottoman State. The edict was issued by the Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror to protect the basic rights of the Bosnian Christians when he conquered that territory in 1463. The original edict is still kept in the Franciscan Catholic Monastery in Fojnica. Firman refers to a royal mandate or decree issued from a sovereign in Western Asian countries such as Iran under the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi or the Ottoman rulers. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 16,227 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Salkan Merdžanić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Firman refers to a royal mandate or decree issued from a sovereign in Western Asian countries such as Iran under the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi or the Ottoman rulers. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 16,227 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Salkan Merdžanić (SDA) Website http://www. ...


It is one of the oldest documents on religious freedoms. Mehmed II's oath was entered into force in the Ottoman Empire on May 28, 1463. In 1971, the United Nations published a translation of the document in all the official U.N. languages. “Ottoman” redirects here. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.abcgallery.com/list/2001july16.html
  2. ^ Andrews, Walter G.: The Age of Beloveds, Duke University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8223-3424-0
  3. ^ Haddad, GF. Conquest of Constantinople (english). Retrieved on 4, 2006. Retrieved on August, 2006.
  4. ^ http://www.turks.org.uk/index.php?pid=38
  5. ^ http://www.abcgallery.com/list/2001july16.html
  6. ^ Norwich, John Julius (1995). Byzantium:The Decline and Fall. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 413–416. ISBN 0-679-41650-1. 
  7. ^ Runciman, Steven (1965). The Fall of Constantinople: 1453. London: Cambridge University Press, 56. ISBN 0-521-39832-0. 
  8. ^ http://www.croatianhistory.net/etf/ahd.html
  9. ^ http://www.lightmillennium.org/2004_14th_issue/eihsanoglu_stevens.html
  • Lord Kinross (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise And Fall Of The Turkish Empire. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-688-08093-6. 

For other uses, see 4 (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian, travel writer and television personality known as John Julius Norwich. ... Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ... John Balfour (1904-1976), 3rd Baron of Kinross, was a writer noted for his biography of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and other works in Islamic historiography. ...

External links

  • Biography page at OttomanOnline

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mehmed II
Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Combatants Hungary, Poland and others Ottoman Empire Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Poland † Janos Hunyadi Murad II Strength ~ 20,000-30,000 ~ 60,000[1][2] Casualties ~ 11,000 ~ 8,000 The Battle of Varna took place on November 10, 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. ... Cems portrait. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 502 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (858 × 1024 pixel, file size: 503 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms From: http://www. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Orhan (Turkish: also Orhan Gazi or Orkhan) (1284–1359), was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... This article is in need of attention. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 &#8211; January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. ... Mehmed III Mehmed III (May 26, 1566 – December 22, 1603) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death. ... Ahmed I (Ottoman Turkish: احمد اول Aḥmed-i evvel) (April 18, 1590 – November 22, 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death. ... Mustafa I (1592 – January 20, 1639) (Arabic: مصطفى الأول) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623. ... Osman II (also known as Genç Osman – meaning Young Osman – in Turkish) (in Arabic عثمان الثاني) (November 3, 1604 – May 20, 1622) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his death on 20 May 1622. ... Murad IV (Arabic: مراد الرابع) (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ... Sultan Ibrahim I Ibrahim I (November 5, 1615 &#8211; August 12, 1648) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640&#8211;1648. ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Suleiman II (April 15, 1642 &#8211; 1691) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. ... Ahmed II (in Arabic أحمد الثانى) (February 25, 1643 – 1695) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695. ... Sultan Mustafa II Mustafa II (February 6, 1664 – December 28, 1703) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703. ... Sultan Ahmed III Köçeks at a fair. ... Sultan Mahmud I Mahmud I (August 2, 1696 – December 13, 1754) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1730 to 1754. ... Osman III (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان ثالث ‘Osmān-i sālis) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1754 to 1757. ... Sultan Mustafa III Mustafa III (January 28, 1717 &#8211; January 21, 1774) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1757 to 1774. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid I Abd-ul-Hamid I (March 20, 1725 – April 7, 1789), also known as Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid or Abdul-Hamid, was the 27th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... Sultan Mustafa IV Mustafa IV (September 8, 1779 &#8211; November 15, 1808) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-MecÄ«d-i evvel) (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the 31st sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. ... Abdülâziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز ‘Abdü’l-‘AzÄ«z) was the 32nd sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between June 25, 1861 and May 30, 1876. ... Sultan Mehmed Murad V (September 21, 1840 – August 29, 1904) (Arabic: مراد الخامس) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from May 30, 1876 to August 31 of the same year. ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: ) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Britain.tv Wikipedia - Murad II (816 words)
Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446).
Osman I - Orhan I - Murad I - Bayezid I - Mehmed I -
Bayezid II - Selim I - Suleiman I - Selim II - Murad III - Mehmed III - Ahmed I - Mustafa I - Osman II - Murad IV
Mehmed II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1589 words)
Mehmed II was born in Edirne, then the capital city of the Ottoman state, on March 30, 1432.
Mehmed II advanced toward Eastern Europe as far as Belgrade, and attempted to conquer the city from John Hunyadi at the Siege of Belgrade in 1456.
Osman I - Orhan I - Murad I - Bayezid I - Mehmed I - Murad II -
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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