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Encyclopedia > Megaton

A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i.e. 109 kg or 1 teragram (Tg). The official SI symbol for the megaton is Mt, but MT is also being used; beware that the latter is also (unofficially) used for the metric ton in some contexts. See 1 E9 kg for a comparison with similar masses. The word unit means any of several things: Physical unit, a fundamental quantity of measurement in science or engineering. ... Mass is a property of physical objects that, roughly speaking, measures the amount of matter they contain. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 1000 kg (= 106 g). ... The international prototype, made of platinum-iridium, which is kept at the BIPM under conditions specified by the 1st CGPM in 1889. ... A teragram (symbol: Tg) is an SI unit of mass. ... The International System of Units (abbreviated SI from the French phrase, SystÃ¨me International dUnitÃ©s) is the most widely used system of units. ... (Redirected from 1 E9 kg) Categories: Orders of magnitude (mass) ...

The kiloton or megaton of TNT is used as a unit of energy, approximately equivalent to the energy released in the detonation of this amount of TNT. The megaton of TNT has traditionally been used to rate the energy output, and hence destructive power, of nuclear weapons. This unit is written into various arms control treaties, and gives a sense of destructiveness as compared with ordinary explosives, like TNT. More recently, it has been used to describe the energy released in other highly destructive events, such as asteroid impacts. Trinitrotoluene (TNT, or Trotyl) is a pale yellow crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon compound that melts at 354 K (178 Â°F, 81 Â°C). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... An asteroid is a small, solid object in our Solar System, orbiting the Sun. ...

• A gram of TNT by definition for arms control purposes is 1000 thermochemical calories, which equals 4.184 kilojoules (KJ).
• A ton of TNT, (a metric ton = 1000 kg) is therefore 4.184 × 109 J = 4.184 gigajoules (GJ).
• A kiloton of TNT is therefore 4.184 × 1012 J = 4.184 terajoules (TJ).
• A megaton of TNT is 4.184 × 1015 joules = 4.184 petajoules (PJ).

This definition is a conventional one. Explosives energy is normally calculated using the thermodynamic work energy of detonation, which for TNT has been accurately measured at 1120 cal/gram from large numbers of air blast experiments and theoretically calculated to be 1160 cal/gram, according to standard reference book Explosives Engineering (pp 406). A calorie (cal) is a unit of thermal energy, equivalent to about 4. ... The joule (symbol J, also called newton metre, or coulomb volt) is the SI unit of energy and work. ... In physics and mathematics, peta (symbol: P) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1015, or 1 000 000 000 000 000. ...

The measured pure heat output of a gram of TNT is only 652 thermochemical calories = 2724 J [1], but this is not the value important for explosive blast effects calculations.

• The first nuclear bomb tested at the Alamagordo test site had a yield of 18.6 kilotons of TNT (Rhodes, page 677), or approximately 78 terajoules.
• The Little Boy weapon dropped on Hiroshima had a yield of approximately 13 kilotons of TNT (54 TJ). Thus, a megaton of TNT is equivalent to roughly 77 Hiroshima bombs. The Nagasaki bomb, Fat Man, released 20 kilotons of TNT = 84 TJ.
• Typical H-bombs today have a yield of around 1 megaton of TNT.
• The largest nuclear weapon ever detonated was the Tsar Bomba, which had a yield of 50 megatons of TNT (210 PJ). The most powerful nuclear weapon ever produced was a version of the Tsar Bomb that would have yielded some 100 megatons of TNT.
• The 1912 eruption of Novarupta in Alaska was ten times the size of Mount St. Helens. That is about 3500 megatons.
• The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa was about 50% larger than Novarupta. That is about 5250 megatons.
• The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora was about seven times larger than Novarupta. That is about 24500 megatons.
• The Yellowstone Caldera was formed by a massive volcanic explosion some 640,000 years ago that was 2500 times the size of Mount St. Helens. That is about 875000 Megatons. This would have caused a mass global die-off as well.
• The 30 May 1998 magnitude 6.5 earthquake in Afghanistan had an energy release "equivalent to a 2000 kiloton nuclear explosion". (USGS)
• The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake released an estimated 2 × 1018 joules (2 EJ), or "475,000 kilotons (475 megatons) of TNT, or the equivalent of 23,000 Nagasaki bombs." (USGS)

Of course, with all such comparisons, the rate and volume into which the energy is released creates a qualitatively different perception of the output. Massive ordinance air-burst bomb. ... An early stage in the Trinity fireball. ... Little Boy bomb casing Little Boy was the codename given to the nuclear weapon dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on Monday, August 6, 1945. ... Main keep of Hiroshima Castle The city of Hiroshima (åºƒå³¶å¸‚; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of Japans islands. ... Yield may mean: In economics, yield is a measure of the amount of income an investment generates over time (related to return on investment). ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki  listen? (é•·å´Žå¸‚; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... A post-war Fat Man model. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Tsar Bomba casing on display at Arzamas-16 Tsar Bomba (Russian: Ð¦Ð°Ñ€ÑŒ-Ð±Ð¾Ð¼Ð±Ð°, meaning literally Emperor Bomb), developed by the Soviet Union, was the largest nuclear explosive device in history. ... Eruption of Mount St. ... Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A-Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ... Map showing volcanoes of Alaska. ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... An early 19th century image of Krakatoa. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Mount Tambora is a volcano on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa. ... (Redirected from 1650 BC) Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1690s BC 1680s BC 1670s BC 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC Events and trends Egypt: Start of Seventeenth Dynasty Significant people Categories: 1650s BC ... Santorini is a small, circular group of volcanic islands located in the Aegean Sea, about 200 km south-east from the mainland of Greece (latitude: 36. ... View of Lake Toba Lake Toba is a large lake, 100km long and 30km wide, in the middle of the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... According to the Toba catastrophe theory, modern human evolution was affected by a recent large volcanic event. ... The Yellowstone Caldera, also known as the Yellowstone supervolcano, is a highly geologically active region in Yellowstone National Park. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer, symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... A burst of meteors A meteor is the visible path of a meteoroid that enters the Earths (or another bodys) atmosphere, commonly called a shooting star or falling star. ... Photo of the comet Hale-Bopp above a tree. ... Earth, also known as the Earth, Terra, and (mostly in the 19th century) Tellus, is the third-closest planet to the Sun. ... An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ... Nemesis is the name given to a hypothetical red dwarf star or brown dwarf, magnitude at least 7, orbiting the Sun at a distance of about 50,000 to 100,000 AU, somewhat beyond the Oort cloud. ... Richard A. Muller(Born January 6, 1944) of San Francisco, California, USA, is a physicist who works at the University of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami hits Thailand The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) on December 26, 2004. ...

To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here energies between 1015 joules (a petajoule, symbol PJ) and 1016 joules. ... A gigaton (or gigatonne) is a Metric Unit of mass, equal to 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) Metric tons, 1,000,000,000,000 (1 trillion) kilograms, or 1 quadrillion grams. ... The fuel value or relative energy density is the quantity of potential energy in fuel, food or other substance. ...

## Reference

• Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986.
• Cooper, Paul. Explosives Engineering, New York: Wiley-VCH, 1996.

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 Megaton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (651 words) A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i.e. The kiloton or megaton of TNT is used as a unit of energy, approximately equivalent to the energy released in the detonation of this amount of TNT. Thus, a megaton of TNT is equivalent to roughly 77 Hiroshima bombs.
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