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Encyclopedia > Megamouth Shark
iMegamouth shark

Conservation status
Data deficient (IUCN)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Order: Lamniformes
Family: Megachasmidae
Genus: Megachasma
Species: M. pelagios
Binomial name
Megachasma pelagios
Taylor, Compagno and Struhsaker, 1983
Sharks Portal

The megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, is an extremely rare and unusual species of shark, discovered in 1976, with 37 specimens known to be caught or sighted as of 2006. Like the basking shark and whale shark, it is a filter feeder, consuming plankton and jellyfish, and is distinctive for its large head with rubbery lips. It is so unlike any other type of shark that it is classified in its own family Megachasmidae, though it has been suggested that it may belong in the family Cetorhinidae of which the basking shark is currently the sole member. Image File history File links Megamouth_shark. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Eumetazoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Xenoturbellida Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Ectoprocta Bryozoa... {{{subdivision_ranks}}} See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses and Orders See text. ... Superorders Galeomorpha Batoidea Selachimorpha Elasmobranchii is the subclass of cartilaginous fishes that includes skates, rays and sharks. ... Families Odontaspididae (sand tigers) Mitsukurinidae (goblin shark) Pseudocarchariidae (crocodile shark) Megachasmidae (megamouth shark) Alopiidae (thresher sharks) Cetorhinidae (basking shark) Lamnidae (mackerel sharks) Great Lamniformes is an order of sharks commonly known as the mackerel sharks. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Greyreefsharksmall2. ... Orders Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes Sharks (superorder Selachimorpha) are fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton[1] and a streamlined body. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus, 1765) The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus), also known as the Bone Shark, is the second largest fish alive, after the Whale Shark. ... Binomial name Rhincodon typus (Smith, 1828) Range of whale shark The whale shark, Rhincodon typus, is a gentle and slow filter feeding shark that is the largest living fish species. ... Filter feeders (also known as suspension feeders) are animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized structure, such as the baleen of baleen whales. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Orders Stauromedusae Coronatae Semaeostomeae Rhizostomae Jellyfish are marine invertebrates belonging to the Scyphozoan class, and in turn the phylum Cnidaria. ... Binomial name Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus, 1765) The Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus), also known as the Bone Shark, is the second largest fish alive, after the Whale Shark. ...

Contents

Physical characteristics

The appearance of the megamouth is distinctive. It has a large mouth with small teeth, a broad rounded snout (observers have mistaken it for a young orca), a generally brownish-blackish color on top and white underneath, and an asymmetrical tail with a long upper lobe, similar to the thresher shark. The interior of its gill slits are lined with finger-like gill rakers that capture its food. A relatively poor swimmer, the megamouth has a soft, flabby body and lacks keels. These are very large sharks, with the largest specimen to date reaching 4.8 m (16 ft) and 1 tonne (2,205 lb). Reproduction is ovoviviparous. Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Species Thresher sharks are large lamniform sharks of the family Alopiidae. ... Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mother up until they hatch or are about to. ...


Capture

The first megamouth was captured on November 15, 1976 about 25 miles off the coast from Kaneohe, Hawaii when it became entangled in the sea anchor of a United States Navy ship. Examination of the 4.5 m (14.6 ft), 750 kg (1,650 lb) specimen by Leighton Taylor showed it to be an entirely unknown type of shark, rivaling the coelacanth as the most sensational discovery in ichthyology during the 20th century. November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Kāne‘ohe is a town and census-designated place (CDP) included in the City & County of Honolulu and located in state District of Ko‘olaupoko on the Island of O‘ahu. ... A sea anchor is unlike a normal anchor, in that it is not made of metal and does not dig into the sea floor. ... USN redirects here. ... Families See text. ... Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Hoax

The long delay between initial discovery (1976) and the scientific description (1983), became the focus of an elaborate practical joke by two friends of Leighton Taylor, Richard Ellis of the American Museum of Natural History and John McCosker, director of San Francisco's Steinhart Aquarium. Ellis and McCosker photocopied random articles from Japanese scientific journals and inserted photographs of the megamouth shark and a map of the type location and an English abstract, making it appear as if a Japanese team under guidance of John E. Randall of the Bishop Museum was to snatch the scientific merits of the description right from under Taylor's nose. An accomplice in Japan then mailed the "preprints" to Taylor, who was naturally dumbstruck. He then had his Japanese-American secretary translate the "paper", only to be told that it contained things like musings about the cat in Japanese art, and rhinoceroses in Ueno Zoo, but nothing about the megamouth shark. Hidden on the last page were the names of Ellis and McCosker, put there deliberately for Taylor to find them. Realizing he had been had, Taylor finally wrote up the description. The remark on its last page, "Particular thanks go to Richard Ellis and John McCosker for preparation of a preliminary manuscript which was of great help in the production of this final paper," is in reference to this incident. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Richard Ellis is a marine biologist. ... The American Museum of Natural History is a landmark of Manhattans Upper West Side in New York, USA, at 79th Street and Central Park West. ... The California Academy of Sciences is one of the ten largest natural history museums in the world. ... The Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum is home to the worlds largest collection of Polynesian artifacts. ... Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus (Linnaeus, 1758) The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small domesticated carnivorous mammal. ... Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 CE) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ... Genera Ceratotherium Dicerorhinus Diceros Rhinoceros Coelodonta (extinct) Elasmotherium (extinct) Height Comparison of Extant Rhinoceros Species. ... The Ueno Zoo (恩賜上野動物園: Onshi Ueno Dōbutsuen) is a zoo, owned by the government of Tokyo, and located in Taito Ward, Tokyo, Japan. ...


Known specimens

In the 30 years since its discovery, as of May 2006 only 37 megamouth specimens have been caught or sighted. They have been found in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans. At least ten specimens have been found in the vicinity of Japan, more than any other single area. Specimens have also been pulled from the waters near Hawaii, California, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Australia, South Africa, Brazil, Senegal and Ecuador. Pacific redirects here. ... Look up Atlantic Ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

  1. Caught 25 miles off Kaneohe, Hawaii on November 15, 1976. Displayed at the Bernice Pauahai Bishop Museum in Honolulu.
  2. Caught off Catalina Island, California, November 29, 1984. Displayed at the Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles.
  3. Caught off Mandurah, Australia, August 18, 1988. Displayed at the Western Australian Museum.
  4. Washed ashore off Hamamatsu, Japan, January 23, 1989 and discarded.
  5. Washed ashore off Suruga Bay, Japan in June, 1989, and released.
  6. Found on October 21, 1990, entangled in a drift gillnet off Dana Point, California. Specimen was taken alive, then released with tracking devices. The shark was observed to move close to the surface at night and deeper during the day.
  7. Carcass washed up in Hakata Bay, Japan on November 29, 1994. Displayed at Marine World Umino-Nakamichi.
  8. Caught off Dakar, Senegal on May 4, 1995. Discarded.
  9. Caught in Brazilian waters. Now on display at the Instituto de Pesca, São Paulo, Brazil.
  10. Caught off Toba, Japan on May 1, 1997. Displayed at the Toba Aquarium.
  11. Megamouth # 11 found dead on the shores of Macajalar Bay, Cagayan de Oro Philippines on the night of February 20, 1998. Fish was later hacked into pieces and consumed that day.

... Kāne‘ohe is a town and census-designated place (CDP) included in the City & County of Honolulu and located in state District of Ko‘olaupoko on the Island of O‘ahu. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum is home to the worlds largest collection of Polynesian artifacts. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... Avalon Bay is a beautiful bay on Catalina Island. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Los Angeles County Museum may refer to: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Los Angeles County Museum of Art This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Mandurah () is a city 50 minutes (72 km) south of Perth, Western Australia, with a population of approxiamately 75,000. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Western Australian Museum, Perth. ... Hamamatsu (浜松市; -shi) is a city located in western Shizuoka, Japan. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fig. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... Dana Point is a city located in southern Orange County, California. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Non ducor, duco (Latin: I am not led, I lead) Administrative division of the city Country Brazil Region Southeast State São Paulo Mayor Gilberto Kassab (PFL) Area    - City 1,522. ... Toba may refer to: T. O. B. A., the Theater Owners Booking Association, a major black vaudeville circuit. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


28. Megamouth found dead on the shores of in Macajalar Bay, Cagayan de Oro Philippines, around 3 am on January 30, 2005. January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


...


36. Caught off Atami, Shizuoka, Japan on May 4, 2006. View of Atami Atami (熱海市; -shi) is a city located in Shizuoka, Japan. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


37. Caught off Mexico, on November 16, 2006 November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


References

  • Compagno (2000). Megachasma pelagios. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 10 May 2006. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is listed as data deficient
  • Megachasma pelagios (TSN 159983). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 23 January 2006.
  • Berra, Tim M. (1997): "Some 20th century fish discoveries". Environmental Biology of Fishes 50: 1–12.
  • Taylor, L.R. et al. (1983): "Megamouth - a new species, genus, and family of lamnoid shark (Megachasma pelagios, family Megachasmidae) from the Hawaiian Islands". Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 43A: 87–110.
  • Elizaga, Elson "Megamouth Shark in Cagayan de Oro"
  • Sun Star Cagayan de Oro "Megamouth shark found dead in Oro"
  • Florida Museum of Natural History Megamouth Shark # 37: The First Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios, Found in Mexican Waters

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Please note that the ITIS system URL has changed (25 September 2006). ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios (609 words)
The Megamouth Shark is easily recognised by its huge, soft head and large mouth which is positioned at the anterior margin of the head.
Male sharks are known to mature by 4 m in length.
This vertical migration coincides with the vertical migration of the euphausid shrimps that are part of the Megamouth Shark's diet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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