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Encyclopedia > Megaliths
Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany
Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland
Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland

A megalith is a large stone which has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. Megalithic means structures made of such large stones, utilizing an interlocking system without the use of mortar or cement. Remains of megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Taken September 2002 by William M. Connolley. ... Remains of megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Taken September 2002 by William M. Connolley. ... The Megalithic tomb in Mane Braz, Brittany Mane Braz is a Megalithic tomb located 2 km southeast of Erdeven, Brittany, France. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1001, 225 KB) Summary Wedge tomb, Clooneen townland, County Clare, Ireland, Danny Burke Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: The Burren Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1001, 225 KB) Summary Wedge tomb, Clooneen townland, County Clare, Ireland, Danny Burke Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: The Burren Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... [edit] Megalith Records History and Future Megalith Records was created by The Toasters founder and frontman Robert Bucket Hingley. ... “Rock” redirects here. ...


The word megalith comes from the Ancient Greek μέγας megas meaning great, and λίθος lithos meaning stone. Many megaliths are thought to have a purpose in determining important astronomical events such as the dates of the solstices and equinoxes. "Megalith" also denotes item(s) consisting of rock(s) hewn in definite shapes for special purposes.[1][2][3] It has been used to describe buildings built by people from many parts of the world living in many different periods. A variety of large stones are seen as megaliths, with the most widely known megaliths not being sepulchral.[4] The construction of these structures took place mainly in the Neolithic (though earlier Mesolithic examples are known) and continued into the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age.[5] Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...

Contents

European megaliths

The most common type of megalithic construction in Europe is the dolmen – a chamber consisting of upright stones (orthostats) with one or more large flat capstones forming a roof. Many of these, though by no means all, contain human remains, but it is debatable whether use as burial sites was their primary function. Though generally known as dolmens, many local names exist, such as anta in Portugal, stazzone in Sardinia, hunnebed in Holland, Hünengrab in Germany, dys in Denmark, and cromlech in Wales. It is assumed that all or most dolmens were originally covered by earthen mounds. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 182 KB)Paulnabrone Dolmen, County Clare, Ireland downloaded from pdphoto. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 182 KB)Paulnabrone Dolmen, County Clare, Ireland downloaded from pdphoto. ... Poulnabrone Dolmen in the Burren Poulnabrone Dolmen is an ancient portal tomb in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland, dating back to the Neolithic period, probably between 3800 BC to 3200 BC. It comprises a 12 foot tabular capstone supported by two slender portal stones and is bordered by a nearby... Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ... An orthostat is a large stone set upright. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... This article is about the country. ...


The second most common tomb type is the passage grave. It normally consist of a square, circular or cruciform chamber with a slabbed or corbelled roof, accessed by a long, straight passageway, with the whole structure covered by a circular mound of earth. Sometimes it is also surrounded by an external stone kerb. Prominent examples include the sites of Bru na Boinne in Ireland, Maes Howe in Orkney, and Gavrinis in France. A passage tomb near the town of Sligo in Ireland A Passage grave (sometimes hyphenated) or Passage tomb is a tomb, usually dating to the Neolithic, where the burial chamber is reached along a distinct, and usually low, passage. ... Elaborately decorated classical-style stone corbels support balconies on a building in Indianapolis. ... Brú na Bóinne (English: Palace of the Boyne) is an internationally important complex of Neolithic chamber tombs, standing stones, henges and other prehistoric enclosures located in a wide meander of the River Boyne in Ireland. ... Maes Howe is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney (off northern Scotland). ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... The entrance to the Gavrinis passage grave Gavrinis (Breton: Gavriniz) is a small island, situated in the Gulf of Morbihan in Brittany, France. ...


The third tomb type is a diverse group known as gallery graves. These are axially arranged chambers placed under elongated mounds. The Irish court tombs, British long barrows and German Steinkisten belong to this group. A Gallery grave, also known as an Allée couverte tomb is a form of Megalithic chamber tomb where there is no divide between the burial chamber itself and the entrance passage. ... The Court cairn is a variety of megalithic chamber tomb found in south west Scotland and central and northern Ireland. ... A long barrow is a prehistoric monument dating to the Neolithic period. ...


Another type of megalithic monument that occurs throughout the culture area is the single standing stone, or menhir. Some of these are thought to have an astronomical function as a marker or foresight, and in some areas long and complex alignments of such stones exist Рfor example at Carnac in Brittany.-1... Carnac is a village and commune beside the Gulf of Morbihan on the south coast of Brittany () and part of the Morbihan d̩partement of northwestern France. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


In parts of Britain and Ireland the best-known type of megalithic construction is the stone circle, of which there are hundreds of examples, including Stonehenge, Avebury, Ring of Brodgar and Beltany. These too display evidence of astronomical alignments, both solar and lunar. Stonehenge, for example, is famous for its solstice alignment. Examples of stone circles are also found in the rest of Europe. They are normally assumed to be of later date than the tombs, straddling the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Swinside stone circle, in the Lake District, England. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... Avebury Henge and Village Avebury is the site of a large henge and several stone circles in the English county of Wiltshire at grid reference SU103699, surrounding the village of Avebury (its geographical location is 51°25′43″N, 1°51′15″W). ... Ring of Brodgar The Ring of Brodgar (or Brogar) is a neolithic henge and stone circle in The Mainland Orkney, Scotland, somewhat similar to Stonehenge in England. ... Beltany is a neolithic stone circle just south of Raphoe town in County Donegal, Ireland. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


Tombs

Large T shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands.
Large T shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands.

Megalithic tombs are aboveground burial chambers, built of large stone slabs (megaliths) laid on edge and covered with earth or other, smaller stones. They are a type of chamber tomb, and the term is used to describe the structures built across Atlantic Europe, the Mediterranean and neighbouring regions, mostly during the Neolithic period, by Neolithic farming communities. They differ from the contemporary long barrows through their structural use of stone. Hunebed D27 in Drenthe, Netherlands. ... Hunebed D27 in Drenthe, Netherlands. ... Borger-Odoorn is a municipality in the northeastern Netherlands. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland For the record label, see Megalith Records. ... A chamber tomb is a tomb for burial used in many different cultures. ... Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean At its widest definition, it comprises Spain, France and the British Isles. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... A long barrow is a prehistoric monument dating to the Neolithic period. ...


There is a huge variety of megalithic tombs. The free-standing single chamber dolmens and portal dolmens found in Brittany, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Sweden, Wales and elsewhere consist of a large flat stone supported by three, four or more standing stones. They were covered by a stone cairn or earth barrow. Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ... A Portal dolmen or Portal tomb is a type of Neolithic chamber tomb. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Cairn (disambiguation). ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ...


Examples with outer areas, not used for burial, are also known. The Court Cairns of south west Scotland and northern Ireland, the Severn-Cotswold tombs of south west England and the Transepted gallery graves of the Loire region in France share many internal features although the links between them are not yet fully understood. That they often have antechambers or forecourts is thought to imply a desire on the part of the builders to emphasise a special ritual or physical separation of the dead from the living. The Court cairn is a variety of megalithic chamber tomb found in south west Scotland and central and northern Ireland. ... This article is about the country. ... Severn-Cotswold (or Cotswold-Severn) is a name given to a type of Megalithic chamber tomb built by Neolithic peoples in Wales and south west England around 3500 BC. They consist of precisely-built, long trapezoid earth mounds covering a burial chamber. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Transepted gallery grave is a term used to describe a number of similar megalithic chamber tombs built across Atlantic Europe during the Neolithic period. ... This article is about the French department. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ...


The Passage graves of Orkney, Ireland's Boyne Valley, and north Wales are even more complex and impressive, with cross shaped arrangements of chambers and passages. The workmanship on the stone blocks at Maeshowe for example is unknown elsewhere in north west Europe at the time. A passage tomb near the town of Sligo in Ireland A Passage grave (sometimes hyphenated) or Passage tomb is a tomb, usually dating to the Neolithic, where the burial chamber is reached along a distinct, and usually low, passage. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... The Boyne is a river in Leinster, Ireland, which course is about 70 mi (112 km) long. ... Maeshowe Maeshowe Entrance Maeshowe (or Maes Howe) is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney, Scotland. ...


Megalithic tombs appear to have been used by communities for the long-term deposition of the remains of their dead and some seem to have undergone alteration and enlargement. The organisation and effort required to erect these large stones mean that the societies concerned must have placed great emphasis on the proper treatment of their dead. The ritual significance of the tombs is supported by the presence of megalithic art carved into the stones at some sites. Hearths and deposits of pottery and animal bone found by archaeologists around some tombs also implies some form of burial feast or sacrificial rites took place there. A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ...

Cup and ring marks, England
Cup and ring marks, England

Further examples of megalithic tombs include the stalled cairn at Midhowe in Orkney and the passage grave at Bryn Celli Ddu on Anglesey. Despite its name, the Stone Tomb in Ukraine was not a tomb but rather a sanctuary. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Typical cup-and-rings marks. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Typical cup-and-rings marks. ... Typical cup-and-rings marks. ... Rousay shown within Orkney Islands Rousay (from Old Norse Hrólfs-øy meaning Rolfs Island) is a small but hilly island about 3 km (2 mi) off the north side of Orkneys Mainland, which has been nicknamed the Egypt of the north due to its tremendous archaeological diversity... Bryn Celli Ddu is a prehistoric site on the Welsh island of Anglesey. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... View of Kamyana Mohyla Kamyana Mohyla (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; literally: stone tomb) is an archaeological site in the Molochna River valley, about a mile from the village of Terpinnya, Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. ...


Other structures

Associated with the megalithic constructions across Europe there are often large earthworks of various designs – ditches and banks, broad terraces, circular enclosures known as henges, and frequently artificial mounds such as Silbury Hill in England and Monte d’Accoddi in Sardinia. Sometimes, as at Glastonbury Tor in England, it is theorised that a natural hill has been artificially sculpted to form a maze or spiral pattern in the turf. In archaeology, Earthworks are artificial changes in land level often known as lumps and bumps. ... A henge is a circular or sub-circular prehistoric enclosure defined by a raised circular bank, and a circular ditch usually running inside the bank. ... Silbury Hill Silbury Hill (grid reference SU100685), part of the complex of Neolithic monuments around Avebury in the English county of Wiltshire (which includes the West Kennet Long Barrow), is the tallest prehistoric man-made mound in Europe and one of the worlds largest. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sassari (in Italian and Sassarese, a Corsican dialect; either Sassari or Tathari in southern Sardinian), is a town and a province in Sardinia, Italy. ... Glastonbury Tor is a teardrop-shaped hill at Glastonbury, Somerset, England, with its only standing architectural feature the roofless St Michaels Tower of the former church. ...


Spirals were evidently an important motif for the megalith builders, and have been found carved into megalithic structures all over Europe – along with other symbols such as lozenges, eye-patterns, zigzags in various configurations, and cup and ring marks. Whilst clearly not a written script in the modern sense of the term, these symbols are considered to have conveyed meaning to their creators, and are remarkably consistent across the whole of Western Europe. Typical cup-and-rings marks. ...


Spread of megalithic culture in Europe

Development of the European Megalithic Culture

In Western Europe and the Mediterranean, megaliths are generally constructions erected during the Neolithic or late stone age and Chalcolithic or Copper Age (4500-1500 BCE). Perhaps the most famous megalithic structure is Stonehenge in England, although many others are known throughout the world. The French Comte de Caylus was the first to describe the Carnac stones. Legrand d'Aussy introduced the terms menhir and dolmen, both taken from the Breton language, into antiquarian terminology. He interpreted megaliths as gallic tombs. In Britain, the antiquarians Aubrey and Stukeley conducted early research into megaliths. In 1805, Jacques Cambry published a book called Monuments celtiques, ou recherches sur le culte des Pierres, précédées d'une notice sur les Celtes et sur les Druides, et suivies d'Etymologie celtiques, where he proposed a Celtic stone cult. This completely unfounded connection between druids and megaliths has haunted the public imagination ever since. In Belgium there is a megalithic site at Wéris, a little town situated in the Ardennes. In the Netherlands, megalithic structures can be found in the north-east of the current, mostly in the province of Drenthe. Knowth is a passage grave of the Brú na Bóinne neolithic complex in Ireland, dating from c.3500-3000 BCE. It contains more than a third of the total number of examples of megalithic art in all Western Europe, with over 200 decorated stones found during excavations. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... Anne-Claude-Philippe de Tubières-Grimoard de Pestels de Lévis, comte de Caylus, marquis dEsternay, baron de Bransac (October 31, 1692 - September 5, 1765), French archaeologist and man of letters, was born at Paris. ... The Menec alignments, the most well-known megalithic site amongst the Carnac stones. ... -1... Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... John Aubrey. ... The Rev. ... This article is about the European people. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... For the Dutch footballer, see Royston Drenthe. ... Knowth is the site of a neolithic passage grave, one of the ancient monuments of the Brú na Bóinne complex in the valley of the River Boyne in Ireland. ... A passage tomb near the town of Sligo in Ireland A Passage grave (sometimes hyphenated) or Passage tomb is a tomb, usually dating to the Neolithic, where the burial chamber is reached along a distinct, and usually low, passage. ... Brú na Bóinne (English: Palace of the Boyne) is an internationally important complex of Neolithic chamber tombs, standing stones, henges and other prehistoric enclosures located in a wide meander of the River Boyne in Ireland. ... Megalithic art refers to the use of large stones as an artistic medium. ...


Most archaeologists agree the Megaliths of Western Europe were spread via the Western Mediterranean and the Atlantic Seaboard, perhaps related to the routes taken when fishing for cod. British Archaeologist Sir Barrington Cunliffe has written extensively and mapped the extent of this culture. Recent genetic tests confirm that a small percentage of males in each town where a megalith is located bear an extremely rare marker on Y-Chromosome haplogroup I , subclade M26. Some have posited this marker tracks the spread of the megalithic cultural elite, as its far-flung and otherwise random distribution is otherwise inexplicable. (Gatto, et al., 2007) COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... Sir Barrington Windsor Cunliffe CBE (born December 10, 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, has been Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford since 1972. ... The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... Haplogroup I may refer to: Haplogroup I (mtDNA), a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup Haplogroup I (Y-DNA), a human Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroup Category: ...


Timeline of megalithic construction

Mesolithic predecessors?

Excavation of some Megalithic monuments (in Britain, Ireland, Scandinavia and France) has revealed evidence of ritual activity, sometimes involving architecture, from the Mesolithic, ie predating the Neolithic monuments by centuries or millennia. Caveats apply: in some cases, they are chronologically so far removed from their successors that continuity is unlikely, in other cases the early dates, or the exact character of activity, are controversial. Examples include: The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ...

(9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – other millennia) Events The south area of Çatalhöyük. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ... Carrowmore (Irish: , meaning Great Quarter) is the site of a prehistoric ritual landscape on the Knocknarea or Cúil Irra Peninsula in County Sligo in the Republic of Ireland. ...

Neolithic

  • Circa 4800 BCE: Constructions in Brittany (Barnenez) and Poitou (Bougon).

(6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... View of the Almendres Cromlech The Almendres Cromlech megalithic complex, located near Evora - Portugal, is one mankind’s first public monuments. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... 4004 BC redirects here. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Tumulus Barnenez The Prehistoric Cairn Barnenez lies in the Brittany community Plouezoch, on the peninsula in Kernéléhen North Finistère France. ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ... Plan of the Bougon complex The Tumulus of Bougon or Necropolis of Bougon (French: Tumulus de Bougon, Nécropole de Bougon) is a group of five Neolithic monuments (barrows or burial mounds) located near La-Mothe-Saint-Héray, between Exoudon and Pamproux in Poitou-Charentes, France. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Carnac is a village and commune beside the Gulf of Morbihan on the south coast of Brittany () and part of the Morbihan département of northwestern France. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... (38th century BC - 37th century BC - 36th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Start of Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions Categories: Centuries | 37th century BC | 4th millennium BC ... Banbridge District Council is a Local Council in County Down in Northern Ireland. ... (37th century BC - 36th century BC - 35th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Civilization of Sumeria Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions Domestication of the chicken Categories: Centuries | 36th century BC | 4th millennium BC ... the Maumbury Rings viewed from northern end Maumbury Rings is a Neolithic henge in the south of Dorchester town in Dorset, England. ... Post Street in Godmanchester Godmanchester is a small town in England, immediately south of the larger town of Huntingdon on the southern bank of the River Great Ouse. ... Ggantija temple Ä gantija (also Ggantia) is a megalithic temple complex on the Mediterranean island of Gozo (part of Malta). ... Mnajdra temple (total view) Mnajdra temple (detail) The Mnajdra temple grouping lies on the southern coast of Malta, a small island located directly south of Italy in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events ? - Formation of the Sahara Desert 3450 (?) - Stage IId of the Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions ? _ Irrigation in Egypt ? - First use of Cuneiform (script) Categories... Location of Málaga Municipality Málaga Government  - Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area  - City 385. ... Guadiana (Latin Anas, Spanish Guadiana, Portuguese Guadiana) - one of the major rivers of Spain, part of it is the border with Portugal, ends in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m (avg. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Ötzi the Iceman memorial c. ... Newgrange, which is located at , is one of the passage tombs of the Brú na Bóinne complex in County Meath, and the most famous of all Irish prehistoric sites. ... Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ... ĦaÄ¡ar Qim The temple of ĦaÄ¡ar Qim [1], excavated for the first time in 1839, dates from the Tarxien phase (c. ... Tarxien is a small village found in the southern part of Malta. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... Saumur is a small city and commune in the Maine-et-Loire département of France on the Loire River, with an approximate population of 30,000 (in 2001). ... Dordogne (Occitan: Dordonha) is a department in central France named after the Dordogne River. ... For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... Biscay (Basque Bizkaia, Spanish: Vizcaya) is a province of northern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Los Milares is the name of a Chalcolithic occupation site 17km outside Almeria in the Spanish province of Andalucia. ... The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... A henge is a roughly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20m in diameter which is enclosed and delimited by a boundary earthwork that usually comprises a ditch with an external bank. ... Ancient painting of Nuwa and Fu Hsi unearthed in Xinjiang. ... The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ...

Chalcolithic

  • Circa 2400 BCE: The Bell-beaker culture was dominant in Britain, and hundreds of smaller stone circles were built in the British Isles at this time.

(Redirected from 2500 BCE) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... View of the port from the Pont de Kerisper which leads to Saint-Philibert. ... The Menec alignments, the most well-known megalithic site amongst the Carnac stones. ... Otranto is a town and commune in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), in a fertile region, and once famous for its breed of horses. ... This article is about the country. ... approximate extent of the Beaker culture The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk; German: ), ca. ... The name Iberia refers to two distinct regions of the old world: The Iberian Peninsula, in Southwest Europe, location of modern-day Spain and Portugal, home to the pre-Roman Iberians. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... (Redirected from 2400 BCE) (25th century BC - 24th century BC - 23rd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2350 BC - End of the Early Dynastic IIIb Period in Mesopotamia 2334 - 2279 BC -- Sargon... While not unique to Britain, stone circles are a very British type of monument. ...

Bronze Age

  • Circa 2000 BCE: Constructions in Brittany (Er Grah), Italy (Bari), Sardinia (northern), and Scotland (Callanish). The Chalcolithic period gave way to the Bronze Age in western and northern Europe.
  • Circa 1400 BCE: Burial of the Egtved Girl in Denmark, whose body is today one of the most well-preserved examples of its kind.
  • Circa 1200 BCE: Last vestiges of the megalithic tradition in the Mediterranean and elsewhere come to an end during the general population upheaval known to ancient history as the Invasions of the Sea Peoples.

(Redirected from 2000 BCE) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... Locmariaquer is a village of western France, on the western shore of the Gulf of Morbihan, in the department of Morbihan, 8. ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... Callanish (Scottish Gaelic: Calanais) is a village (township) on the West Side of the Isle of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides (Western Isles), Scotland. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766 BC -- Shang conquest of... Giovinazzo is a small port city situated on the Adriatic coast in the province of Apulia Italy. ... (Redirected from 1500 BCE) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... Coat of Arms Alter do Chão is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 362. ... The Peneda-Gerês National Park (Portuguese: Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês), also known simply as Gerês, is the only National Park in Portugal (although many Natural Parks, Protected Landscapes and Reserves across the entire country). ... (Redirected from 1400 BCE) (15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC - other centuries) (1400s BC - 1390s BC - 1380s BC - 1370s BC - 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC - 1300s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1344... The Egtved Girl is the well-preserved remains of a 16-20 year old Nordic Bronze Age girl found in Egtved (55°37′ N 9°18′ E), Denmark in 1921. ... (Redirected from 1200 BCE) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ...

African megaliths

Nabta Playa

Nabta megalith
Nabta megalith

Nabta Playa was once a large lake in the Nubian Desert, located 500 miles south of modern day Cairo.[6] By the 5th millennium BC the peoples in Nabta Playa had fashioned the world's earliest known astronomical device, 1000 years older than, but comparable to, Stonehenge.[7] Research shows it to be a prehistoric calendar that accurately marks the summer solstice.[7] Findings indicate that the region was occupied only seasonally, likely only in the summer when the local lake filled with water for grazing cattle.[8][7] Image File history File links Nabta. ... Image File history File links Nabta. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... // Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...


One theory which could explain the similarities in Megalithic cultures along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts - from as widespread an area as Morrocco and Portugal all the way to Scandanavia and Ireland - is the possible genetic relationship between these peoples. The above-mentioned presence of the Y-chromosome haplotype E3b in all of these populations could possibly confirm that the spread of these cultural attributes followed the ancient navigation routes out of North Africa. (Gatto, et al., 2007) The Kingdom of Morocco is a country in northwest Africa. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup E3b (M35) (previously called Hg21) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup with a circum-Mediterranean distribution. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Northeast Asian Megalithic Traditions: the Korean Peninsula

Northern-style megalithic burial from Jukrim-ri, Gochang-eub, North Jeolla Province, Korea.
Northern-style megalithic burial from Jukrim-ri, Gochang-eub, North Jeolla Province, Korea.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1840 × 1232 pixel, file size: 961 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1840 × 1232 pixel, file size: 961 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... North Jeolla is a province in the southwest of South Korea. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...

Northern style

Northeast Asian megalithic traditions originated in Northeast China, in particular the Liao River basin[9][10]. The structure of megaliths is geographically and chronologically distinct. The earliest megalithic burials are called "northern" or "table-style" because they feature an above-ground burial chamber formed by heavy stone slabs that form a rectangular cist.[11] An oversized capstone is placed over the stone slab burial chamber, giving the appearance of a table-top. These megalithic burials date to the early part of the Mumun Pottery Period (c. 1500-850 BCE) and are distributed, with a few exceptions, north of the Han River. Few northern-style megaliths in China contain grave goods such as Liaoning bronze daggers, prompting some archaeologists to interpret the burials as the graves of chiefs or preeminent individuals.[12] However, whether a result of grave-robbery or intentional mortuary behaviour, most northern megaliths contain no grave goods. Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... The Liao He (Liao River) is the principal river in southern Manchuria. ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... Han River is the name of four unrelated rivers: Han River, or Han Gang, is a river in Korea, passing through Seoul and entering the Yellow Sea Han River, or Han Shui, is a tributary of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in central China Han River, or Han Jiang, is... In archaeology and anthropology grave goods are the items interred along with the body. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Southern style

Southern-style megalithic burials are distributed in the southern Korean Peninsula. It is thought that most of them date to the latter part of the Early Mumun or to the Middle Mumun Period.[13][14] Southern-style megaliths are typically smaller in scale than northern megaliths. The interment area of southern megaliths has an underground burial chamber made of earth or lined with thin stone slabs. A massive capstone is placed over the interment area and is supported by smaller propping stones. Most of the megalithic burials on the Korean Peninsula conform to the southern type. Archaeologists estimate varyingly that there are 15,000 to 100,000 southern megaliths in Korea.[15] The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ...

Representations of a dagger (right)and two human figures, one of which is kneeling (left), carved into the capstone of Megalithic Burial No. 5, Orim-dong, Yeosu, Korea.

As with northern megaliths, southern examples contain few, if any, artifacts. However, a small number of megalithic burials contain fine red-burnished pottery, bronze daggers, polished groundstone daggers, and greenstone ornaments. Southern megalithic burials are often found in groups, spread out in lines that are parallel with the direction of streams. Megalithic cemeteries contain burials that are linked together by low stone platforms made from large river cobbles. Broken red-burnished pottery and charred wood found on these platforms has led archaeologists to hypothesize that these platform were sometimes used for ceremonies and rituals.[16] The capstones of many southern megaliths have 'cup-marks' carvings. A small number of capstones have human and dagger representations. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Capstone-style

These megaliths are distinguished from other types by the presence of a burial shaft, sometimes up to 4 m in depth, which is lined with large cobbles.[17] A large capstone is placed over the burial shaft without propping stones. Capstone-style megaliths are the most monumental type in the Korean Peninsula, and they are primarily distributed near or on the south coast of Korea. It seems that most of these burials date to the latter part of the Middle Mumun (c. 700-550 BCE), and they may have been built into the early part of the Late Mumun. An example is found near modern Changwon at Deokcheon-ni, where a small cemetery contained a capstone burial (No. 1) with a massive, rectangularly shaped, stone and earthen platform. Archaeologists were not able to recover the entire feature, but the low platform was at least 56 X 18 m in size. The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... Changwon(창원) is a city in and the capital of South Gyeongsang Province in South Korea. ...


Analysis and evaluation

Megaliths were used for a variety of purposes. The purpose of megaliths ranged from serving as boundary markers of territory, to a reminder of past events, to being part of the society's religion.[18] Amongst the indigenous peoples of India, Malaysia, Polynesia, North Africa, North America, and South America, the worship of these stones, or the use of these stones to symbolize a spirit or deity, is a possibility.[19] In the early 20th century, some scholars believed that all megaliths belonged to one global "Megalithic culture"[20] (hyperdiffusionism, e. g. 'the Manchester school',[21] by Grafton Elliot Smith and William James Perry), but this has long been disproved by modern dating methods.[citation needed] The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Grafton Elliot Smith, (August 15, 1871 in Grafton, New South Wales, - January 1, 1937) in London was an Australian anatomist and a famous proponent of the hyperdiffusionist view of prehistory. ... William James Perry was a reader in cultural anthropology at University College, London. ...


Types of megalithic structures

The types of megalithic structures can be divided into two categories, the "Polylithic type" and the "Monolithic type".[22] Different megalithic structures include:

Polylithic type
Monolithic type
  • Menhir: a large, single upright standing stone.
  • Alignements[23] (or Stone row avenues [eg., Linear arrangement of upright, parallel standing stones])
  • Cycoliths (or stone circles)
  • Stantare
  • Trilithon: Two parallel upright stones with a horizontal stone (called a lintel) placed on top, e.g. Stonehenge.
  • Orthostat: an upright slab forming part of a larger structure.
  • Stone ship
  • Statues such as most moai
  • Gateways

Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ... This is a taula from the site of Talatì de Dalt about 40km west of Maó. A taula is a T-shaped stone monument found on the Balearic island of Minorca. ... Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow-in-Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... For other uses, see Cairn (disambiguation). ... T shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands, recent. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Su Nuraxi, Barumini, Sardinia Central tower of the Nuraghe at Saint Antine of Torralba Su Nurraxi. ... The talayots are Bronze Age stone towers on the islands of Minorca and Majorca. ... Dun Carloway broch, Lewis, Scotland The Broch is an Iron Age dry stone structure of a type which is only found in Scotland. ... A Maori word now common in New Zealand English, marae refers an area of land where the Wharenui or meeting house (literally big house) sits. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... “Rapa Nui” redirects here. ... Ahu Tongariki, restored in the 1990s Moai are monolithic stone figures on Rapa Nui / Easter Island, Chile. ... Moai statue with its Pukau Pukao are the hats or topknots that some Rapa Nui (Easter island) Moai (statues) used to have. ... “Rapa Nui” redirects here. ... -1... View of the megalithic complex at Knocknakilla, with a stone row shown behind a 3. ... In archaeology, a stone row or stone alignment is a linear arrangement of standing stones. ... Swinside stone circle, in the Lake District, England. ... Trilithon entrance, Mnajdra temple A trilithon at Stonehenge A trilithon (or trilith) is a structure consisting of two large vertical stones (posts) supporting a third stone set horizontally across the top (lintel). ... An orthostat is a large stone set upright. ... The stone ship at Anunds barrow The Stone ship was a Gemanic burial custom, typical for Scandinavia with scattered examples in Northern Germany and along the coast of the Baltic States (where they are called devil ships). ... Ahu Tongariki, restored in the 1990s Moai are monolithic stone figures on Rapa Nui / Easter Island, Chile. ...

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ Glossary. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  2. ^ Glossary. labyrinth.net.au.
  3. ^ Glossary. wordnet.princeton.edu.
  4. ^ Rochester's history ~ an illustrated timeline. glossary of cemetery terms
  5. ^ Johnson, W. (1908) p.67
  6. ^ Andrew L. Slayman. "Neolithic Skywatchers", Archaeology, May 27, 1998. Retrieved on 2007-03-21. 
  7. ^ a b c Fred Wendorf and Romuald Schild (March 1998). "Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa (Sahara), southwestern Egypt". The Comparative Archaeology WEB. Retrieved on 2007-03-31.
  8. ^ J. Clendenon. Nabta. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  9. ^ Rhee, Song-nai and Choi, Mong-lyong (1992) "Emergence of Complex Society in Prehistoric Korea" in Journal of World Prehistory 6(1):70, 1992
  10. ^ Nelson, Sarah M. (1999) "Megalithic Monuments and the Introduction of Rice into Korea" in The Prehistory of Food: Appetites for Change. C. Gosden and J. Hather (eds.) Routledge, London. pp.147-165
  11. ^ Rhee and Choi (1992) :68
  12. ^ Nelson (1999)
  13. ^ Rhee and Choi (1992) :68
  14. ^ Nelson (1999)
  15. ^ Rhee and Choi (1992) :68
  16. ^ GARI [Gyeongnam Archaeological Research Institute] (2002) Jinju Daepyeong Okbang 1 - 9 Jigu Mumun Sidae Jibrak [The Mumun Period Settlement at Localities 1 - 9, Okbang in Daepyeong, Jinju]. GARI, Jinju.
  17. ^ Bale, Martin T. "Excavations of Large-scale Megalithic Burials at Yulha-ri, Gimhae-si, Gyeongsang Nam-do" in Early Korea Project. Korea Institute, Harvard University. Retrieved 10 October 2007
  18. ^ d'Alviella, Goblet, et al. (1892) pp.22-23
  19. ^ Goblet, et al. (1892) p.23
  20. ^ Gaillard, Gérald (2004) The Routledge Dictionary of Anthropologists. Routledge. ISBN 0415228255 p.48
  21. ^ Lancaster Brown, P. (1976) p.267
  22. ^ Keane, A. H. (1896) p.124
  23. ^ Lancaster (1976). Page 6. (cf., French word alignement is used to describe standing stones arranged in rows to form long ‘processional' avenues)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Articles

  • A Fleming, Megaliths and post-modernism. The case of Wales. Antiquity, 2005.
  • A Fleming, Phenomenology and the Megaliths of Wales: a Dreaming Too Far?. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 1999
  • A Sherratt, The Genesis of Megaliths. World Archaeology. 1990. (JSTOR)
  • A Thom, Megaliths and Mathematics. Antiquity, 1966.
  • D Turnbull, Performance and Narrative, Bodies and Movement in the Construction of Places and Objects, Spaces and Knowledges : The Case of the Maltese Megaliths. Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 19, No. 5-6, 125-143 (2002) DOI 10.1177/026327602761899183
  • G Kubler, Period, Style and Meaning in Ancient American Art. New Literary History, Vol. 1, No. 2, A Symposium on Periods (Winter, 1970), pp. 127-144. doi:10.2307/468624
  • HJ Fleure, HJE Peake, Megaliths and Beakers. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 60, Jan. - Jun., 1930 (Jan. - Jun., 1930), pp. 47-71. doi:10.2307/2843859
  • J Ivimy, The Sphinx and the Megaliths. 1974.
  • J McKim Malville, F Wendorf, AA Mazar, R Schild, Megaliths and Neolithic astronomy in southern Egypt. Nature, 1998.
  • KL Feder, Irrationality and Popular Archaeology. American Antiquity, Vol. 49, No. 3 (Jul., 1984), pp. 525-541. doi:10.2307/280358
  • Hiscock, P. 1996. The New Age of alternative archaeology of Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 31(3):152-164
  • MW Ovenden, DA Rodger, Megaliths and Medicine Wheels. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 1978

Books

  • Goblet d'Alviella, E., & Wicksteed, P. H. (1892). Lectures on the origin and growth of the conception of God as illustrated by anthropology and history. London: Williams and Norgate.
  • Keane, A. H. (1896). Ethnology. Cambridge: University Press.
  • Johnson, W. (1908). Folk-memory. Oxford: Clarendon press.
  • Tyler, J. M. (1921). The new stone age in northern Europe. New York: C. Scribner's Sons.
  • Daniel, G. E. (1963). The megalith builders of Western Europe. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
  • Deo, S. B. (1973). Problem of South Indian megaliths. Dharwar: Kannada Research Institute, Karnatak University.
  • Asthana, S. (1976). History and archaeology of India's contacts with other countries, from earliest times to 300 B.C.. Delhi: B.R. Pub. Corp.
  • Lancaster Brown, P. (1976). Megaliths, myths, and men: an introduction to astro-archaeology. New York: Taplinger Pub. Co.
  • Subbayya, K. K. (1978). Archaeology of Coorg with special reference to megaliths. Mysore: Geetha Book House.
  • O'Kelly, M. J., et al. (1989). Early Ireland: An Introduction to Irish Prehistory. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521336872
  • Patton, Mark (1993). Statements in Stone: monuments and society in Neolithic Brittany. Routledge. 209 pages. ISBN 0415067294
  • Goudsward, D., & Stone, R. E. (2003). America's Stonehenge: the . Boston: Branden Books.
  • Moffett, M., Fazio, M. W., & Wodehouse, L. (2004). A world history of architecture. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
  • Nelson, Sarah M. (1993) The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Stukeley, W., Burl, A., & Mortimer, N. (2005). Stukeley's 'Stonehenge': an unpublished manuscript, 1721-1724. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press.

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