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Encyclopedia > Megali Idea

The Megali Idea (Greek: Μεγάλη Ιδέα, lit. "Great Idea") was an irredentist concept of Greek nationalism expressing the goal of establishing a Greek state that would encompass all ethnic Greeks. Megali Idea implied the goal of reestablishing a Greek state as ancient geographer Strabo wrote, with a Greek world extending west from Sicily, to Mikra Asia (Asia Minor) and Euxenus Pontus (Black Sea) to the east, and from Macedonia and Epirus, north, to Crete and Cyprus to the south. Greek populations still lived in those territories in the beginning of 20th century. Irredentism is claiming a right to territories belonging to another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian, Latin, Sicilian and Spanish, Σικελία in Greek, Sqallija Maltese) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia (or Anatolian Peninsula) is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asiatic portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion, the Thrace. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... NASA satelite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípiros) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


After the achievement of Greek independence in 1821, the Megali idea played a major role in Greek politics. Between two-thirds and three-quarters of the Greek people remained outside the borders of the limited Greece permitted by the Great Powers, who had no intention for a larger Greek state to replace the Ottoman Empire. Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...


The Greek state emerging under John Capodistria after the Greek War of Independence left out large groups of ethnic Greeks. The Great Idea encompassed a desire to bring these groups into the Greek state; specifically in the territories of Epirus, Thessaly, Macedonia, the Aegean Islands, Crete, Cyprus, parts of Anatolia, and the city of Constantinople, that would replace Athens as the capital. Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776-1831). ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries, United Kingdom, Russia, France Ottoman Empire, Egyptian troops Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis, Alexander Ypsilanti Omer Vryonis, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... The Aegean Islands (Greek: Αιγαίον Πέλαγος, Aigaíon Pélagos; Turkish: Ege Adaları) are a group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area    - City 38. ...

Contents

Venizelos

A major proponent was Eleftherios Venizelos, who expanded Greek territory in the Balkan Wars of 1912-13 — southern Epirus, Crete, and southern Macedonia were attached to Greece. Thessaly, and part of southern Epirus, had been annexed in 1881. Victory in World War I seemed to promise an even greater realisation of the Great Idea, as Greece won northern Epirus, Smyrna, Imbros, Tenedos, and Western Thrace. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League Bulgaria Commanders Nizam Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev The outcome... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Agora of Smyrna Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded at a very early period at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Location of Imbros Imbros, officially known as Gökçeada (older name in Turkish: Ä°mroz; Greek: Ίμβρος – Imvros), is the largest island of Turkey, part of Çanakkale Province. ... Gökçeada and Bozcaada are two islands in the Aegean Sea which are part of Canakkale Province in Turkey. ... Western or Greek Thrace is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos (Bulgarian Mesta) and Evros (Bulgarian Maritsa, Turkish Meriç) in northeastern Greece. ...


Opposition to the Megali Idea

The Greeks of the Black Sea (Pontic Greek) gathered in Trabzon on February 23, 1918 and undertook the decision to work towards the establishment of a Pontian Greek Republic. The first issue of the newspaper Pontos, a step in that direction, is published in Trabzon on 4 March. The Archbishop of the Greek Orthodox populations of the region, goes to Paris on 27 March and presents a report to the Conference on 2 May. NASA satelite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Pontic Greek is a Greek language which was originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea (Pontus). Pontics linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek, and contains influences from Byzantine Greek, Turkish influence and some Persian and Caucasian borrowings. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Republic of Pontus was a Pontian Greek state that existed in the north-eastern part of modern Turkey from 1917 to 1919. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in leap years). ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ...


Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)

A major defeat followed in 1922, however, when the Turkish nationalists defeated and expelled the Greeks from Anatolia during the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922). Greece did retain western Thrace, and in 1945, at the end of World War II, won the Dodecanese from Italy. Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ismet Inonu, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus thousands more volunteers) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ismet Inonu, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus thousands more volunteers) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... The Dodecanese (Greek: Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, meaning twelve islands; see also List of traditional Greek place names) are a group of Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ...


Legacy of the Megali Idea

Although the Great Idea ceased to be a driving force behind Greek foreign policy after the Treaty of Lausanne, some remnants continued to influence Greek foreign policy throughout the remainder of the 20th century. There have been some cases in post-war history, which could be linked to transitory reappearance of 'megaloideatic' policies and propaganda. Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly...


In 1974, in particular, the right-wing military regime in Athens sponsored a pro-enosis military coup on Cyprus, which was followed by the invasion and occupation by Turkish troops of the north of Cyprus (see Cyprus dispute). 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The word Ένωσις (enosis) is Greek for union. ... The Cyprus dispute is the conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and also Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over Cyprus, an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ...


Another case was the event that Greece explicitly recognised the present Greco-Albanian border (and, implicitly, Albanian rule over northern Epirus), only after the fall of communism in the Balkans. But the delay in recognising the existing borders with Albania is more certainly associated with the nearly total isolation of Albania during the Cold War and especially the state of belligerency that existed between the two states since the Second World War.


Influence on current Greek foreign policy

Respect for independence and territorial integrity of all neighbouring nations has been a cornerstone of the foreign policy of the Greek Republic. Respect for the territorial status quo was mentioned on a number of occasions by Greek authorities as a reason for Greece's refusal to participate in the 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Combatants NATO Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Various militias and paramilitaries, as well as international volunteers [3] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR) Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan Milošević (Supreme Commander of the Army of Yugoslavia) Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of Staff) Svetozar Marjanović (Deputy Chief of Staff) Casualties 61 airplanes...


Reference

  • Özhan Öztürk (2005). Karadeniz (Black Sea): Ansiklopedik Sözlük. 2 Cilt. Heyamola Yayıncılık. İstanbul. ISBN 975-6121-00-9

See also

Greece was elected by the United Nations General Assembly to the United Nations Security Council, on 15 October 2004 , as a non-permanent member for 2005 and 2006. ... It has been suggested that Ethnic Albania be merged into this article or section. ... Greater Serbia is a name for a Serbian nationalist concept. ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano Greater Bulgaria territory would include the plain between the Danube and the Balkan mountain range (Stara Planina), Northern and Southern Dobruja, the region of Sofia, Pirot and Vranje in the Morava valley, Northern Thrace, parts of Eastern Thrace and nearly... Irredentism is an international relations term that involves advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... The Istanbul Pogrom, also known as the Istanbul Riots, or the Σεπτεμβριανά in Greek and the 6-7 Eylül Olayları in Turkish (both literally Events of September), was a pogrom directed primarily at Istanbul’s 100,000-strong Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Northern Epirus (Greek: Βόρειος Ήπειρος Vorios Ipiros) is the name by which the Greeks call the region of southern Albania which is home to Tosk Albanians, Greeks, Aromanians and other ethnic groups. ... A procession of deported Greeks at Elazığ (Source: National Geographic Magazine 11/25). ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a type of message aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people. ... Agora of Smyrna Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today İzmir in Turkey) that was founded at a very early period at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... A map distributed by extreme Macedonian nationalists circa 1993. ... Greater Armenia as advocated by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation under the title of United Armenia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Megali Idea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (638 words)
Megali Idea implied the goal of reestablishing a Greek state as ancient geographer Strabo wrote, with a Greek world extending west from Sicily, to Mikra Asia (Asia Minor) and Euxenus Pontus (Black Sea) to the east, and from Macedonia and Epirus, north, to Crete and Cyprus to the south.
The Great Idea encompassed a desire to bring these groups into the Greek state; specifically in the territories of Epirus, Thessaly, Macedonia, the Aegean Islands, Crete, Cyprus, parts of Anatolia, and the city of Constantinople, that would replace Athens as the capital.
Although the Great Idea ceased to be a driving force behind Greek foreign policy after the Treaty of Lausanne, some remnants continued to influence Greek foreign policy throughout the remainder of the 20th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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