FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Medulla oblongata
Brain: Medulla oblongata
Medulla oblongata labeled at bottom left
Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive.
Latin medulla oblongata
Gray's subject #187 767
Part of Brain stem
NeuroNames hier-695
MeSH Medulla+Oblongata
Dorlands/Elsevier m_06/12519731

The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. It deals with autonomic functions, such as breathing and blood pressure. The cardiac center is the part of the medulla oblongata responsible for controlling the heart rate. Image File history File links Illu_pituitary_pineal_glands. ... Image File history File links Gray694. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The brain stem is the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Heart rate is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ...

Contents

Location

By anatomical terms of location, it is rostral to the spinal cord and caudal to the pons, which is in turn ventral to the cerebellum. In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... For other uses, see Pons (disambiguation). ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control. ...


For a human or other bipedal species, this means it is above the spinal cord, below the pons, and anterior to the cerebellum. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Anatomy

Two parts: open and closed

The medulla is often thought of as being in two parts:

  • an open part (close to the pons)
  • a closed part (further down towards the spinal cord).

The opening referred to is on the dorsal side of the medulla, and forms part of the fourth ventricle of the brain. The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ...


Landmark fissures and sulci

The medulla has an anterior median fissure and a posterior median sulcus corresponding to the structures seen in the spinal cord. The anterior median fissure (ventral or ventromedian fissure) contains a fold of pia mater, and extends along the entire length of the medulla oblongata: it ends at the lower border of the pons in a small triangular expansion, termed the foramen cecum. ... The posterior median sulcus of medulla oblongata (or posterior median fissure) is a narrow groove; and exists only in the closed part of the medulla oblongata; it becomes gradually shallower from below upward, and finally ends about the middle of the medulla oblongata, where the central canal expands into the...


On each side, the anterolateral sulcus lies in line with the ventral roots of the spinal nerves. The rootlets of cranial nerve XII (the hypoglossal nerve) emerge from this sulcus. The anterolateral sulcus (or ventrolateral sulcus) is a sulcus on the side of the medulla oblongata. ... In anatomy and neurology, the ventral root (or anterior root) is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve. ... The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII). ...


The posterolateral sulcus lies in line with the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. It gives attachment to the rootlets of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and the accessory nerve or the IX, X, and the XI cranial nerves from above downward in order. The accessory, vagus, and glossopharyngeal nerves correspond with the posterior nerve roots, and are attached to the bottom of a sulcus named the postero-lateral sulcus (or dorsolateral sulcus). ... Grays FIG. 791 - Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... In anatomy, the accessory nerve is a nerve that controls specific muscles of the neck. ... Cranial nerves Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain in contrast to spinal nerves which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. ...


Between the anterior median sulcus and the anterolateral sulcus

The region between the anterior median sulcus and the anterolateral sulcus is occupied by an elevation on either side called as the pyramid of medulla oblongata. This elevation is caused by the corticospinal tract. The interior district of the medulla oblongata is named the pyramid and lies between the anterior median fissure and the antero-lateral sulcus. ... The corticospinal or pyramidal tract is a massive collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain and the spinal cord. ...


In the lower part of the medulla some of these fibers cross each other thus obliterating the anterior median fissure. This is known as the decussation of the pyramids. The two pyramids contain the motor fibers which pass from the brain to the medulla oblongata and medulla spinalis, corticobulbar and corticospinal fibers. ...


Some other fibers that originate from the anterior median fissure above the decussation of the pyramids and run laterally across the surface of the pons are known as the external arcuate fibers.


Between the anterolateral and posterolateral sulci

The region between the anterolateral and posterolateral sulci in the upper part of the medulla is marked by a swelling known as the Olivary body. In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva and olivae, singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. ...


It is caused by a large mass of gray matter known as the inferior olivary nucleus. In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. ...


Between the posterior median sulcus and the posterolateral sulcus

The posterior part of the medulla between the posterior median sulcus and the posterolateral sulcus contains tracts that enter it from the posterior funiculus of the spinal cord. These are the fasciculus gracilis, lying medially next to the midline, and the fasciculus cuneatus, lying laterally. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The fasciculus cuneatus (tract of Burdach) is triangular on transverse section, and lies between the fasciculus gracilis and the posterior column, its base corresponding with the surface of the medulla spinalis. ...


These fasciculi end in rounded elevations known as the gracile and the cuneate tubercles. They are caused by masses of gray matter known as the nucleus gracilis and the nucleus cuneatus. The swelling on the fasciculus gracilis is named the clava, and is produced by a subjacent nucleus of gray matter, the nucleus gracilis. ... Cuneate nucleus is a wedge-shaped nucleus in the medulla. ...


Just above the tubercles, the posterior aspect of the medulla is occupied by a triangular fossa, which forms the lower part of the floor of the fourth ventricle. The fossa is bounded on either side by the inferior cerebellar peduncle, which connects the medulla to the cerebellum. The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control. ...


Lower part

The lower part of the medulla, immediately lateral to the fasciculus cuneatus, is marked by another longitudinal elevation known as the tuberculum cinereum. The tuber cinereum is a hollow eminence of gray matter situated between the mammilary bodies, behind, and the optic chiasma, in front. ...


It is caused by an underlying collection of gray matter known as the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem, midbrain to medulla. ...


The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the...


Base

The base of the medulla is defined by the commissural fibers, crossing over from the ipsilateral side in the spinal cord to the contralateral side in the brain stem; below this is the spinal cord. The commissural fibers or transverse fibers connect the two hemispheres of the brain. ...


Functions

The medulla oblongata controls autonomic functions, and relays nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord. It is also responsible for controlling several major points and autonomic functions of the body: This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating energy needed to cope with stressful...

In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... The dorsal repiratory group is found in many types of fish and marine mammals. ... The ventral respiratory group is a group of neurons in the medulla which initiates inhalation. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... For the Bush song, see Swallowed (song). ... Heaving redirects here. ... For the death metal band, see Defecation (band). ...

Blood supply

Blood to the medulla is supplied by a number of arteries.

In human anatomy, the anterior spinal artery is the blood vessel that supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord. ... A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90% of strokes), by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - less than 10% of strokes) or other causes. ... The corticospinal or pyramidal tract is a massive collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain, and the spinal cord. ... The medial lemniscus, also known as Reils band or Reils ribbon, is a pathway in the brainstem that carries sensory information from the gracile and cuneate nuclei to the thalamus. ... The hypoglossal nucleus extends the length of the medulla, and being a motor nucleus, is close to the midline. ... Medial medullary syndrome (also known as Dejerine syndrome) is a set of clinical features resulting from an infarction in the brainstem. ... The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is one of the three main arterial blood supplies for the cerebellum. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor control. ... The vertebral arteries are branches of the subclavian arteries. ... The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) cranial nerves, as well as the cranial part of the accessory nerve (XI). ... Lateral medullary syndrome (also called Wallenbergs syndrome) is a disease in which the patient has difficulty with swallowing or speaking or both owing to one or more patches of dead tissue (known as an infarct) caused by interrupted blood supply to parts of the brain. ...

Additional images

Popular Culture

  • In the movie The Waterboy, when asked why alligators are so aggressive, Bobby Boucher responds "My mama says that alligators are ornery because they got all them teeth and no toothbrush." Science professor "Colonel Sanders" then informs him that aggressive behavior in alligators is caused by an enlarged Medulla Oblongata, and insults Boucher by saying that the waterboy's high aggression is also caused by an enlarged Oblongata. Boucher then angrily tackles Sanders.
  • In the television series Futurama, in the episode "Parasites Lost", the worms leave Fry's body, after he threatens to sever the Medulla Oblongata, which would cause his death. The worms leave, but not until Fry had already done severe damage to his brain.
  • In the television series Jimmy Neutron Boy Genius, in the episode "Time is Money", Sheen says his favorite part of a video about brains is the part about the Medulla Oblongata, even though he doesn't know what it is, he likes the way it sounds.
  • In the movie Torment of the Wicked, the monster from the swamps eats a Medulla Oblongata off the head of Dr. Miles Poiinowski when he loses the challenge to cross the bridge to happy ville.
  • In the video game SSX 3, if you play as Mac Fraser and make him crash into a tree or obstacle, he'll sometimes say "Ow, My Medulla Oblongata!"
  • In Alicia Keys' song "Slow Down", from her album "As I Am", she sings "my medulla oblongata is electrified..." at about 1:35.
  • In Fight Club the narrator finds a series of articles written in the first person by organs, one of which begins "I am Jack's medulla oblongata without me Jack could not regulate his heart rate, blood pressure or breathing", which then inspires his "I am Jack's ..." monologues throughout the book.
  • In a Mad TV skit starring character Coach Hines, he stated 'that's your medulla oblongata' to a student, as he held up a piece of a plant that he just ripped up that signified the students neck.
  • In the movie Van Wilder, Van introduces the Lambda Omega Omega fraternity to Sherry and Terry, who are "utterly infatuated with men who have larger than normal medulla oblongatas."
  • In the song We Takin' Over, a line in Lil Wayne's verse says "Touch it I will bust your medulla."

For other uses, see Water boy (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the large reptile. ... Adam Richard Sandler (born September 9, 1966) is an American comedian, actor, musician, screenwriter, and film producer. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. ... Harland David Sanders, better known as Colonel Sanders (September 9, 1890 – December 16, 1980) was the founder of Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC). ... This article is about the television series. ... Parasites Lost is the 2nd episode in series 3 of Futurama. ... Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius is a video game based on the Nickelodeon movie of the same name. ... SSX 3 is a snowboarding video game published by Electronic Arts and developed by EA Sports BIG, which was released in late 2003. ... Singles from As I Am Released: September 11, 2007 Released: November 12 2007 As I Am is the third studio album by American R&B/soul singer Alicia Keys, and was released on November 13, 2007. ... Fight Club[1] (1996) is the first published novel by American author Chuck Palahniuk. ... Mad TV has three meanings: MADtv — a TV series. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 2002 films | Comedy films | Teen films ... We Takin Over is a hip-hop song by DJ Khaled, released as the first single from his album We the Best and his most successful single to date will be featured in WWE Smackdown vs. ...

External links

The dorsal repiratory group is found in many types of fish and marine mammals. ... The ventral respiratory group is a group of neurons in the medulla which initiates inhalation. ... The interior district of the medulla oblongata is named the pyramid and lies between the anterior median fissure and the antero-lateral sulcus. ... The two pyramids contain the motor fibers which pass from the brain to the medulla oblongata and medulla spinalis, corticobulbar and corticospinal fibers. ... In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The olivocerebellar tract (olivocerebellar fibers) leaves the olivary nucleus and pass out through the hilum and decussate with those from the opposite olive in the raphé, then as internal arcuate fibers they pass partly through and partly around the opposite olive and enter the inferior peduncle to be distributed to... The anterior median fissure (ventral or ventromedian fissure) contains a fold of pia mater, and extends along the entire length of the medulla oblongata: it ends at the lower border of the pons in a small triangular expansion, termed the foramen cecum. ... Certain of the cranial nerves pass through the substance of the medulla oblongata, and are attached to its surface in series with the roots of the spinal nerves; thus, the fibers of the hypoglossal nerve represent the upward continuation of the anterior nerve roots, and emerge in linear series from... Grays Fig. ... In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva and olivae, singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The reticular formation is a part of the brain which is involved in stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, and lying down. ... The gigantocellular nucleus, as the name indicates, is mainly composed of the so called giant neuronal cells. ... The parvocellular reticular nucleus is located dorsolateral to the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis. ... The ventral reticular nucleus is a continuation of the parvocellular nucleus in the brainstem. ... A nucleus of the medulla oblongata involved with co-ordinating baroreceptor signals to control arterial blood pressure. ... The paramedian reticular nucleus (in Terminologia Anatomica, or paramedian medullary reticular group in NeuroNames) sends its connections to the spinal cord in a mostly ipsilateral manner, although there is some decussation. ... The raphe nuclei (Latin for the bit in a fold or seam) is a moderately sized cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem, and releases serotonin to the rest of the brain. ... The nucleus raphe obscurus, despite the implications of its name, has some very specific functions and connections of afferent and efferent nature. ... The nucleus raphe magnus, located directly rostral to the raphe obscurus, is afferently stimulated from axons in the spinal cord and cerebellum. ... The nucleus raphe pallidus receives afferent connections from the periaqueductal gray, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, central nucleus of the amygdala, lateral hypothalamic area, and parvocellular reticular nucleus. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Medulla oblongata - Psychology Wiki (13784 words)
The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem.
This elevation is caused by the corticospinal tract.
Gilbert, A.-K. The contribution of descending fibers from the rostral ventromedial medulla to nociception, and to opioid and non-opioid analgesia.
Medulla oblongata - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (516 words)
The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem.
The medulla is often thought of as being in two parts, an open part (close to the pons), and a closed part (further down towards the spinal cord).
The 'opening' referred to is on the dorsal side of the medulla, and forms part of the fourth ventricle of the brain.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m