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Encyclopedia > Medium of instruction

Medium of instruction is the language that is used in teaching. It may or may not be the official language of the territory. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


Media of instruction in different countries and regions

  • In Australia, most schools use English.
  • In Belarus, Russian is used since the government closed all[citation needed] Belarusian language high schools.
  • In Belgium, French and Dutch (and German in some parts of Brussels) are used.
  • In Canada, English (or French in Quebec) is the medium in most schools, but Inuit languages are used in the north. See French immersion
  • In the mainland of the People's Republic of China (PRC), Mandarin Chinese is used as the medium of instruction in most schools. In elementary and secondary schools for ethnic minorities, the minority languages - such as Mongolian, Tibetan and Korean are also used. However, the two special administrative regions (SAR) of the PRC have their own policies on the media of instruction:
    • In the Hong Kong SAR, Chinese and English are used as the mediums of instruction in schools. Cantonese Chinese is usually spoken, though Mandarin Chinese and English are spoken in some schools. Before 1997, most schools taught in Cantonese and used English textbooks except the subjects Chinese, Chinese literature and Chinese history, and took English public exams. Since 1997, the Hong Kong government has pursued a policy of encouraging schools to switch to mother-tongue teaching and has only allowed 114 of the region's approximately 400 government and aided schools to continue using English as the medium of instruction in Form 1 to Form 3.[1][2][3]. General public considered the students' English level is important. The EMI schools often absorbed the top students and therefore had better performance in public exams. Some parents moved to areas with more EMI schools or applied primary schools linked to an EMI secondary schools to increase the chances to enter the EMI schools. The lawsuits in 2001 on central allocation of schools divide the quota between sexes under Sex Discrimination Ordinance led to the mixed allocation thereafter. Following recommendations from the Standing Committee on Language Education and Research the government has announced that from 2008 onwards, secondary schools will only be permitted to use English as the medium of instruction if at least 85% of students enrolling in F. 1 fall into the top 40% of students for English, mathematics and Chinese in primary school assessments, as it has deemed that only students who are in this category are able to benefit from E.M.I. This move has been controversial as parents are eager to send their children to E.M.I. schools which they consider will offer them better career opportunities, as there are fears that switching to C.M.I will make it more difficult for students to gain university places in the territory, English being the principle medium at tertiary level, and as members of non-Chinese medium ethnic minorities are expected to find it more difficult to get school places. Some schools shifted from aided schools to private schools. Alternatively, for children coming from families who can afford the tuition, some attend the English Schools Foundation (ESF) schools, other international schools, private English schools and overseas boarding schools. But there are some disadvantages in this policy, e.g. 1) adopting mother-tongue teaching, most of the time, to mother-tongue teaching, and students to the teaching of English, the English less contact time.2) mother-tongue teaching under-trained students enter tertiary institutions in English learning environment, is often difficult to adapt to. Hong Kong students has been declining standard of English. However, the goal of education is not just learning English, but biliterate and trilingual. If all English teaching can improve the English proficiency of students, then the mother-tongue teaching can also improve the ability of the mother tongue of students, Putonghua teaching can also improve their Putonghua proficiency. In the two languages and three under the premise of the phrase, no overwhelming reason for a full English teaching.
    • In the Macau SAR, Chinese and Portuguese are the two official languages of the region. Chinese is used as the medium of instruction in many schools. When Chinese is used as the medium of instruction, Cantonese Chinese is usually spoken, though Mandarin Chinese is spoken in some schools. Portuguese is used in Portugal-backed schools. English, which is not an official language of the region, is also used in a lot of schools.
  • In Estonia, Estonian is used with 26 schools in the south teaching Võro once a week. The use of Russian is being limited since restoring independence.
  • In Finland, Finnish is the language used in most schools, but Swedish, which is also an official national language, is used in a number of schools along the coast and Abo Akademi. The right to education in Swedish is based in the constitution. There are also a few schools where education is given to some extent in Sami in the north. See also Mandatory Swedish.
  • In France, legislation restricts languages other than French in state schools. Other languages of France are the medium of instruction in non-state schools such as Diwan Breton language-medium schools and the Calendretas in the south that use Occitan. See Language policy in France
  • In India, mediums of instruction alternate between English, Hindi, and the respective state's official language. Private schools usually prefer one of the first two choices, while public schools tend to go with one of the last two.
  • In Ireland, English is used in most schools with a growing number of gaelscoileanna using Irish.
  • In the Isle of Man, English is used, but Manx is being revived with on Manx-medium school at St. John's.
  • In Moldova, Moldovan (Romanian) is used but Russian is slowly being introduced[citation needed].
  • In New Zealand, English is used in many schools, but a growing number of kohanga reo (kindergarten) and kura kaupapa (primary and secondary school) are using Māori instead.
  • In Norway, the medium of instruction is Norwegian.
  • In Pakistan, most[citation needed] schools and all universities use English as a medium of instruction.
  • In the Taiwan Area of the Republic of China (ROC), Mandarin Chinese is used as the medium of instruction.
  • In Romania, the medium of instruction is Romanian but minorities, such as Hungarian and German, are allowed to teach in their respective tongues.
  • In the United States, English is used, but in some schools, Spanish, French (in Louisiana,) Hawaiian (in Hawaii) and local Indian languages are used as well.
  • In Scotland, English is used the most because there is little or no education in Lowland Scots, and Scottish Gaelic is only just starting to be used again: see Gaelic medium unit.
  • In Slovenia, Slovenian is used throughout the country, but the Hungarian and Italian minority are entitled to primary and secondary education in their language.
  • In Switzerland, German, French, Italian, and/or Romansch are used in most schools.
  • In Tanzania, Swahili is used in primary schools (seven years), whereas English is used secondary schools (four to six years) and universties.
  • In Wales, while the majority of schools teach through the medium of English, an increasing number teach through the medium of Welsh.

The Belarusian or Belorussian language (беларуская мова, BGN/PCGN: byelaruskaya mova, Scientific: bjelaruskaja mova) is the language of the Belarusian people and is spoken in Belarus and abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, Poland. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... French immersion is a form of bilingual education in which a child who does not speak French as his or her first language receives instruction in school in French. ... ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ... Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... The Vyronian language (võro kiil) is a language belonging to the Baltic-Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Finno-Ugric languages spoken in parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, in Northern Europe. ... In Finnish schools, Swedish is a mandatory school subject, amounting at an average of two hours a week in classes 7-9 in the Finnish nine-year compulsory school and at an average two hours a week during three years of secondary education. ... There are a number of languages of France. ... Diwan is a federation of Breton language schools in Brittany, in the western part of the French Republic. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... This is an article about language policy in France. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी, Roman: Konknni, Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, Malayalam: കൊംകണീ, IAST: ) is a language of India, and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Andhra redirects here. ... Telugu may refer to: Telugu language Telugu literature Telugu people Telugu script Telugu films Look up Telugu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bunscoil in Newry A gaelscoil (Plural: gaelscoileanna) is an Irish-speaking school often also co-educational usually found in Ireland, but outside the Irish speaking Gaeltacht areas. ... The village of St Johns is a small village in the central valley of the Isle of Man on the road between Douglas and Peel. ... The kohanga reo (English: language nests) are kindergartens where all instruction is given in the Maori language. ... The kohanga reo (English: language nests) are kindergartens where all instruction is given in the Maori language. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori,[1] commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) functions as one of the official languages of New Zealand. ... The Free Area of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國自由地區) is a legal and political description referring to the territories of the Republic of China under the control of its government. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from HawaiÊ»i, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is any of the various Rhaetian languages spoken in Switzerland. ... Swahili (also called Kiswahili; see Kiswahili for a discussion of the nomenclature) is an agglutinative Bantu language widely spoken in East Africa. ... A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... This article is about the country. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

See also

Bilingual education involves teaching all subjects in school through two different languages - in the United States, instruction occurs in English and a minority language, such as Spanish or Chinese, with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model. ... Native-language instruction is the practice of teaching schoolchildren in their native language instead of in the official language of their country of residence. ... An English Medium Education system is one that uses English as the primary medium of instruction. ... Many countries have a language policy designed to favour or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. ... // Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
CAL: Digests: Content-Centered Language Learning (1680 words)
In this approach, the second or foreign language is used as the medium of instruction for mathematics, science, social studies, and other academic subjects; it is the vehicle used for teaching and acquiring subject specific knowledge.
Instruction is usually given by a language teacher or by a combination of the language and content teachers.
Among the issues facing content-centered language instruction in the United States is the need for research to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated instruction, specifying optimal conditions for various programmatic effects, including the timing of integrated instruction, the relative effectiveness of different program models, and the use of various instructional strategies, texts, and assessment measures.
Medium of instruction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (539 words)
Medium of instruction is the language that is used in teaching.
In both the People's Republic of China (mainland China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan), Mandarin Chinese is used as the medium of instruction throughout the country, although different "dialects" are spoken in daily life in different regions in the country.
When Chinese is used as the medium of instruction, Cantonese Chinese is usually spoken, though Mandarin Chinese is spoken in some schools.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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