FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mediterranean race
Early 20th Century Distribution/Definition
of the Mediterranean Race
Total population

Mediterranean Basin
380,000,000 people
On Mediterranean Coast
146,000,000 people
5.8% of world population

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Italy Southern Italy 20,700,000[1]
Flag of Spain Spain 45,061,274
Flag of Greece Greece 11,170,957
Flag of Portugal Portugal 10,642,836
Flag of Morocco Morocco 33,241,259
Flag of Lebanon Lebanon 3,925,502
Flag of Tunisia Tunisia 10,102,000
Flag of Wales Wales 2,958,600
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus 855,000
Flag of Malta Malta 402,000
Flag of Occitania Occitania (Southern France) 13,500,000
Languages
French · Occitan · Greek · Italian · Portuguese · Spanish · Catalan
Religions
Predominantly
Roman Catholic · Protestant · Orthodox

The Mediterranean race was one of the three sub-categories into which the people of Europe were divided by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, following the publication of William Z. Ripley's book "The Races of Europe" (1899). The others were "Nordic" and "Alpine". Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Wales_2. ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Occitania_(with_star). ... Occitania refers to the lands where the Occitan language is spoken. ... This region consists of the southern part of France. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... William Z. Ripley was an economist who trained at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and at Columbia University. ... The Races of Europe is the title of two books related to the anthropology of Europeans. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Nordic supremacy theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ...


The Mediterranean race was thought to be prevalent in southern Europe, parts of North Africa, South Asia and the Middle East, and was characterized by moderate to short stature, narrow shoulders, long skull (dolichocephalicness), dark hair (rarely red hair), dark eyes & complexion. According to some theorists of this period this was due to racial mixing with Asian and African peoples, others argued that it had an independent history and identity. Woman with red hair Teenager with red hair Red hair (also referred to as auburn, ginger, titian) varies from a deep red through to bright copper. ...

Contents

Early debates

These differentiations occurred following long-standing claims about the alleged differences between the Nordic and the Mediterranean people. Such debates arose from responses to ancient writers who had commented on differences between northern and southern Europeans. For the Greeks and Romans, Germanic and Celtic peoples were often stereotyped as wild red haired barbarians. Aristotle argued that the Greeks were an ideal race because they possessed a medium skin-tone, in contrast to pale northerners and black Africans. However Tacitus argued that the Germans were an "unmixed" people, who had preserved their ancient language and race.[1]. By the nineteenth century long-standing cultural and religious differences between Protestant northern Europe and the Catholic south were being reinterpreted in racial terms.[2] This article is about the European people. ... Woman with red hair Teenager with red hair Red hair (also referred to as auburn, ginger, titian) varies from a deep red through to bright copper. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ...

Madison Grant's map, from 1916, charting the distribution of the "European races". Nordic race is shown in bright red; green indicates the Alpine race; yellow, the Mediterranean race.
Madison Grant's map, from 1916, charting the distribution of the "European races". Nordic race is shown in bright red; green indicates the Alpine race; yellow, the Mediterranean race.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1613, 3244 KB) Present Distribution of the European Races, map from American eugenicist Madison Grants 1916 book, The Passing of the Great Race. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1613, 3244 KB) Present Distribution of the European Races, map from American eugenicist Madison Grants 1916 book, The Passing of the Great Race. ... Madison Grant in the early 1920s. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... Nordic supremacy theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ...

Racial theories

In the nineteenth century the division of humanity into distinct races became a matter for scientific debate. In 1870, Thomas Huxley argued that there were four basic racial categories (Xanthocroic, Mongoloid, Australoid and Negroid). The Xanthocroic race were the "fair whites" of north and Central Europe. According to Huxley, Thomas Henry Huxley, FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) [1] was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... The Nordic race (also Nordid), is an anthropological interpretation of the human phenotype. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ... Australoid is a broad racial sub-classification of Australasian peoples having generally dark skin and hair which can be curly, straight, or kinky, defined by the anthropologist Carleton S. Coon. ... Negroid is a term used to describe one of the groups of craniofacial anthropometry, a view now mostly regarded as an over-simplification of the spectrum of human diversity. ... The Nordic race (also Nordid), is an anthropological interpretation of the human phenotype. ...

On the south and west this type comes into contact and mixes with the "Melanochroi," or "dark whites"...In these regions are found, more or less mixed with Xanthochroi and Mongoloids, and extending to a greater or less distance into the conterminous Xanthochroic, Mongoloid, Negroid, and Australioid areas, the men whom I have termed Melanchroi, or dark whites. Under its best form this type is exhibited by many Irishmen, Welshmen, and Bretons, by Spaniards, South Italians, Greeks, Armenians, Arabs, and high-caste Brahmins...I am much disposed to think that the Melanochroi are the result of an intermixture between the Xanthochroi and the Australioids. It is to the Xanthochroi and Melanochroi, taken together, that the absurd denomination of "Caucasian" is usually applied.[3]

By the late nineteenth century Huxley's Xanthocroic group had been redefined as the "Nordic" race, while his Melanochroi became the Mediterranean race. In Germany, Britain and the USA it became common for white supremacists to promote the merits of the blond, blue-eyed Nordic race as the most advanced of human population groups: the "master race". Southern Europeans were deemed to be inferior, an argument that dated back to Arthur de Gobineau's claims that racial mixing was responsible for the decline of the Roman Empire.[4] However, in southern Europe itself alternative models were developed which stressed the merits of Mediterranean peoples, drawing on established traditions dating from ancient and Renaissance claims about the superiority of civilization in the south. Some of these arguments were taken up by African-American writers to counter the arguments of Nordicists who considered any deviation from "pure" whiteness to be a taint. White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (July 14, 1816 - October 13, 1882) was a French aristocrat who became famous for advocating White Supremacy and developing the racialist theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ...


The fact that Mediterranean peoples were responsible for the most important of ancient western civilizations was a problem for the promoters of Nordic superiority. Giuseppe Sergi's much-debated book The Mediterranean Race (1901) argued that the Mediterranean race had in fact originated in Africa, and that it also included a number of dark-skinned African peoples, such as Ethiopians. Sergi's studies claimed that the Mediterraneans, the Africans and the Nordics all originated from an original Eurafrican Race.[5]. According to Sergi the Mediterranean race, the "greatest race of the world", was responsible for the great civilizations of ancient times, including those of Egypt, India, Carthage, Greece, and Rome. These Mediterranean peoples were quite distinct from the peoples of northern Europe. Sergi also argued that the Mediterranean race was closely related to a Hamitic African population, which included such groups as the Tutsi.[6] To Sergi the Semites were a branch of the Eurafricans who were closely related to the Mediterraneans.[7] Giuseppè Sergi (1841, Messina – 1936, Rome) was an influential Italian anthropologist of the early twentieth century, notable for his opposition to Nordicism in his books on the racial identity of ancient Mediterranean peoples. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Hamitic is an obsolete ethno-linguistic classification of some ethnic groups within the Afroasiatic (previously termed Semito-Hamitic) language family. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ...


C. G. Seligman also stated that "it must, I think, be recognized that the Mediterranean race has actually more achievement to its credit than any other, since it is responsible for by far the greater part of Mediterranean civilization, certainly before 1000 B.C. (and probably much later), and so shaped not only the Aegean cultures, but those of Western as well as the greater part of Eastern Mediterranean lands, while the culture of their near relatives, the Hamitic pre-dynastic Egyptians, formed the basis of that of Egypt."[8]


In the USA the idea that the Mediterranean race included African peoples was taken up in the early twentieth century by African-American writers such as W.E.B. Dubois, who used it to attack white supremacist ideas about racial "purity". Such publications as the Journal of Negro History stressed the cross-fertilization of cultures between Africa and Europe, and adopted Sergi's view that the "civilizing" race had originated in Africa itself.[9] This fed into the development of Afrocentrism. W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ... An 1812 map of Africa Afrocentrism is an approach to the study of world history which stresses the distinctive identity and contributions of African cultures. ...


The fascist dictator Mussolini was critical of some aspects of the Nordicism and Nordic racism promoted by his allies the Nazis, a fact which can be explained by his own experiences with Nordicist "racial science". Emil Ludwig recorded in his talks with Mussolini that Mussolini was arrested in 1903 in Zurich by the police and subjected to an anthropometric examination.[10] Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ...


Later 20th century

Later in the 20th century the concept of a distinctive Mediterranean race was still considered useful by theorists such as Earnest Hooton in Up From the Ape (1931) and Carleton Coon in his revised edition of Ripley's Races of Europe (1939). These writers thought the Nordic race was the northern variety of Mediterraneans that lost pigmentation through natural selection due to the environment. Earnest A. Hooton (November 20, 1887 Clemansville, Wisconsin -- May 3, 1954 Cambridge, Massachussets) was a physical anthropologist known for his work on racial classification and his popular writings such as the book Up From The Apes. ... Carleton Stevens Coon, (23 June 1904 — 6 June 1981) was an eminent American anthropologist. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


Hooton argued that even a skilled anthropologist would have a difficult time separating a Nordic from Mediterranean skeleton. He thought a destabilized blend of the two existed mostly in Britain that he labeled "Nordic-Mediterranean", with hazel eyes (rather than pure brown), dark hair color (mainly dark brown) and dolichocephalic skull. Coon argued that smaller Mediterraneans (Latins) traveled by land from the Mediterranean basin north into Europe in the Mesolithic era. Taller Mediterraneans (Atlanto-Mediterraneans) were Neolithic seafarers who sailed in reed-type boats and colonized the Mediterranean basin from a Near Eastern origin. He argued that they also colonized Britain where their descendants may be seen today, characterized by dark brown hair sometimes red hair, dark eyes and robust features. He stressed the central role of the Mediterraneans in his works, claiming "The Mediterraneans occupy the center of the stage; their areas of greatest concentration are precisely those where civilization is the oldest. This is to be expected, since it was they who produced it and it, in a sense, that produced them". [11] The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... Woman with red hair Teenager with red hair Red hair (also referred to as auburn, ginger, titian) varies from a deep red through to bright copper. ...


After the 1960s the concept of an exact Mediterranean race fell out of favor, though the distinctive features of Mediterranean populations continued to be recognized.


See also

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Tartessos (also Tartessus) was a harbor city on the south coast of the Iberian peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir river. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Minoan Civilisation was a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization which arose on Crete, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... Ancient Egypt was a long-standing civilization in northeastern Africa. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... Sumer (or Šumer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies to all speakers... A mediterranean sea, in oceanography, is a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Summary of Tacitus's views; Full text of Tacitus's Germania; Encyclopedia Britannica Discussion of Nordicist use of Tacitus
  2. ^ Georg Hegel claimed that the Latin people maintained "the principle of disharmony" in contrast the Germans. Johann Fichte asserted that the Mediterraneans were deficient because of the corruption of their language. See Poliakov, L., The Aryan Myth, 1974
  3. ^ On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind, Journal of the Ethnological Society of London (1870)
  4. ^ See Gobineau and Chamberlain. Such ideas were repeated by Gobineau's admirers such as Houston Stewart Chamberlain and Richard Wagner (in his essay Herodom and Christianity), and later by the Nazis. See Der Reichsführer SS/SS-Hauptamt, Rassenpolitik (SS handbook on race)
  5. ^ Gilette, Racial Theories in Fascist Italy, 2002
  6. ^ 1911 Britannica on Sergi's model
  7. ^ Gilette 2002
  8. ^ The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 54. (Jan. - Jun., 1924), p. 30.
  9. ^ The African Origin of the Grecian Civilization, Journal of Negro History, 1917, pp.334-344
  10. ^ Gilette 2002
  11. ^ See Caravan : the Story of the Middle East, 1958, pp. 154-157

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 - January 27, 1814) has significance in the history of Western philosophy as one of the progenitors of German idealism and as a follower of Kant. ... Houston Stewart Chamberlain Houston Stewart Chamberlain (September 9, 1855 - January 9, 1927) was a British author noted for his works concerning the Aryan race. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ...

References

  • Racial Theories in Fascist Italy, by Aaron Gilette, 2002, Routledge, London.
  • Talks with Mussolini, Emil Ludwig, Boston: Little, Brown. 1933, p.202.
  • The Aryan Myth, Leon Poliakov, New York: Basic Books. 1974

External links

  • Excerpt on the Mediterranean subrace from Earnest Hooton, 1946.
  • Excerpt on the Mediterranean subrace from Carleton Coon, 1958.
    • Examples of Mediterraneans (plates 16-26) from Coon's The Races of Europe

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m