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Encyclopedia > Mediterranean climate
     Areas with Mediterranean climate
     Areas with Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. In addition to the areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, this climate type prevails in parts of western North America, in parts of Western and South Australia, in southwestern South Africa and in parts of central Chile. Image File history File links Medclim. ... Image File history File links Medclim. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... North American redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... For the song, see South Australia (song). ...


The climate is characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. For example, the city of Perth, Australia, in the southern hemisphere winter months of June-August, experiences 450 mm (17.7 inches) of rainfall and an average daily minimum of 8°C (46°F). Meanwhile during the summer months of December to February the city only averages 32mm (1.3 inches).[1] Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


Mediterranean climate zones are associated with the five large subtropical high pressure cells of the oceans, the Azores High, South Atlantic High, North Pacific High, South Pacific High, and Indian Ocean High. These high pressure cells shift polarward in the summer and equatorward in the winter, playing a major role in the formation of the world's tropical deserts and the zones of Mediterranean climate polarward of the deserts. For example, the Azores High is associated with the Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean Basin's climate. The South Atlantic High is similarly associated with the Namib Desert and the Mediterranean climate of the Western part of South Africa. The North Pacific High is related to the Sonoran Desert and California's climate, while the South Pacific High is related to the Atacama Desert and central Chile's climate, and the Indian Ocean High is related to the deserts of western Australia (Great Sandy Desert, Great Victoria Desert, and Gibson Desert) and the Mediterranean climate of southwest and south-central Australia.[2] The Azores High, also known as the Bermuda High in the United States, is a large subtropical semi-permanent centre of high atmospheric pressure found near the Azores in the Atlantic Ocean, at the Horse latitudes. ... South Atlantic high — the semipermanent pressure high centered at about 25°S, 15°W. It is also called St. ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ... Dune 7, one of the highest sand dunes in the world (ca. ... Map of the Mojave and Sonoran deserts. ... Atacama Desert The Atacama Desert is a virtually rainless plateau in South America, extending 966 km (600 mi) between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean. ... Location of deserts in Australia This article is about the Australian desert. ... The IBRA regions, with Great Victoria Desert in red The Great Victoria Desert is a barren, arid, and sparsely populated desert ecoregion in southern Australia. ... A four wheel drive in the Gibson Desert The Gibson Desert is a Western Australian desert made up of sandhills and dry grass. ...


The Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub biome is closely associated with Mediterranean climate zones. Particularly distinctive of the climate are sclerophyll shrublands, called maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, chaparral in California, matorral in Chile, fynbos in South Africa, and mallee and kwongan shrublands in Australia. Aquatic communities in Mediterranean climate regions are adapted to a yearly cycle in which abiotic (environmental) controls of stream populations and community structure dominate during floods, biotic (e.g. competition and predation) controls become increasingly important as the discharge declines, and environmental controls regain dominance as environmental conditions become very harsh (i.e. hot and dry); as a result, these communities are well suited to recover from droughts, floods, and fires [3]. A Mediterranean forest. ... Arid, largely treeless areas aside, most Australian bushland is sclerophyll forest. ... Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian; plural macchie) is a shrubland biota in Mediterranean countries, typically consisting of densely-growing evergreen shrubs such as sage, juniper and myrtle. ... Chaparral is a shrubland plant community found primarily in California, USA, that is shaped by a Mediterranean climate (mild, wet winters and hot dry summers) and wildfire. ... The Chilean Matorral is a terrestrial ecoregion of central Chile, located on the west coast of South America. ... Fynbos is the natural shrubland vegetation occurring in a small belt of the Western Cape of South Africa, mainly in winter rainfall coastal and mountainous areas with a Mediterranean climate. ... The term mallee has several separate but inter-related meanings. ... An estuary mouth and coastal waters, part of an aquatic ecosystem. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up biotic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A drought is an extended period where water availability falls below the statistical requirements for a region. ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... A large bonfire Fire is a form of combustion. ...

Contents

Rainfall

During summer, regions of Mediterranean climate (also known as Dry-Summer Subtropical for the Csa areas) are dominated by subtropical high pressure cells, with dry sinking air capping a surface marine layer of varying humidity but making rainfall impossible or unlikely but for the odd thunderstorm, while during summer the polar jet stream and associated periodic storms reach into the lower latitudes of the Mediterranean zones, bringing rain, with snow at higher elevations. As a result, areas with this climate receive almost all of their yearly rainfall during the winter season, and may go anywhere from 2-5 months during the summer without having any significant precipitation. For other uses, see jet stream (disambiguation). ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ...


Toward the equatorial end, winter precipitation increases. Toward the polar end, total moisture usually increases; in Europe there is more summer rain further north while along the American west coast the winters become more intensely wet and the dry seasons shorter as one moves east.


Temperature

Mediterranean Climate Distribution in the Americas
Mediterranean Climate Distribution in the Americas

All regions with Mediterranean climates have relatively mild winters, but summer temperatures are variable depending on the region. For instance, Athens, Greece experiences rather high temperatures in the summer (48.0 °C has been measured in Eleusina), whereas San Francisco has cool, mild summers due to the upwelling of cold subsurface waters along the coast. Because all regions with a Mediterranean climate are near large bodies of water, temperatures are generally moderate with a comparatively small range of temperatures between the winter low and summer high (although the daily range of temperatures during the summer is large, except along the immediate coasts due to dry and clear conditions). Temperatures during winter only occasionally reach freezing and snow only rarely occurs at sea level, but often in surrounding mountains due to wet conditions. In the summer, the temperatures range from mild to very warm, depending on distance from the open ocean, elevation, and latitude. Even in the warmest locations with a Mediterranean-type climate, however, temperatures usually don't reach the highest readings found in adjacent desert regions due to cooling from water bodies, although strong winds from inland desert regions can sometimes boost summer temperatures quickly resulting in a much increased forest fire risk. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Eleusis redirects here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... This article is about arid terrain. ...


Inland locations sheltered from or distant from sea breezes can experience severe heat during the summer. Locations inside the Sacramento Valley of northern California, for example, are subject to summer temperatures characteristic of hot deserts (often around 40°C/104F), although winters are rainy enough to allow lusher vegetation than is typical in deserts. Unlike the coastal climates that are designated Csb in the Köppen climate classification—characteristic of places with cooler summers—the hotter, typically inland areas have the Csa classification that indicates a hot summer. Porto, Portugal, experiences the typical Mediterranean pattern of cool, rainy winters and very dry summers, but has relatively mild average summer temperatures. The Sacramento Valley is the portion of the California Central Valley that lies to the north of the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta. ... Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... A modern view of the ancient city of Porto, the city that gave the name to the country. ...


On another note, locations that are slightly higher latitude or elevation and are cut off from milder ocean winds may have somewhat colder winters and more distinct seasons with occasional snow. This "temperate Mediterranean" climate is most noticeable in the Rogue and Umpqua Basins of southwestern Oregon, central Spain, southeastern France away from the immediate coastline, northern Italy, and northern Greece. In these areas, plants that are commonly associated with milder Mediterranean climates, such as citrus can be frozen to death in a severe winter and are thus not part of the regular landscape. For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ...


Areas of high altitude adjacent to locations with Mediterranean climates, such as the "Mesetas" or plateaus of central Spain, may have the cold winters that are characteristic of a continental climate; under Köppen's scheme such places might earn the designation Dsa (at lower latitudes above Csa), Dsb (either at high elevations in the lower latitudes or at lower elevations in the mid-latitudes above Csb) or even Dsc (just below the tree line). An example of a very humid Mediterranean Snow climate Dfsc is the highest summit on Orjen, Zubacki kabao in the subadriatic Dinaric Alps in Montenegro. Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... Orjen (42. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...


Natural vegetation

The natural vegetation of Mediterranean lands has to survive long, hot periods of summer droughts. Mediterranean vegetation includes the following:

Most natural vegetation in Mediterranean areas has long since been cleared for agriculture. In places such as the Sacramento Valley in California, irrigation has led to intensive farming. Lands in Mediterranean areas, the natural vegetation has been overgrazed by sheep and goats. This has exposed the soil to severe erosion by sudden, heavy rainstorms. Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Monterey Cypresses (Cupressus macrocarpa) planted in Melbourne, Australia Cypress is the name applied to many plants in the conifer family Cupressaceae (cypress family). ... Binomial name L. The Cork Oak (Quercus suber) is a medium-sized, evergreen oak tree in the section Quercus sect. ... Species Myrtus communis L. Myrtus nivellei Batt. ... Binomial name Umbellularia californica (Hook. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... The Sacramento Valley is the portion of the California Central Valley that lies to the north of the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ...


Examples

Northern hemisphere

Climate chart for Naples, Italy
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
104
 
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42
 
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80
 
26
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130
 
22
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162
 
17
8
 
 
121
 
14
5
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [1]
Climate chart for Alexandria, Egypt
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
51
 
18
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27
 
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13
 
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4
 
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1
 
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0
 
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1
 
30
21
 
 
11
 
28
17
 
 
29
 
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14
 
 
52
 
20
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temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [2]
Climate chart for San Francisco, USA
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
111
 
13
7
 
 
81
 
15
7
 
 
78
 
16
8
 
 
35
 
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5
 
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3
 
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1
 
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1
 
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5
 
23
13
 
 
31
 
21
11
 
 
73
 
17
8
 
 
79
 
13
8
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [3]
Climate chart for Los Angeles, USA
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
74
 
20
9
 
 
78
 
21
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66
 
21
11
 
 
26
 
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1
 
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50
 
22
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51
 
20
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52
 
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temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [4]


Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...


Southern hemisphere

Climate chart for Santiago, Chile
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
0
 
29
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3
 
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53
 
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28
 
18
6
 
 
13
 
22
7
 
 
5
 
25
9
 
 
5
 
28
11
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [5]
Climate chart for Adelaide, Australia
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
19
 
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20
 
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22
 
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51
 
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41
 
22
13
 
 
37
 
25
15
 
 
23
 
27
17
 
 
25
 
30
18
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [6]
Climate chart for Perth, Australia
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
9
 
30
18
 
 
13
 
30
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19
 
28
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46
 
25
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128
 
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135
 
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80
 
20
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55
 
21
12
 
 
22
 
25
14
 
 
14
 
27
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temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [7]
Climate chart for Cape Town, South Africa
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
14
 
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3
 
21
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1
 
24
13
 
 
17
 
25
15
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [8]


Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area  - Total 2,499 km² (964. ...


References

  1. ^ Australian Bureau of Meteorology, July 25, 2005 "Averages for PERTH METRO" Downloaded 06/12/06
  2. ^ Akin, Wallace E. (1991). Global Patterns: Climate, Vegetation, and Soils. University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 35. ISBN 0-8061-2309-5. 
  3. ^ Gasith, A. and V.H. Resh (1999). "Streams in Mediterranean Climate Regions: Abiotic Influences and Biotic Responses to Predictable Seasonal Events". Annu. Rev. Ecol. Sys. 30: 51-81. 

External links

Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... The Amazon river basin has an equatorial climate. ... Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India Summer drought in East Asia durring the monsoon of 1994 A monsoon is a major wind system that changes direction seasonally. ... Savannah redirects here. ... A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation. ... A Semi-arid climate or steppe climate generally describes climatic regions that receive low annual rainfall (250-500 mm or 10-20 in). ... The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... The humid continental climate is a climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between polar and tropical air masses. ... Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and brief, warm summers. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... Solar radiation has a lower intensity in polar regions because it travels a longer distance through the atmosphere, and is spread across a larger surface area. ... For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mediterranean Climate (728 words)
The Dry Summer Subtropical climate, is also known as the "Mediterranean" climate because the land that borders the Mediterranean Sea is a type locality for this climate.
The dry summer subtropical climate is found on the west side of subtropical continents and on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
Mediterranean climate is also found in the Cape Town area of South Africa, central Chile, and southwestern Australia.
World Climates (2131 words)
Climate is the characteristic condition of the atmosphere near the earth's surface at a certain place on earth.
Characterized by grasslands, this is a semiarid climate.
The climate of a highland area is closely related to the climate of the surrounding biome.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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