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Encyclopedia > Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km² (965,000 sq mi), but its connection to the Atlantic (the Strait of Gibraltar) is only 14 km (9 mi) wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. Mediterranean may refer to The Mediterranean Sea, a major body of water south of Europe, west of Asia, and north of Africa List of islands in the Mediterranean Mediterranean sea (oceanography), an oceanographic term to designate a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans. ... A mediterranean sea, in oceanography, is a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the body of water. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... A mediterranean sea, in oceanography, is a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds. ...


It was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times, allowing for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region — the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Semitic, Persian, Phoenician, Carthaginian, Greek, Levantine, Roman and Moorish cultures. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Persia redirects here. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and in the east, the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see moor. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea.
Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea.
Look up Mediterranean Sea in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Contents

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Name

The term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus meaning, "middle of the Earth" (medius, "middle" + terra, "land, earth"). To the ancient Romans, the Mediterranean was the center of the Earth as they knew it. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... History - Ancient history - Ancient Rome This is a List of Ancient Rome-related topics, that aims to include aspects of both the Ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ...


The Mediterranean Sea has been known by a number of alternative names throughout human history. It was, for example, commonly called Mare Nostrum (Latin, "Our Sea") and occasionally Mare Internum by the Romans (Sallust, Jug. 17). The Greeks name it Mesogeios (Μεσόγειος), meaning "inland, interior" (μεσο, "middle" + γαιος, "land, earth")[1]. In the Old Testament, on the west coast of the Holy Land, and therefore behind a person facing the east, it is called the "Hinder Sea", sometimes translated as "Western Sea", (Deut. 11:24; Joel 2:20), and also the "Sea of the Philistines" (Exod. 22:81), because that people occupied a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. Mostly, however, it was the "Great Sea" (Num. 34:6,7; Josh. 1:4, 9:1, 15:47; Ezek. 47:10,15,20), or simply "The Sea" (1 Kings 5:9; comp. 1 Macc. 14:34, 15:11). In Modern Hebrew, it is called Hayam Hatikhon (הַיָּם הַתִּיכוֹן), "the middle sea", a literal adaptation of the German equivalent Mittelmeer. In Turkish, it is Akdeniz, "the white sea". In Arabic, it is Al-Baħr Al-Abyad Al-Muttawasit (البحر الأبيض المتوسط), "the middle white sea". Mare Nostrum (Latin for Our Sea) was an affectionate Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea. ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... (Redirected from 1 Kings) The Books of Kings (also known as [The Book of] Kings in Hebrew: Sefer Melachim מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


History

As a sea around which some of the most ancient human civilizations were arranged, it has had a major influence on the history and ways of life of these cultures. It provided a way of trade, colonization and war, and was the basis of life (via fishing and the gathering of other seafood) for numerous communities throughout the ages. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The combination of similar-shared climate, geology and access to a common sea has led to numerous historical and cultural connections between the ancient and modern societies around the Mediterranean.


Geography and climate

A satellite image taken from the side of the Strait of Gibraltar. At right, Africa; at left, Europe.
A satellite image taken from the side of the Strait of Gibraltar. At right, Africa; at left, Europe.

The Mediterranean Sea is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar on the west and to the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, by the Dardanelles and the Bosporus respectively, on the east. The Sea of Marmara is often considered a part of the Mediterranean Sea, whereas the Black Sea is generally not. The 163 km long man-made Suez Canal in the southeast connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Strait of Gibraltar ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Strait of Gibraltar ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Minor. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


Large islands in the Mediterranean include Cyprus, Crete, Euboea, Rhodes, Lesbos, Chios, Kefalonia and Corfu in the eastern Mediterranean; Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, and Malta in the central Mediterranean; and Ibiza, Majorca and Minorca (the Balearic Islands) in the western Mediterranean. For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For the Greek mythological figures see Euboea Euboea, or Negropont or Negroponte (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Évia, Ancient Greek Eúboia), is the second largest of the Greek Aegean Islands and the second largest Greek island overall in area and population (after Crete). ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Lesbos (Modern Greek: Lesvos (Λέσβος), Turkish: Midilli), is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. ... Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios), is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea seven kilometres (five miles) off the Turkish coast. ... The island of Kefalonia, also known as Cephallenia, Cephallonia, Kefallinia, or Kefallonia (Ancient Greek: Κεφαλληνία; Modern Greek: Κεφαλλονιά or Κεφαλονιά; Italian: Cefalonia), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece, with an area of 350 sq. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... “Ebusus” redirects here. ... Majorca (Spanish and Catalan: ) is the largest island of Spain. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ...


The Mediterranean climate is generally one of wet winters and hot, dry summers. Crops of the region include olives, grapes, oranges, tangerines, and cork.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Citrus reticulata Blanco For other uses, see Tangerine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cork. ...


Oceanography

Predominant currents for June.

Being nearly landlocked affects the Mediterranean Sea's properties; for instance, tides are very limited as a result of the narrow connection with the Atlantic Ocean. The Mediterranean is characterized and immediately recognized by its deep blue color. Image File history File links MEDCURR.GIF‎ Valery Kulaga, www. ... Image File history File links MEDCURR.GIF‎ Valery Kulaga, www. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...


Evaporation greatly exceeds precipitation and river runoff in the Mediterranean, a fact that is central to the water circulation within the basin.[2] Evaporation is especially high in its eastern half, causing the water level to decrease and salinity to increase eastward.[3] This pressure gradient pushes relatively cool, low-salinity water from the Atlantic across the basin; it warms and becomes saltier as it travels east, then sinks in the region of the Levant and circulates westward, to spill over the Strait of Gibraltar.[4] Thus, seawater flow is eastward in the Strait's surface waters, and westward below; once in the Atlantic, this chemically-distinct "Mediterranean Intermediate Water" can persist thousands of kilometers away from its source.[5] Vaporization redirects here. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Pressure Gradient is the change in pressure over a distance. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Bordering countries

Map of the Mediterranean Sea.
Map of the Mediterranean Sea.

Twenty-one modern states have a coastline on the Mediterranean Sea. They are: Download high resolution version (1332x792, 335 KB)Shaded relief of the Mediterranean Sea, created in 1982 by the Central Intelligence Agency. ... Download high resolution version (1332x792, 335 KB)Shaded relief of the Mediterranean Sea, created in 1982 by the Central Intelligence Agency. ...

Several other territories also border the Mediterranean Sea (from west to east): For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

Andorra,Portugal, San Marino, Serbia, and the Vatican City, although they do not border the sea, are often considered Mediterranean countries in a wider sense due to their Mediterranean climate, fauna and flora, and/or their cultural affinity with other Mediterranean countries. A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... The UK Sovereign Base Areas are those British military base areas located in countries formerly ruled by the United Kingdom which were retained by it and not handed over when those countries attained independence. ... Anthem God Save the Queen Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Occupied Areas) Sovereign Base Areas indicated in pink. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Subdivisions

According to the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) treaties, the Mediterranean Sea is subdivided into a number of smaller seas, each with their own designation (from west to east): The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ...

A view across the straits of Gibraltar.
A view across the straits of Gibraltar.
A point between Minorca and Barcelona.
A point between Minorca and Barcelona.
Mediterranean coast in Israel.
Mediterranean coast in Israel.

Download high resolution version (1108x650, 120 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1108x650, 120 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2580 × 1720 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2580 × 1720 pixel, file size: 1. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1002 × 668 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sharon Coast, Israel Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1002 × 668 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sharon Coast, Israel Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... The Alboran Sea is the westernmost portion of the Mediterranean Sea, lying between Spain on the north and Morocco on the south. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... The Ligurian Sea. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... The Ionian Sea. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...

Other Seas

Although not recognized by the IHO treaties, there are some other seas that are in common use from the ancient times or in present:

Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Strait of Sicily is the strait between Sicily and Tunisia. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Thracian Sea (Greek: Θράκικος Πέλαγος Thrakikos Pelagos) is a sea that is part of the Aegean Sea and forms the northernmost point of the sea. ... The Myrtoan Sea is often unmarked on modern maps. ... The Cyclades (Greek Κυκλάδες) are a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative prefecture of Greece. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, Pelops Island, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... The Sea of Crete (Greek: Κρητικό Πέλαγος Kritiko Pelagos) is the sea south of the Aegean Sea, north of the island Crete, and south of the Cyclades. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ...

Other features

Many of these smaller seas feature in local myth and folklore and derive their names from these associations. In addition to the seas, a number of gulfs and straits are also recognised: Bay redirects here. ... Over-Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ...

The Saint George Bay (known in Lebanon as Golfe de Saint-Georges) is located on the northern coast of the city of Beirut in Lebanon. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... The Bay of Gibraltar as seen from the Rock of Gibraltar The Bay of Gibraltar (also known as Gibraltar Bay, Algeciras Bay or the Bay of Algeciras; Spanish: Bahía de Algeciras) is a bay at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece. ... The Corinth Canal The Corinth Canal is a canal connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Sea. ... The Saronic Gulf or Gulf of Aegina in Greece forms part of the Aegean Sea and defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Myrtoan Sea is often unmarked on modern maps. ... The Thermaic Gulf (Greek Θερμαϊκός Κόλπος, Macedonian / Slavonic : Солунски Залив / Solunski Zaliv) is a gulf of the Aegean Sea located immediately south of Thessaloniki, east of Pieria and Imathia, and west of Chalkidiki (prefectures of Greece). ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Map of the Kvarner Gulf The Kvarner Gulf (Croatian: Kvarnerski zaljev, Italian: Golfo del Quarnero/Quarnaro/Carnaro; sometimes also Kvarner Bay) is a bay in the northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istrian peninsula and the northern Croatian seacoast. ... The Golfe du Lion (Gulf of Lion) is a wide embayment of the Mediterranean coastline of Languedoc-Roussillon, reaching from the border with Catalonia in the west to Toulon. ... The Gulf of Valencia (Spanish: Golfo de Valencia), is a gulf or inlet of the western Mediterranean Sea, on the eastern coast of Spain, its extremes are the Cabo de la Nao and the Cape of Vinaròs; it is entirely comprised within the boundaries of the Valencian Community. ... Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina with names. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Gulf of Genoa (Golfo di Genova) is the northernmost part of the Ligurian Sea. ... The Gulf of Venice is a gulf located on the west of the Adriatic Sea, between the Istrian peninsula and the Po River delta. ... Gulf of Trieste and the littoral The Gulf of Trieste (Italian: Golfo di Trieste, Slovene: TržaÅ¡ki zaliv, German: Golf von Triest ) is a shallow bay of the Adriatic Sea, in the extreme northern part of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Gulf of Taranto (Italian: Golfo di Taranto, Latin: Sinus Tarentinus) is a gulf of the Ionian sea, in southern Italy. ... The Gulf of Salerno is a gulf of the Tyrrhenian Sea in the coast of the province of Salerno in south-western Italy. ... Map showing the location of the Gulf of Gaeta. ... The Gulf of Squillace (Italian: Golfo di Squillace; Latin: Scylleticus Sinus or Scyllaceus Sinus[1]; Greek: ) is a body of water, an inlet of the Ionian Sea along the Calabrian coast of Italy. ... Map showing the location of the Strait of Otranto. ... The Gulf of Haifa (also called Haifa Bay) is a small bay along the Mediterranean coast of Northern Israel. ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... Gulf of Sidra is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya; it is also known as Gulf of Sirte. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Strait of Sicily is the strait between Sicily and Tunisia. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Corsica Channel is the strait between Italy and Corsica. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... The Strait of Bonifacio is the strait between Corsica and Sardinia. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... The Gulf of Ä°skenderun (Turkish: Ä°skenderun Körfezi), formerly the Gulf of Alexandretta, is a gulf or inlet of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, on the southern coast of Turkey near its border with Syria. ... // Ä°skenderun, also Iskenderon (formerly known in the west as Alexandretta, from Greek Ἀλεξανδρέττα; in Arabic الإسكندرون, al-ʼIskandarÅ«n), is a district and its center in the Turkish province of Hatay. ... Adana (Turkish: }) (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus)) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ... The Gulf of Antalya is an inlet of the Mediterrranean south of Antalya, Turkey Categories: Turkey geography stubs | Turkey ... Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocca di Cattaro) in Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...

Geology

The geology of the Mediterranean is complex, involving the break-up and then collision of the African and Eurasian plates and the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the late Miocene when the Mediterranean dried up. // The Messinian Salinity Crisis, also referred to as the Messinian Event, is a period when the Mediterranean Sea evaporated partly or completely dry during the Messinian period of the Miocene epoch, approximately 6 million years ago. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ...


The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 metres (4,920 ft) and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 meters (about 3.27 miles) in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The coastline extends for 46,000 kilometres (28,600 mi). A shallow submarine ridge (the Strait of Sicily) between the island of Sicily and the coast of Tunisia divides the sea in two main subregions (which in turn are divided into subdivisions), the Western Mediterranean and the Eastern Mediterranean. The Western Mediterranean covers an area of about 0.85 million km² (0.33 million sq mi) and the Eastern Mediterranean about 1.65 million km² (0.64 million sq mi). The Ionian Sea. ... The Strait of Sicily is the strait between Sicily and Tunisia. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


Geodynamic

The geodynamic evolution of the Mediterranean Sea was provided by the convergence of European and African plates. This process was driven by the differential spreading along the Atlantic ridge, which led to the closure of the Tethys Ocean and eventually to the Alpine orogenesis. However, the Mediterranean also hosts wide extensional basins and migrating tectonic arcs, in response to its land-locked configuration. An Australian based componey that produces Geothermal Power uning Hot Dry Rocks (HDR) It is supported by the Australian goverment Geodynamics Category: ... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... The Alps arose as a result of the pressure exerted on sediments of the Tethys Ocean basin as its Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata were pushed against the stable Eurasian landmass by the northward-moving African landmass. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Eastern Mediterranean

In middle Miocene times, the collision between the Arabian microplate and Eurasia led to the separation between the Tethys and the Indian Oceans. This process determined profound changes in the oceanic circulation patterns, which shifted global climates towards colder conditions. The Hellenic Arc, which has a land-locked configuration, underwent a widespread extension for the last 20 Myr due to a slab roll-back process. In addition, the Hellenic Arc experienced a rapid rotation phase during the Pleistocene, with a counterclockwise component in its eastern portion and a clockwise trend in the western segment. The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... The Arabian plate is shown in bright yellow on this map The Arabian Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering the Arabian peninsula and extending northward to Turkey. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ...


Central Mediterranean

The opening of small oceanic basins of the central Mediterranean follows a trench migration and back-arc opening process that occurred during the last 30 Myr. This phase was characterized by the counterclockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block, which lasted until the Langhian (ca.16 Ma), and was in turn followed by a slab detachment along the northern African margin. Subsequently, a shift of this active extentional deformation led to the opening of the Tyrrenian basin.


Western Mediterranean

Since Mesozoic to Tertiary times, during convergence between Africa and Iberia, it developed the Betic-Rif mountain belts. Tectonic models for its evolution include: rapid motion of Alboran microplate, subduction zone and radial extentional collapse caused by convective removal of lithosferic mantle. The development of these intramontane Betic and Rif basins led to the onset of two marine gateways which were progressively closed during the late Miocene by an interplay of tectonic and glacio-eustatic processes. The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... Alborán Island The Isla de Alborán is a small island in the Alborán Sea, part of the western Mediterranean, about 50 kilometres north of the Moroccan coast and 90 kilometres south of the province of Almería, Spain. ... A 96-well microtiter plate. ... Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ...


Paleoclimatic

Because of its peculiar latitudinal position and its land-locked configuration, the Mediterranean is especially sensitive to astronomically induced climatic variations, which are well documented in its sedimentary record. Since the Mediterranean is involved in the deposition of eolian dust from the Sahara during dry periods, whereas riverine detrital input prevails during wet ones, the Mediterranean marine sapropel-bearing sequences provide high-resolution climatic information. These data have been employed in reconstructing astronomically calibrated time scales for the last 9 Ma of the earth's history. Furthermore, the exceptional accuracy of these paleoclimatic records improved our knowledge of the earth's orbital variations in the past. The word sapropel is a contraction of the ancient greek words sapros and pelos, meaning putrefaction and mud, respectively. ...


Paleoenvironmental analysis

Its semi-enclosed configuration makes the oceanic gateways critical in controlling circulation and environmental evolution in the Mediterranean Sea. Water circulation patterns are driven by a number of interactive factors, such as climate and bathymetry, which can lead to precipitation of evaporites. During late Miocene times, a so-called "Messinian Salinity Crisis" (MSC hereafter) occurred, which was triggered by the closure of the Atlantic gateway. Evaporites accumulated in the Red Sea Basin (late Miocene), in the Carpatian foredeep (middle Miocene) and in the whole Mediterranean area (Messinian). An accurate age estimate of the MSC—5.96 Ma—has recently been astronomically achieved; furthermore, this event seems to have occurred synchronously. The beginning of the MSC is supposed to have been of tectonic origin; however, an astronomical control (eccentricity) might also have been involved. In the Mediterranean basin, diatomites are regularly found underneath the evaporitic deposits, thus suggesting (albeit not clearly so far) a connection between their geneses. The present-day Atlantic gateway, i.e. the Strait of Gibraltar, finds its origin in the early Pliocene. However, two other connections between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea existed in the past: the Betic Corridor (southern Spain) and the Rifian Corridor (northern Morocco). The former closed during Tortonian times, thus providing a "Tortonian Salinity Crisis" well before the MSC; the latter closed about 6 Ma, allowing exchanges in the mammal fauna between Africa and Europe. Nowadays, evaporation is more relevant than the water yield supplied by riverine water and precipitation, so that salinity in the Mediterranean is higher than in the Atlantic. These conditions result in the outflow of warm saline Mediterranean deep water across Gibraltar, which is in turn counterbalanced by an inflow of a less saline surface current of cold oceanic water. Evaporites are sediments formed when mineral rich water evaporates. ... // The Messinian Salinity Crisis, also referred to as the Messinian Event, is a period when the Mediterranean Sea evaporated partly or completely dry during the Messinian period of the Miocene epoch, approximately 6 million years ago. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Messinian period is the last part of the Miocene epoch. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Millions of Years Categories: Graphical timelines | Geology stubs ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In the last few centuries, mankind has done much to alter Mediterranean geology. Structures have been built all along the coastlines, exacerbating and rerouting erosional patterns. Many pollution-producing boats travel the sea that unbalance the natural chemical ratios of the region. Beaches have been mismanaged, and the overuse of the sea's natural and marine resources continues to be a problem. This misuse speeds along and/or confounds natural processes. The actual geography has also been altered by the building of dams and canals.


The Mediterranean was once thought to be the remnant of the Tethys Ocean. It is now known to be a structurally younger ocean basin known as Neotethys. Neotethys formed during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic rifting of the African and Eurasian plates. Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... In geology, a rift is a place where the Earths lithosphere is expanding. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


Ecology and global warming

As a result of the drying of the sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis[7], the marine biota of the Mediterranean are derived primarily from the Atlantic Ocean. The North Atlantic is considerably colder and more nutrient-rich than the Mediterranean, and the marine life of the Mediterranean has had to adapt to its differing conditions in the five million years since the basin was reflooded. // The Messinian Salinity Crisis, also referred to as the Messinian Event, is a period when the Mediterranean Sea evaporated partly or completely dry during the Messinian period of the Miocene epoch, approximately 6 million years ago. ...


The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 created the first salt-water passage between the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The Red Sea is higher than the Eastern Mediterranean, so the canal serves as a tidal strait that pours Red Sea water into the Mediterranean. The Bitter Lakes, which are hypersaline natural lakes that form part of the canal, blocked the migration of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean for many decades, but as the salinity of the lakes gradually equalized with that of the Red Sea, the barrier to migration was removed, and plants and animals from the Red Sea have begun to colonize the Eastern Mediterranean. The Red Sea is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, so the Red Sea species have advantages over Atlantic species in the salty and nutrient-poor Eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly, Red Sea species invade the Mediterranean biota, and not vice versa; this phenomenon is known as the Lessepsian migration (after Ferdinand de Lesseps, the French engineer) or Erythrean invasion. The construction of the Aswan High Dam across the Nile River in the 1960s reduced the inflow of freshwater and nutrient-rich silt from the Nile into the Eastern Mediterranean, making conditions there even more like the Red Sea and worsening the impact of the invasive species. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Great Bitter Lake from space For other places called Bitter Lake, see Bitter Lake. ... Lessepsian migration is the term used to describe animal migration over man-made structures, i. ... Map of Egypt showing the location of Aswan and Lake Nasser. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ...


Invasive species originating from the Red Sea and introduced into the Mediterranean by the construction of the canal have become a major component of the Mediterranean ecosystem and have serious impacts on the Mediterranean ecology, endangering many local and endemic Mediterranean species. Up to this day, about 300 species native to the Red Sea have already been identified in the Mediterranean Sea, and there are probably others yet unidentified. In recent years, the Egyptian government's announcement of its intentions to deepen and widen the canal have raised concerns from marine biologists, fearing that such an act will only worsen the invasion of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean, facilitating the crossing of the canal for yet additional species[8]. IT is a new species. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Marine biology is the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems. ...


Pollution in this region has been extremely high in the past couple years. In just one year, 1,000,000 tons of sewage has been dumped directly into the Mediterranean Sea.[citation needed] Also, many marine species, such as the Mediterranean Monk Seal, have been almost wiped out because of the pollution there. The Monk Seal has been placed as one of the top ten endangered species in the world.[citation needed] Binomial name Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779) Mediterranean Monk Seal range The Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus) is believed to be the worlds rarest pinniped and one of the most endangered mammals of the world. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


Global warming could trigger hurricanes over the Mediterranean Sea.[9] Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ...


References

  1. ^ entry μεσόγαιος at Liddell & Scott
  2. ^ Pinet, Paul R. (1996) Invitation to Oceanography, St Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., ISBN (3rd ed.), p.202
  3. ^ Pinet, p. 206
  4. ^ Pinet, pp. 206–7
  5. ^ Pinet, p. 207
  6. ^ IHO Codes for Oceans & Seas, and Other Code Systems Limits of Oceans and Seas, Special Publication 23, 3rd Edition 1953, published by the International Hydrographic Organization
  7. ^ Hsu K.J., "When the Mediterranean Dried Up" Scientific American, Vol. 227, December 1972, p32
  8. ^ Galil, B.S. and Zenetos, A. (2002). A sea change: exotics in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, in: Leppäkoski, E. et al. (2002). Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impacts and management. pp. 325-336.
  9. ^ Ben Hirschler (16 July 2007). Warming may bring hurricanes to Mediterranean. Reuters.

LSJ redirects here. ... Kenneth J. Hsu (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born July 7, 1929),is a scientist and geologist. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ...

See also

The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... For cuisine, see Cuisine of the Mediterranean. ... A Mediterranean forest. ... The Mediterranean Games are a multi-sport games held every four years for nations bordering the Mediterranean Sea. ... Languages French Occitan Greek Italian Portuguese Spanish Catalan Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Protestant Orthodox The Mediterranean race was one of the three sub-categories into which the people of Europe were divided by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, following the publication of William Z. Ripleys... A mediterranean sea, in oceanography, is a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds. ... The Mediterranean Union (French: Union méditerranéenne) is a proposed community of countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. ... Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary inflammatory disorder that affects groups of patients originating from around the Mediterranean Sea (hence its name). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Holy League was formed between several Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean in 1571 in attempt to break Ottoman Turks control of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... An inland sea is a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during high stands of sea level that result in marine transgressions. ... This is a list of islands in the Mediterranean Sea: // == Australia is the biggest island!! == This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Babelmed is a non profit organisation established in Rome in April 2001. ... Piri Reis (originally Hadji Muhammad) was an Ottoman admiral born around 1465, in Gallipoli on the Dardanelles. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Greenpeace campaign "Defending Our Mediterranean": Threats, Solutions and Photo Petition
  • Planblue - Environment and Development in the Mediterranean Region

Coordinates: 35° N 18° E Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the southern hemisphere and mostly in the Antarctic south polar region, is the largest of the worlds five major landmassesic divisions and the deepest. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mediterranean Sea - MSN Encarta (358 words)
Mediterranean Sea, inland sea of Europe, Asia, and Africa, linked to the Atlantic Ocean at its western end by the Strait of Gibraltar.
The Mediterranean is a remnant of the vast ancient sea called Tethys, which was squeezed almost shut in the Oligocene Epoch, 30 million years ago, when the crustal plates carrying Africa and Eurasia collided (see Plate Tectonics).
Major rivers entering the Mediterranean are the Ebro, Rhône, Po, and Nile.
Mediterranean Sea - Countries of Europe and Africa (1989 words)
East of the canal, the border is a straight line between the brown vegetated lands of Israel and the brighter yellowish sands of the northern desert of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Slightly east-northeast of the border are the pale blue waters of the Dead Sea.
Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar photographed by NASA.
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