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Encyclopedia > Mediterranean Basin

The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub vegetation. Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea. ... A Mediterranean forest. ...

Mediterranean Basin in turquoise

Contents

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 418 pixel Image in higher resolution (1256 × 656 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/png) I made this map and hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 418 pixel Image in higher resolution (1256 × 656 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/png) I made this map and hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Geography

Map of the Mediterranean Basin
Map of the Mediterranean Basin

The Mediterranean basin covers portions of three continents, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Europe lies to the north, and three large peninsulas, the Iberian Peninsula, Italian Peninsula, and the Balkan Peninsula, extend into the Mediterranean-climate zone. A system of folded mountains, including the Pyrenees dividing Spain from France, the Alps dividing Italy from Central Europe, the Dinaric Alps along the eastern Adriatic, and the Balkan and Rhodope mountains of the Balkan Peninsula divide the Mediterranean from the temperate climate regions of Western and Central Europe. Download high resolution version (1332x792, 335 KB)Shaded relief of the Mediterranean Sea, created in 1982 by the Central Intelligence Agency. ... Download high resolution version (1332x792, 335 KB)Shaded relief of the Mediterranean Sea, created in 1982 by the Central Intelligence Agency. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Mt Orjen at the Bay of Kotor is the heaviest karstified range of the dinarids View of the central part of the Dinaric Alps (north=down) Valbona pass, northern Albania. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over...


The Mediterranean Basin extends into western Asia, covering the western and southern portions of the peninsula of Anatolia, excluding the temperate-climate mountains of central Anatolia. It includes the Mediterranean climate Levant at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, bounded on the east and south by the Syrian and Negev deserts. Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Rock face in the Negev Desert near Beersheba on the way to Eilat. ...


The northern portion of the Maghreb region of northwestern Africa has a Mediterranean climate, separated from the Sahara Desert, which extends across North Africa, by the Atlas Mountains. In the eastern Mediterranean the Sahara extends to the southern shore of the Mediterranean, with the exception of the northern fringe of the peninsula of Cyrenaica in Libya, which has a dry Mediterranean climate. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... The Roman Empire ca. ...


Origins

The Mediterranean Basin was shaped by the ancient collision of the northward-moving African-Arabian continent with the stable Eurasian continent. As Africa-Arabia moved north, it closed the former Tethys Sea, which formerly separated Eurasia from the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana, of which Africa was part. At the same time, about 170 mya in the Jurassic, a small Neotethys ocean basin formed shortly before the Tethys Sea was closed at the eastern end. The collision pushed up a vast system of mountains, extending from the Pyrenees in Spain to the Zagros Mountains in Iran. This episode of mountain building, known as the Alpine orogeny, occurred mostly during the Oligocene (34 to 23 million years ago (mya)) and Miocene (23 to 5.3 mya) epochs. The Neotethys became larger during these collisions and associated folding and subduction. About 6 mya during the late Miocene, the Mediterranean was closed at its western end as well, which caused the entire sea to evaporate; this episode is known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis, which ended when the Atlantic reflooded the basin at the end of the Miocene. The Tethys Sea was a shallow inland body of water that existed between Laurasia and Gondwana, the geological ancestor of the modern Black, Caspian and Aral Seas. ... Gondwanaland redirects here. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... The Zagros Mountains (Persian: رشته كوه زاگرس), (Kurdish: Çîyayên Zagrosê), make up Iran and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... The Alps arose as a result of the pressure exerted on sediments of the Tethys Ocean basin as its Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata were pushed against the stable Eurasian landmass by the northward-moving African landmass. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... // The Messinian Salinity Crisis, also referred to as the Messinian Event, is a period when the Mediterranean Sea evaporated partly or completely dry during the Messinian period of the Miocene epoch, approximately 6 million years ago. ...


The end of the Miocene also marked a change in the Mediterranean Basin's climate. Fossil evidence shows that the Mediterranean Basin had a relatively humid subtropical climate with summer rainfall during the Miocene, which supported laurel forests. The shift to a Mediterranean climate occurred within the last 3.2 - 2.8 million years, during the Pliocene epoch, as summer rainfall decreased. The subtropical laurel forests retreated, although they persisted on the islands of Macaronesia off the Atlantic coast of Iberia and North Africa, and the present Mediterranean vegetation evolved, dominated by coniferous trees and sclerophyllous trees and shrubs, with small, hard, waxy leaves that prevent moisture loss in the dry summers. Much of these forests and shrublands have been altered beyond recognition by thousands of years of human habitation. There are now very few relatively intact natural areas in what was once a heavily wooded region. Laurel forest is a subtropical or mild temperate forest, found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable and mild temperatures. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Macaronesia Macaronesia, not to be confused with Micronesia, is a modern collective name for several groups of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean near Europe and North Africa belonging to three countries: Portugal, Spain, and Cape Verde. ... Arid, largely treeless areas aside, most Australian bushland is sclerophyll forest. ...


Flora and Fauna

The Mediterranean Basin is the largest of the world's five Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub regions. It is home to a number of plant communities, which vary with rainfall, elevation, latitude, and soils. A Mediterranean forest. ...

  • Scrublands occur in the driest areas, especially areas near the seacoast where wind and salt spray are frequent. Low, soft-leaved scrublands around the Mediterranean are known as garrigue in France, phrygana in Greece, tomillares in Spain, and batha in Israel.
  • Shrublands are dense thickets of evergreen sclerophyll shrubs and small trees, and are the commonest plant community around the Mediterranean. Mediterranean shrublands are known as matorral in Spain, macchia in Italy, and maquis in France and elsewhere around the Mediterranean. In some places shrublands are the mature vegetation type, and in other places the result of degradation of former forest or woodland by logging or overgrazing, or disturbance by major fires.
  • Savannas and grasslands occur around the Mediterranean, usually dominated by annual grasses.
  • Woodlands are usually dominated by oak and pine, mixed with other sclerophyll and coniferous trees.
  • Forests are distinct from woodlands in having a closed canopy, and occur in the areas of highest rainfall and in riparian zones along rivers and streams where they receive summer water. Mediterranean forests are generally composed of evergreen trees, predominantly oak and pine. At higher elevations Mediterranean forests transition to mixed broadleaf and tall conifer forests similar to temperate zone forests.

The Mediterranean Basin is home to considerable biodiversity, including 22,500 endemic vascular plant species. Conservation International designates the region as a biodiversity hotspot, because of its rich biodiversity and its threatened status. The Mediterranean Basin has an area of 2,085,292 km², of which only 98,009 km² remains undisturbed. Scrubland is plant community characterized by scrub vegetation. ... Garrigue is a type of low, soft-leaved scrubland found around the Mediterranean Basin, generally near the seacoast. ... Shrubland is a habitat type dominated by woody shrubs. ... The word bush re-directs here; for alternate uses see Bush (disambiguation). ... Matorral is a Spanish word for shrubland. ... Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian; plural macchie) is a shrubland biota in Mediterranean countries, typically consisting of densely-growing evergreen shrubs such as sage, juniper and myrtle. ... Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian; plural macchie) is a shrubland biota in Mediterranean countries, typically consisting of densely-growing evergreen shrubs such as sage, juniper and myrtle. ... Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Natural vegetation dominated by grasses Grass is a common word that generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Poaceae. ... Limber Pine woodland, Toiyabe Range, central Nevada Biologically, a woodland is a treed area differentiated from a forest. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded area set aside for hunting). ... A riparian zone schematic from the Everglades. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are plants in the Kingdom Plantae (also called Viridiplantae) that have specialized tissues for conducting water. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Conservation International (CI) is a nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., that seeks to protect Earths biodiversity hotspots, high-biodiversity wilderness areas as well as important marine regions around the globe. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Endangered mammals of the Mediterranean Basin include the Mediterranean Monk Seal, the Barbary Macaque, and the Iberian Lynx. Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... Binomial name Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779) Mediterranean Monk Seal range The Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus) is believed to be the worlds rarest pinniped and one of the most endangered mammals of the world. ... Binomial name Macaca sylvanus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is a tail-less macaque. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Ecoregions

An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... The Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests are an ecoregion on the island of Corsica. ... The Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests is a Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub ecoregion of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...

History

Neanderthals inhabited western Asia and the non-glaciated portions of Europe starting about 230,000 years ago. Modern humans moved into western Asia from Africa less than 100,000 years ago. Modern humans, known as Cro-Magnons, moved into Europe approximately 50-40,000 years ago. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Binomial name King, 1864 Neanderthal range Synonyms Palaeoanthropus neanderthalensis The Neanderthal (IPA: , also with , and ), (Homo neanderthalensis) or Neandertal was a species of the Homo genus that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia. ... A Cro-Magnon male skull Cro-Magnon man (IPA: or anglicised IPA: ) is one of the main types of Homo sapiens of the European Upper Paleolithic. ...


The most recent glacial period, the Wisconsin glaciation, reached its maximum extent approximately 21,000 years ago, and ended approximately 12,000 years ago. A warm period, known as the Holocene climatic optimum, followed the ice age. The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ... The Holocene Climate Optimum was a warm period during roughly the interval 7,000 to 5,000 years B.P.. This event has also been known by many other names, including: Hypisthermal, Altithermal, Climatic Optimum, Holocene Optimum, Holocene Thermal Maximum, and Holocene Megathermal. ...


Food crops, including wheat, chickpeas, and olives, along with sheep and goats, were domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean in the 9th millennium BCE, which allowed for the establishment of agricultural settlements. Near Eastern crops spread to southeastern Europe in the 7th millennium BCE. Poppy and oats were domesticated in Europe from the 6th to the 3rd millennium BCE. Agricultural settlements spread around the Mediterranean Basin. Megaliths were constructed in Europe from 4500 - 1500 BCE. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Species See text. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... (10th millennium BC – 9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – other millennia) Beginning of the Neolithic time period of the Holocene epoch. ... (9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – other millennia) Events The south area of Çatalhöyük. ... A wild field of poppies, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran A poppy is any of a number of showy flowers, born one per stem, belonging to the poppy family. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland For the record label, see Megalith Records. ...


A strengthening of the summer monsoon 9000-7000 years ago increased rainfall across the Sahara, which became a grassland, with lakes, rivers, and wetlands. After a period of climatic instability, the Sahara settled into a desert state by the 4th millennium BCE. Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ...


Agriculture

Wheat is the dominant grain grown around the Mediterranean Basin. Pulses and vegetables are also grown. The characteristic tree crop is the olive. Figs are another important fruit tree, and citrus, especially lemons, are grown where irrigation is present. Grapes are an important vine crop, grown for fruit and to make wine. Rice and summer vegetables are grown in irrigated areas. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Binomial name Ficus carica L. The Common Fig (Ficus carica) is a large shrub or small tree native to southwest Asia and the eastern Mediterranean region (Greece east to Afghanistan). ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Binomial name (L.) Burm. ... It has been suggested that Veraison be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


References

  • Attenborough, David 1987. The First Eden: the Mediterranean World and Man. Little Brown and Company, Boston.
  • Dallman, Peter F. 1998. Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates. California Native Plant Society, University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
  • Suc J-P. 1984. "Origin and evolution of the Mediterranean vegetation and climate in Europe". Nature 307: 429-428.

Sir David Frederick Attenborough, OM, CH, CVO, CBE, FRS (born on 8 May 1926 in London, England) is one of the worlds best known broadcasters and naturalists. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

  • Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot (Conservation International)
  • Wiki-Recipe.org Mediterranean recipes


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mediterranean Basin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1258 words)
In the eastern Mediterranean the Sahara extends to the southern shore of the Mediterranean, with the exception of the northern fringe of the peninsula of Cyrenaica in Libya, which has a dry Mediterranean climate.
The Mediterranean Basin was shaped by the ancient collision of the northward-moving African-Arabian continent with the stable Eurasian continent.
Mediterranean shrublands are known as matorral in Spain, macchia in Italy, and maquis in France and elsewhere around the Mediterranean.
Mediterranean Sea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1188 words)
The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia.
The Mediterranean Sea is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar on the west and to the Sea of Marmara and Black Sea, by the Dardanelles and the Bosporus respectively, on the east.
As a result of the drying of the sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, the marine biota of the Mediterranean are derived primarily from the Atlantic Ocean.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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