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Encyclopedia > Medina
Al Medina Al Munawwarah
المدينة المنورة
Medina
Location in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Coordinates: 24°28′N 39°36′E / 24.467, 39.6
Province Al Madinah Province
Government
 - Mayor Abdulaziz Al-Hussein
Area
 - Total 173,000 km² (66,795.7 sq mi)
Elevation 608 m (1,995 ft)
Population (2006)
 - Total 1,300,000
Time zone Arabia Standard Time (UTC-3)

Medina IPA: /mɛˈdiːnə/ (Arabic: المدينة المنورة‎ IPA: [ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ] or المدينة IPA: [ælmæˈdiːnæ]; also translated into English as Madinah; officially al Madīnah al Munawwarah) is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of Muhammad. It was also the place where Muhammad and his followers left after attacks against them in Mecca, now known as the Hijrah. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 232 KB) Description : Masjid Nabawi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1470, 642 KB) Locator map of Medina, Saudi Arabia. ... Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah). ... This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Medina or madinah is Arabic for city. As such it has been used to name particular places. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Map with the region outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom in green “Hedjaz” redirects here. ... This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ... Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ...

Contents

Overview

Medina currently has a population of more than 1,300,000 people (2006). It was originally known as Yathrib which was founded by Jewish refugees who fled the aftermath of the war with the Romans, but later the city's name was changed to Madīnat al-Nabī (مدينة ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ IPA: [mæˈdiːnæt æˈnːæbiː] "city of the prophet") or Al Madīnah al Munawwarah ("the enlightened city" or "the radiant city"), while the short form Madīnah simply means "city". Medina is celebrated for containing the mosque of Muhammad, and so ranks as the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca (Makkah).[1] Medina is 210 miles (338 kilometres north of Mecca and about 120 mi (193 km) from the Red Sea coast. It is situated in the most fertile part of all the Hejaz territory, the streams of the vicinity tending to converge in this locality. An immense plain extends to the south; in every direction the view is bounded by hills and mountains. This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ...


The city forms an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet (9 to 12 metres) high, that dates from the 12th century C.E., and is flanked with towers, while on a rock, stands a castle. Of its four gates, the Bab-al-Salam, or Egyptian gate, is remarkable for its beauty. Beyond the walls of the city, west and south are suburbs consisting of low houses, yards, gardens ,and plantations. These suburbs have also walls and gates. A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the prophet) stands at the east of the city and resembles the mosque at Mecca on a smaller scale. Its courtyard is almost 500 ft (152 m) in length, the dome is high with three picturesque minarets . The tomb of Muhammad, who died and was buried here in 632 C.E., is enclosed with a screen of iron filigree, at the south side of which the hajji goes through his devotions, for all of which he pays, but is consoled with the assurance that one prayer here is as good as a thousand elsewhere.[2] Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) The Mosque of the Prophet ( Arabic: ) [IPA /mæsʤıd ænːæbæwı], in Medina, is the second holiest mosque in Islam. ... A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The tombs of Fatimah (Muhammad's daughter) and Abu Bakr (first caliph and the father of Muhammad's wife, Aisha), and of Umar (Umar ibn Khattab), the second caliph, are also here. The mosque dates back to the time of Muhammad, but has been twice burned and reconstructed.[2] For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


Medina's religious significance in Islam

The Mosque of the prophet in 2007
The Mosque of the prophet in 2007

Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of the 'Tomb of Prophet Muhammad' inside 'Masjid-e-Nabawi' or 'The Mosque of The Prophet'. The mosque was built on a site adjacent to Muhammad's home, and as Muslims believe[citation needed] that prophets must be buried at the very same place they die, Muhammad was thus buried in his house. The tomb later became part of the mosque when it was expanded by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I. The first mosque of Islam is also located in Medina and is known as Masjid Quba, (the Quba Mosque). It was destroyed by lightning, probably about 850 C.E., and the graves were almost forgotten. In 892 the place was cleared up, the tombs located and a fine mosque built, which was destroyed by fire in 1257 C.E. and almost immediately rebuilt. It was restored by Qaitbay, the Egyptian ruler, in 1487.[2] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Profit Mohamad Mosque in Al-Madina This picture was taken on May-2007 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Profit Mohamad Mosque in Al-Madina This picture was taken on May-2007 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into... Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) The Mosque of the Prophet ( Arabic: ) [IPA /mæsʤıd ænːæbæwı], in Medina, is the second holiest mosque in Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Arab Empire in its greatest extent. ... Masjid Al-Quba The Quba Mosque (Quba Masjid or Masjid al-Quba, Arabic: مسجد قباء) just outside Medina, Saudi Arabia, is the first Islamic mosque ever built and the National mosque of Saudi Arabia. ... Al-Ashraf Sayf al-Din Qait Bay was the eighteenth Burji Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 872-901/1468-1496. ... // The position of the following kings is uncertain: See Roman Egypt Main Article: President of Egypt List of pharaohs; a list of ancient rulers of Ancient Egypt. ...


Like Mecca, the city of Medina only permits Muslims to enter, although the haram (area closed to non-Muslims) of Medina is much smaller than that of Mecca, with the result that many facilities on the outskirts of Medina are open to non-Muslims, whereas in Mecca the area closed to non-Muslims extends well beyond the limits of the built-up area. Both cities' numerous mosques are the destination for large numbers of Muslims on their Hajj (annual pilgrimage). Hundreds of thousands of Muslims come to Medina annually to visit the 'Tomb of Prophet' and to worship at mosques in a unified celebration. Muslims believe that praying once in the Mosque of the Prophet is equal to praying at least 1000 times in any other mosque. This article covers the word as used in Islamic urban planning. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...


History

Pre-Jewish times

In the time of Ptolemy the oasis was known as Lathrippa.[2] This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ...


Jewish tribes

The oasis of Yathrib was first settled by three Jewish tribes: the Banu Qaynuqa, the Banu Qurayza, and Banu Nadir.[3] Ibn Khordadbeh later reported that during the Persian Empire's domination in Hejaz, the Banu Qurayza served as tax collectors for the shah.[4] For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... There were several Tribes of Arabia during Muhammads era. ... The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Detail from miniature painting The Prophet, Ali, and the Companions at the Massacre of the Prisoners of the Jewish Tribe of Beni Qurayzah, illustration of a 19th century text by Muhammad Rafi Bazil. ... Banu Nadir (Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Abul Qasim UbaidAllah ibn Khordadbeh (c. ... Persia redirects here. ... A tax collector is a person who collects unpaid taxes from other people or corporations. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ...


Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj

The situation changed after the arrival from Yemen of two Arab tribes named Banu Aus (Banu Aws) and Banu Khazraj. At first, these tribes were clients of the Jews, but later they revolted and became independent.[5] Toward the end of the 5th century[6], the Jews lost control of the city to Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj. The Jewish Encyclopedia states that they did so "By calling in outside assistance and treacherously massacring at a banquet the principal Jews" Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj finally gained the upper hand at Medina.[3]. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Banu Aus or Banu Aws (Arabic:?) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammads era. ... The Banu Khazraj (Arabic:?) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammads era. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ...


Most modern historians accept the claim of the Muslim sources that after the revolt, the Jewish tribes became clients of the Aus and the Khazraj.[7] According to William Montgomery Watt, the clientship of the Jewish tribes is not borne out by the historical accounts of the period prior to 627, and maintained that the Jews retained a measure of political independence.[5] William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ...


Ibn Ishaq tells of a conflict between the last Yemenite king of the Himyarite Kingdom[8] and the residents of Yathrib. When the king was passing by the oasis, the residents killed his son, and the Yemenite ruler threatened to exterminate the people and cut down the palms. According to ibn Ishaq, he was stopped from doing so by two rabbis from the Banu Qurayza, who implored the king to spare the oasis because it was the place "to which a prophet of the Quraysh would migrate in time to come, and it would be his home and resting-place". The Yemenite king thus did not destroy the town and converted to Judaism. He took the rabbis with him, and in Mecca, they reportedly recognized the Kaaba as a temple built by Abraham and advised the king "to do what the people of Mecca did: to circumambulate the temple, to venerate and honour it, to shave his head and to behave with all humility until he had left its precincts." On approaching Yemen, tells ibn Ishaq, the rabbis demonstrated to the local people a miracle by coming out of a fire unscathed and the Yemenites accepted Judaism.[9] Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar, or simply Ibn Ishaq (Arabic: , meaning the son of Isaac) (died 767, or 761 (Robinson 2003, p. ... Himyarite Kingdom (red) in the 3rd century AD. The Homerite Kingdom is described in the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula in the 1st century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ...


Civic strife

Eventually the Banu Aus and the Banu Khazraj became hostile to each other and by the time of Muhammad's Hijra (withdrawal) to Medina, they had been fighting for 120 years and were the sworn enemies of each other.[10] The Banu Nadir and the Banu Qurayza were allied with the Aus, while the Banu Qaynuqa sided with the Khazraj.[11] They fought a total of four wars.[5] For other uses, see Hijra. ...


Their last and bloodiest was the Battle of Bu'ath[5] that was fought a few years before the arrival of Muhammad.[3] The outcome of the battle was inconclusive, and the feud continued. Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, one Khazraj chief, had refused to take part in the battle, which earned him a reputation for equity and peacefulness. Until the arrival of Muhammad he was the most respected inhabitant of Yathrib. The Battle of Buath was fought in 617 between Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj, the Arab tribes of Medina (then Yathrib), in the south-eastern quarter of the Medinan oasis, belonging to the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza. ... Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy was a chief of some groups part of the Arab tribe Banu al-Khazraj at Medina (then known as Jathrib) and an opponent of Muhammad, who had undermined Abd-Allahs influence in that city. ...


Muhammad's arrival

In 622, Muhammad and the Muhajirun left Mecca and arrived at Yathrib, an event that would transform the political landscape completely; the longstanding enmity between the Aus and Khazraj tribes was dampened as many of the two tribes embraced Islam. Muhammad, linked to the Khazraj through his great grandmother, was soon made one of the chiefs and united the Muslim converts of Yathrib under the name "Ansar" (the Patrons). After Muhammad's arrival, the city gradually came to be known as Medina (literally "city" in Arabic). Some consider this name as a derivative from the Aramaic word Medinta, which the Jewish inhabitants would have used for the city.[12] Muhajirun (Arabic: المهاجرون; The Emigrants) are the early Muslims who followed Muhammad in the Migration from Mecca to Medina. ... Ansar is A Islamic term that literally means helper and denotes the Medinan citizens that helped Muhammad and the Muhajirun on the arival to the city after the Migration to Medina // Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy — chief [1] Sad ibn Ubadah, the chief of the Khazraj[2] Hassan ibn Thabit... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ...


According to Ibn Ishaq, the Muslims and Jews of the area signed an agreement, the Constitution of Medina, which committed Jewish and Muslim tribes to mutual cooperation. The nature of this document as recorded by Ibn Ishaq and transmitted by ibn Hisham is the subject of dispute among modern historians many of whom maintain that this "treaty" is possibly a collage of agreements, oral rather than written, of different dates, and that it is not clear when they were made or with whom.[13] The Constitution of Medina is the earliest known written constitution. ... Ibn Hisham, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Malik (d. ...


The Battle of Badr

In January of 623 Muhammad dispatched Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (Obeida), the son of Muhammad's uncle Harith ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, to attack an enemy caravan (belonging to the persecutors of the first Muslims) passing along the Syria-to-Mecca trade route. As the caravan (led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb) was watering in the valley of Rabigh, Muhammad's men fired volleys of arrows from a distance but did not inflict any damage.[14] Obeida was given the honour of "he who shot the first arrow for Islam" as Abu Sufyan ibn Harb altered course to flee the attack. In retaliation for this attack Abu Sufyan ibn Harb requested an armed force from Mecca who came and engaged in the Battle of Badr, at which was killed.[15] Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (Arabic: عبيده بن الحارث) is the son of Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib and one of the sahaba of Muhammad Obaidah ibn al-Harith ibn Abdul-Muttalib, was the first Muslim to be martyred in battle. ... Ḥārith ibn ‘Abd al-MutÌ£tÌ£alib (Arabic: ‎) was one of the uncles of the prophet Muhammad and also a Sahaba. ... Sakhr ibn Harb, (Arabic: صخر بن حرب ) more commonly known as Abu Sufyan, was a leading man of the Quraish of Mecca and a staunch opponent of Muhammad but later adopted Islam. ... Satellite Image of the Town by Google Earth Town Seaport Image by Google Earth Town Airport (by Google Earth) Rabigh (Arabic:رابغ) is an anchient Town on the western coast of Saudi Arabia (Red Sea). ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Amr ibn Hishām Strength 300-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western...


Throughout the winter and spring of 623 other raiding parties were sent by Muhammad from Medina but, while troublesome, were not particularly effective or destructive.[14]


Muhammad's agreement with the Jewish tribes soon broke down, as the Jews would not accept Muhammad's claims to prophethood or his growing influence. After his victory at Badr, Muhammad besieged and conquered the tribe of the Banu Qaynuqa, that had been involved in a tribal feud and adamantly refused to convert to Islam or keep peace with the Muslims. Because of the intercession of Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy and because it was the first incident with the tribes, Muhammad spared the tribe's lives and expelled them from the city.


The Battle of Uhud

In 625, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb once again led a Meccan force against Medina. Muhammad marched out to meet the force but before reaching the battle, about one third of the troops under Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy withdrew. Nevertheless the Muslims marched forth into battle and originally were somewhat successful in pushing the Meccans back. However, a strategic hill was lost which allowed the Meccans to come from behind the Muslims so they suffered defeat in the Battle of Uhud. However, the Meccans did not capitalize on their victory by invading Medina and so returned to Mecca. Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the...


Meanwhile, conflict with the Jews arose again: one of the Banu Nadir's chiefs, the poet Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, was killed for breaching the Constitution of Medina and after the battle of Uhud, Muhammad accused the tribe of treachery and plotting against his life and expelled them from the city after a short fight.[citation needed] Kab ibn al-Ashraf (Arabic: كعب بن الاشرف)(d. ...


The Battle of the Trench

Panel representing the mosque of Medina (now in Saudi Arabia). Found in İznik (Turkey), 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.
Panel representing the mosque of Medina (now in Saudi Arabia). Found in İznik (Turkey), 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.

In 627, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb once more led Meccan forces against Medina. Because the people of Medina had dug a trench to further protect the city, this event became known as the Battle of the Trench. After a protracted siege and various skirmishes, the Meccans withdrew again. During the siege, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb had contacted the remaining Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza and formed an agreement with them, to attack the defenders from behind the lines. It was however discovered by the Muslims and thwarted. This was in breach of the Constitution of Medina and after the Meccan withdrawal, Muhammad immediately marched against the Qurayza and laid siege to their strongholds. The Jews eventually surrendered. Some members of the Banu Aus now interceded on behalf of their old allies and Muhammad agreed to the appointment of one of their chiefs, Sa'd ibn Mua'dh, as judge. Sa'ad judged that all male members of the tribe were killed and the women and children taken prisoner.[16] This action was conceived of as a defensive measure to ensure that the Muslim community could be confident of its continued survival in Medina. The historian Robert Mantran argues that from this point of view it was successful - from this point on, the Muslims were no longer primarily concerned with survival but with expansion and conquest.[17] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 346 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1179 × 2040 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 346 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1179 × 2040 pixel, file size: 1. ... Iznik ceramic pitcher with flower decoration from ca. ... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 3,000 10,000 Casualties only few few hundreds or more The Battle of the Trench or Battle of the Ditch (Arabic غزوة الخندق), also known as or Battle of Confederates (Arabic غزوة الاحزاب) was an attack by the non-Muslim Ahzab... Sa’d ibn Muadh was a chief of the Banu Aus tribe in Yathrib. ...


Capital city

In the ten years following the Hijra, Medina formed the base from which Muhammad attacked and was attacked and it was from here that he marched on Mecca, becoming its ruler without battle. Even when Islamic rule was established, Medina remained for some years the most important city of Islam and the capital of the Caliphate. For other uses, see Hijra. ... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 Unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD (10th day of Ramadan8 AH). ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


Medieval Medina

Under the first four Caliphs, known as the Rashidun (The Rightly Guided Caliphs), the Islamic empire expanded rapidly and came to include historical centres of civilisation such as Jerusalem and Damascus, and Mesopotamia. After the death of Ali, the fourth caliph, the seat of the Caliph was first transferred to Damascus and later to Baghdad. Medina's importance dwindled and it became more a place of religious importance than of political power. After the fragmentation of the Caliphate the city became subject to various rulers, including the Mamluks in the 13th century and finally, since 1517, the Ottoman Turks. The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Mamluk Sultanate, 1250]] History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman... Ottoman redirects here. ...


In 1256 Medina was threatened by lava flow from the last eruption of Harrat Rahat. Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Harrat Rahat is a volcanic lava field in Saudi Arabia. ...


Modern Medina

In the beginning of 20th century during World War I Medina witnessed one of the longest sieges in history. Medina was a city of Ottoman Empire. Local rule was in the hands of the Hashemite clan as Sharifs or Emirs of Mecca. Fakhri Pasha was the Ottoman governor of Medina. Ali bin Hussein, the Sharif of Mecca and leader of the Hashemite clan, revolted against the caliph and sided with Great Britain. The city of Medina was besieged by his forces and Fakhri Pasha tenaciously held on during the Siege of Medina from 1916 but on 10 January 1919 he was forced to surrender. After the First World War, the Hashemite Sayyid Hussein bin Ali was proclaimed King of an independent Hejaz, but in 1924 he was defeated by Ibn Saud, who integrated Medina and Hejaz into his kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sayyid. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Fakhri Pasha or Umar Fakhr ud-Din Pasha was the commander of Ottoman army and governer of Medina from 1916 to 1919. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Ali bin Hussein (1879–1935) was King of Hejaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca from October 1924 until December 1925. ... King Hussien , Founder of Kingdom of Hejaz King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud , founder of Saudi Arabia The Sharif of Mecca (Arabic:شريف مكة) or Sharif of Hejaz (Arabic:شريف الحجاز) was the title of the former governors of Hejaz and a traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. ... Medina, an Islamic holy city in Arabia, underwent a long siege during World War I. Medina was at the time controlled by the Ottoman Empire. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hussein bin Ali (1852-1931) (حسین بن علی; Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī) was the Sharif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king of Hejaz, which received international recognition. ... `Abd al-`Azīz Āl Sa`ūd, King of Saudi Arabia ( 1880 – November 9, 1953) (Arabic: عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ...


The Medina Knowledge Economic City project, a city focused on knowledge-based industries, has been planned and is expected to boost development and increase the number of jobs in Medina.[18]

Masjed Nabawi at sunset
Masjed Nabawi at sunset

See also

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Fakhri Pasha or Umar Fakhr ud-Din Pasha was the commander of Ottoman army and governer of Medina from 1916 to 1919. ... Medina, an Islamic holy city in Arabia, underwent a long siege during World War I. Medina was at the time controlled by the Ottoman Empire. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Hejazi Arabic is a term used to describe the variety of the Arabic language spoken in the western region of Saudi Arabia. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

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References

  1. ^ However, an article in Aramco World by John Anthony states: "To the perhaps parochial Muslims of North Africa in fact the sanctity of Kairouan is second only to Mecca among all cities of the world." Saudi Aramco’s bimonthly magazine's goal is to broaden knowledge of the cultures, history and geography of the Arab and Muslim worlds and their connections with the West; pages 30-36 of the January/February 1967 print edition The Fourth Holy City
  2. ^ a b c d 1954 Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 18, pp.587, 588
  3. ^ a b c Jewish Encyclopedia Medina
  4. ^ Peters 193
  5. ^ a b c d "Al-Medina." Encyclopaedia of Islam
  6. ^ for date see "J. Q. R." vii. 175, note
  7. ^ See e.g., Peters 193; "Qurayza", Encyclopedia Judaica
  8. ^ Muslim sources usually referred to Himyar kings by the dynastic title of "Tubba".
  9. ^ Guillaume 7–9, Peters 49–50
  10. ^ The Message (Subhani) The Events of the First Year of Migration
  11. ^ For alliances, see Guillaume 253
  12. ^ The Jews of Arabia. By Lucien Gubbay
  13. ^ Firestone 118. For opinions disputing the early date of the Constitution of Medina, see e.g., Peters 119; "Muhammad", "Encyclopaedia of Islam"; "Kurayza, Banu", "Encyclopaedia of Islam".
  14. ^ a b The Biography of Mahomet, and Rise of Islam. Chapter Eleventh. Hostilities between Medina and Mecca. A.H. I. & II. - A.D. 623. by William Muir
  15. ^ The Biography of Mahomet, and Rise of Islam. Chapter Fourth. Extension of Islam and Early Converts, from the assumption by Mahomet of the prophetical office to the date of the first Emigration to Abyssinia by William Muir
  16. ^ Robert Mantran, L'expansion musulmane Presses Universitaires de France 1995, p. 86
  17. ^ Insert footnote text here<Robert Mantran, L'expansion musulmane Presses Universitaires de France 1995, p. 86>
  18. ^ Economic cities a rise

Coordinates: 24°28′N 39°36′E / 24.467, 39.6 There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... Saudi Aramco, the state-owned national oil company of Saudi Arabia, is the largest oil corporation in the world and the worlds largest in terms of proven crude oil reserves and production. ... // The Encyclopedia Americana is the second largest printed general encyclopedia in the English language (after the Encyclopædia Britannica). ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and their faith, Judaism. ... Sir William Muir (April 27, 1819–1905), was a Scottish Orientalist. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

This is a list of cities and towns in Saudi Arabia. ... Afif (Arabic: عفيف) is a town in central Saudi Arabia, in the Najd region. ... Arar is the capital of Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah (The Northern Border) province in Saudi Arabia. ... Abha is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. ... Map of Abqaiq Region Abqaiq (also Buqayq, Arabic: بقيق buqayq, meaning father of the sand flies) is a small city in the interior of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia located in the desert southwest of the Dhahran-Dammam-Khobar metropolitan area. ... Al Bahah (Arabic: الباحة) is a city in the southwest of Saudi Arabia. ... Buraidah (Arabic: بريدة) lies in the Al Qasim region of Saudi Arabia in the heart of the Arabian peninsula. ... Dammam Corniche Dammam (Also Damman or Ad Dammām) is the capital of the Ash Sharqiyah province in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about Dhahran, the city. ... Diriyah (also Ad-Diriyah or Ad-Dariyah) is a town in Saudi Arabia located outside of Riyadh in Ar Riyad Province. ... Duba is a city on the northern Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. ... Hail (Arabic: ‎) is an oasis city in Najd in northwestern Saudi Arabia and is the capital of the Hail Province. ... Hofuf (Arabic: الهفوف) is a common name for the major city also called Al-Hasa or Hassa in the Al-Hasa oasis in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. ... Al-Jawf (Arabic: الجوف) is a city in the north of Saudi Arabia. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Jizan, Saudi Arabia Jizan or Jazan (Arabic: جيزان) is the capital of the Jizan Province in the far south-west of Saudi Arabia. ... Location of Jubail, Saudi Arabia. ... Khamis Mushait (Arabic: خميس مشيط Khamis Mushayt) is a city in south-west Saudi Arabia, located 35 minutes east of Abha, the provincial seat of the Asir province in southwest Saudi Arabia. ... Al Kharj (Arabic: الخرج) is a city in Ar Riyad Province, Saudi Arabia. ... Khobar Corniche Khobar (also written al-Khobar or al-Khubar ; Arabic: الخبر) is a large city located in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on the Arabian/Persian Gulf. ... Al Majmaah (Arabic: المجمعة) is a city and a governorate in Ar Riyad Province, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Najran is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. ... Bisha (بيشة) (also known as Qal`at Bishah قلعة بيشة) is a town in southwestern Saudi Arabia. ... Qatif or Al-Qatif (also spelled Qateef or Al-Qateef; Arabic: ) is a historic, coastal oasis region located on the western shore of the Persian Gulf in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. ... Map of Ras Tanura Region Ras Tanura (more accurately Ras TannÅ«rah, Arabic: رأس تنورة meaning top/head of the barbeque spit) is a city in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia located on a peninsula extending into the Persian Gulf. ... Ras Al Khafji was historically the principle town in the neutral zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Taif is in the mid-southwest of the country near to Mecca Ta’if ( transliteration: ) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat mountains. ... Tabuk (also spelled Tabouk) is the capital city of the Tabuk province in north western Saudi Arabia. ... Satellite view of Unzaizah. ... NASA photograph of Yanbu al Bahr Yanbu al Bahr (arabic: ينبع البحر spring by the sea), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo, or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah province of western Saudi Arabia. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Province Established 17 AH - 638 AD Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Mutlaq Abu Ethnain  - City Governor  - Provincial Governor Population (2005)  - City +338,636  - Urban +289,179  - Metro +49,457   Hafar Al-Batin Municipality estimate Time zone AST (UTC+3)  - Summer (DST) AST (UTC+3) Postal Code...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Medina - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (895 words)
Medina /mɛˈdiːnə/ (Arabic: المدينة المنورة‎ /ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ/ or المدينة /ælmæˈdiːnæ/; also transliterated into English as Madinah) is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia.
Medina was originally known as Yathrib, but later the city's name was changed to Madīnat al-Nabī (ﻣﺩﯾﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ /mæˈdiːnæt æˈnːæbiː/ "city of the prophet") or Al Madīnah al Munawwarah ("the enlightened city" or "the radiant city"), while the short form Medina simply means "city".
In 1256 Medina was threatened by lava flow from the last eruption of Harrat Rahat.
Medina County, Ohio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (446 words)
Medina County is a county located in the state of Ohio, United States.
and is named for Medina in Saudi Arabia, though it is pronounced with a long "I" sound.
About 3.50% of families and 4.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.90% of those under age 18 and 4.80% of those age 65 or over.
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