FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Medieval warfare
War

-1... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

Military History

War Portal   v  d  e 

Medieval Warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. In Europe, technological, cultural, and social developments had forced a dramatic transformation in the character of warfare from antiquity, changing military tactics and the role of cavalry and artillery. Similar patterns of warfare existed in other parts of the world. In China, weapons employing gunpowder date back to the tenth century, and the first permanent standing Chinese navy was established in the early twelfth century by the Song Dynasty. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ...


The Middle East and North Africa used very different methods and equipment as was used in Europe, and there occurred a considerable amount of technological exchange and tactical adaptation between the different cultures. In Japan the Medieval warfare period is considered by many to have stretched into the eighteenth century. In Africa along the Sahel and Sudan, states like the Kingdom of Sennar and Fulani Empire employed Medieval tactics and weapons through the nineteenth century. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A king of Sennar, 1821 Kingdom of Sennar was a former sultanate in the north of Sudan, which ruled a substantial area of northeast Africa between 1504 and 1821. ... The Fulani Empire was one of the most powerful states in sub-Saharan Africa in the years prior to European colonization. ...

Contents

Strategy and tactics

Employment of forces

The experience level and tactical manoeuvring ability of medieval armies varied widely, depending on the period and region. For larger battles, pre-battle planning typically consisted of a council of the war leaders, which could either be the general laying down a plan or a noisy debate between the different leaders, depending on how much authority the general possessed. Battlefield communications before the advent of strict lines of communication were naturally very difficult. Communication was done through musical signals, audible commands, messengers, or visual signals such raising a standard, banner, or flag.


The infantry, including missile troops, would typically be employed at the outset of the battle to break open infantry formations while the cavalry attempted to defeat its opposing number. When one side gained superiority in cavalry (or had it at the outset of battle) it could attempt to exploit the loss of cohesion in the opposing infantry lines caused by the infantry conflict to hit the opposing infantry and attempt to rout it. This could often be difficult, and careful timing would be necessary for a direct cavalry assault, as an ordered infantry line would often be able to beat off the cavalry attacks. Pure infantry conflicts would be drawn-out affairs.


Cannons were introduced to the battlefield in the later medieval period. However, their very poor rate of fire (which often meant that only one shot was fired in the course of an entire battle) and their inaccuracy made them more of a psychological force multiplier than an effective anti-personnel weapon.


Later on in medieval warfare, once hand cannons were introduced, the rate of fire improved only slightly, but the cannons became far easier to aim, largely because they were smaller and much closer to their wielder. Their users could be easily protected, because the cannons were lighter and could be moved far more quickly. However, real field artillery did not become truly effective or commonly employed until well into the early modern period.


Retreat

A hasty retreat could cause greater casualties than an organized withdrawal, because the fast cavalry of the winning side's rearguard would intercept the fleeing enemy while their infantry continued their attack. In most medieval battles, more soldiers were killed during the retreat than in battle, since mounted knights could quickly and easily dispatch the archers and infantry who were no longer protected by a line of pikes as they had been during the previous fighting. A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ...


Fortifications

Breakdowns in centralized states led to the rise of a number of groups that turned to large-scale pillage as a source of income. Most notably the Vikings (but also Arabs, Mongols and Magyars) raided significantly. As these groups were generally small and needed to move quickly, building fortifications was a good way to provide refuge and protection for the people and the wealth in the region. The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


These fortifications evolved over the course of the Middle Ages, the most important form being the castle, a structure which had become synonymous with the Medieval era to many. The castle served as a protected place for the local elites. Inside a castle they were protected from bands of raiders and could send mounted warriors to drive the raiders from the area, or to disrupt the efforts of larger armies to supply themselves in the region by gaining local superiority over foraging parties that would be impossible against the whole enemy host. Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ...


Fortifications had a great many advantages. They provided refuge from armies too large to face in open battle. The ability of the heavy cavalry to dominate a battle on an open field was useless against fortifications. Building siege engines was a time-consuming process, and could seldom be effectively done without preparations before the campaign. Many sieges could take months, if not years, to weaken or demoralize the defenders sufficiently. Fortifications were an excellent means of ensuring that the elite could not be easily dislodged from their lands - as a French nobleman once commented on seeing enemy troops ravage his lands from the safety of his castle, "they can't take the land with them".


Siege warfare

In the Medieval period besieging armies used a wide variety of siege engines including: scaling ladders; battering rams; siege towers and various types of catapults such as the mangonel, onager, ballista, and trebuchet. Siege techniques also included mining. Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... 19th century French drawing of a medieval belfry. ... Drawing of a Roman ballista For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ... A mangonel was a type of catapult or siege machine used in the medieval period to throw projectiles at a castles walls. ... Sketch of an Onager, from Antique technology by Diels. ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistēs, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing several loops of twisted skeins to power it, it used torsion (instead of a prod). ... For the typeface, see Trebuchet MS. Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France A trebuchet is a siege engine employed in the Middle Ages either to smash masonry walls or to throw projectiles over them. ... Mining, or to undermine or undermining, was a siege method used since antiquity against a walled city, fortress or castle. ...


Advances in the prosecution of sieges encouraged the development of a variety of defensive counter-measures. In particular, medieval fortifications became progressively stronger — for example, the advent of the concentric castle from the period of the Crusades — and more dangerous to attackers — witness the increasing use of machicolations and murder-holes, as well the preparation of hot or incendiary substances. Arrow slits, concealed doors for sallies, and deep water wells were also integral to resisting siege at this time. Designers of castles paid particular attention to defending entrances, protecting gates with drawbridges, portcullises and barbicans. Wet animal skins were often draped over gates to retard fire. Moats and other water defenses, whether natural or augmented, were also vital to defenders. A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Medieval fortification is the military aspect of Medieval technology that covers the development of fortification construction and use in Europe roughly from the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Renaissance. ... Krak des Chevaliers: a concentric castle A concentric castle (or multiple castle) is a castle within a castle, with two or more concentric rings of curtain walls and, in cases, no central keep. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Parapets at Newark Castle, Inverclyde, Scotland, supported on decorative machicolation. ... A murder-hole is a hole in the ceiling of a gateway or passageway in a fortification through which the defenders can fire, throw or pour dangerous or noxious substances at attackers. ... An arrow slit within an embrasure at Corfe Castle An arrow slit (often referred to more formally as an arrow loop) is a thin vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows largely free from personal danger. ... Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal A drawbridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle, but the term is often used to describe all different types of movable bridges, like bascule bridges and lift bridges. ... Counterweights for the sliding portcullis A portcullis is a grille or gate made of wood, metal or a combination of the two. ... This article is about the type of building. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ...


In the European Middle Ages, virtually all large cities had city wallsDubrovnik in Dalmatia is an impressive and well-preserved example — and more important cities had citadels, forts or castles. Great effort was expended to ensure a good water supply inside the city in case of siege. In some cases, long tunnels were constructed to carry water into the city. Complex systems of underground tunnels were used for storage and communications in medieval cities like Tábor in Bohemia. Against these would be matched the mining skills of teams of trained sappers, who were sometimes employed by besieging armies. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... Look up Dubrovnik in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... This article is about a type of fortification. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... SW corner of the Žižka square as viewed from the church tower. ... For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... A sapper, in the sense first used by the French military, was one who sapped (undermined) anothers fortifications. ...


Until the invention of gunpowder-based weapons (and the resulting higher-velocity projectiles), the balance of power and logistics definitely favored the defender. With the invention of gunpowder, the traditional methods of defense became less and less effective against a determined siege. A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as...

See also: Mining (military)

Mining, or to undermine or undermining, was a siege method used since antiquity against a walled city, fortress or castle. ...

Organization

Knights

Main article: Knight

A medieval knight was a usually mounted and armoured soldier, often connected with nobility or royalty, although (especially in north-eastern Europe) knights could also come from the lower classes, and could even be unfree persons. The cost of their armor, horses, and weapons was great; this, among other things, helped gradually transform the knight, at least in western Europe, into a distinct social class separate from other warriors. During the crusades, holy orders of Knights fought in the Holy Land (see Knights Templar, the Hospitallers, etc.). For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... This article is about a military rank. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... This 15th century depiction of Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I shows a well-bred Medieval horse with arched neck, refined head and elegant gait. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care...


Heavy cavalry

Main article: Heavy cavalry

Heavily armed cavalry, armed with lances and a varied assortment of hand weapons played a significant part in the battles of the Middle Ages. The heavy cavalry mainly consisted of wealthy knights and noblemen who could afford the equipment. Heavy cavalry was the difference between victory and defeat in many key battles. Their thunderous charges could break the lines of most infantry lines, making them a valuable asset to all medieval armies. Early 16th century French gendarmes, with complete plate armour and heavy lances. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... A personal weapon is a weapon that can be carried and employed by a single person, although their use may be restricted to specialist members of attack or defense teams. ...

Costumes of Roman and German Soldiers From Miniatures on different Manuscripts, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries.
Costumes of Roman and German Soldiers From Miniatures on different Manuscripts, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries.

Download high resolution version (1457x1824, 70 KB)Costumes of Roman and German Soldiers - From Miniatures on different Manuscripts, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries. ... Download high resolution version (1457x1824, 70 KB)Costumes of Roman and German Soldiers - From Miniatures on different Manuscripts, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries. ...

Infantry

The role of infantry has been ignored in the past by writers who focused on the role of knights and heavy cavalry. Infantry were recruited and trained in a wide variety of manners in different regions of Europe all through the Middle Ages, and probably always formed the most numerous part of a medieval field army. Many infantrymen in prolonged wars would be mercenaries. Most armies contained significant numbers of spearmen, archers and other unmounted soldiers. In sieges, perhaps the most common element of medieval warfare, infantry units served as garrison troops and archers, among other positions. Near the end of the Middle Ages, with the advancements of weapons and armour, the infantryman became more important to an army.


Recruiting

In the earliest Middle Ages it was the obligation of every noble to respond to the call to battle with his own equipment, archers, and infantry. This decentralized system was necessary due to the social order of the time, but could lead to motley forces with variable training, equipment and abilities. The more resources the noble had access to, the better his troops would typically be.


As central governments grew in power, a return to the citizen armies of the classical period also began, as central levies of the peasantry began to be the central recruiting tool. England was one of the most centralized states in the Middle Ages, and the armies that fought the Hundred Years' War were mostly paid professionals. In theory, every Englishman had an obligation to serve for forty days. Forty days was not long enough for a campaign, especially one on the continent. Thus the scutage was introduced, whereby most Englishmen paid to escape their service and this money was used to create a permanent army. However, almost all high medieval armies in Europe were composed of a great deal of paid core troops, and there was a large mercenary market in Europe from at least the early twelfth century. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Belligerents House of Valois Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany House of Plantagenet Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with... The tax of scutage or escuage in the law of England involved the pecuniary commutation, under the feudal system, of the military service due from the holder of a knights fee. ...


As the Middle Ages progressed in Italy, Italian cities began to rely mostly on mercenaries to do their fighting rather than the militias that had dominated the early and high medieval period in this region. These would be groups of career soldiers who would be paid a set rate. Mercenaries tended to be effective soldiers, especially in combination with standing forces, but in Italy they came to dominate the armies of the city states. This made them considerably less reliable than a standing army. Mercenary-on-mercenary warfare in Italy also led to relatively bloodless campaigns which relied as much on manoeuvre as on battles. Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


The knights were drawn to battle by feudal and social obligation, and also by the prospect of profit and advancement. Those who performed well were likely to increase their landholdings and advance in the social hierarchy. The prospect of significant income from pillage and ransoming prisoners was also important. For the mounted knight Medieval Warfare could be a relatively low risk affair. Nobles avoided killing each other for several reasons—for one thing, many were related to each other, had fought alongside one another, and they were all (more or less) members of the same elite culture; for another, a noble's ransom could be very high, and indeed some made a living by capturing and ransoming nobles in battle. Even peasants, who did not share the bonds of kinship and culture, would often avoid killing a nobleman, valuing the high ransom that a live capture could bring, as well as the valuable horse, armour and equipment that came with him. However, this is by no means a rule of medieval warfare. It was quite common, even at the height of "chivalric" warfare, for the knights to suffer heavy casualties during battles. The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ...

Varlet or Squire carrying a Halberd with a thick Blade; and Archer, in Fighting Dress, drawing the String of his Crossbow with a double-handled Winch.--From the Miniatures of the "Jouvencel," and the "Chroniques" of Froissart, Manuscripts of the Fifteenth Century (Imperial Library of Paris).
Varlet or Squire carrying a Halberd with a thick Blade; and Archer, in Fighting Dress, drawing the String of his Crossbow with a double-handled Winch.--From the Miniatures of the "Jouvencel," and the "Chroniques" of Froissart, Manuscripts of the Fifteenth Century (Imperial Library of Paris).

Download high resolution version (1443x1495, 56 KB)Varlet or Squire carrying a Halberd with a thick Blade; and Archer, in Fighting Dress, drawing the String of his Crossbow with a double-handled Winch. ... Download high resolution version (1443x1495, 56 KB)Varlet or Squire carrying a Halberd with a thick Blade; and Archer, in Fighting Dress, drawing the String of his Crossbow with a double-handled Winch. ...

Equipment

Personal equipment for

For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... A sapper, in the sense first used by the French military, was one who sapped (undermined) anothers fortifications. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ...

Weapons

Medieval weapons consisted of many different types of ranged and hand-held objects:

Swedish halberds from 16th century A halberd is a two-handed pole weapon that came to prominent use during the 14th and 15th centuries. ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... The term arming-sword refers not so much to a sword design as the situation under which the sword was used. ... This article is about the weapon. ... For other uses, see Claymore (disambiguation). ... Bold text This article is about the weapon. ... Flail The flail is a medieval weapon made of one (or more) weights attached to a handle with a hinge or chain. ... The term great sword refers to any of a number of large two-handed swords used in medieval Europe. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hammer (disambiguation). ... The horsemans pick was a weapon used by cavalry units during the middle ages in Europe. ... A javelin is a light spear designed primarily for casting as a ranged weapon. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... Pole weapons and Mortuary Swords in the Great Hall of Edinburgh Castle. ... Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow, 45 lbf / 200 N draw force. ... The Longsword is a type of European sword used during the late medieval and Renaissance periods, approximately 1250 to 1550. ... A development of the club, a mace consists of a strong, heavy wooden, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel. ... This article is about the defensive device. ... Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ... A bardiche or long poleaxe is a type of polearm that was used during times of war in medieval Europe. ...

Armour

David rejects the unaccustomed armour (detail of fol. ... Leather Armour is a form of warfare protection created with animal hides that have been cured or tanned. ... Dacian scale armour on Trajans column. ... Gothic armour Plate armour is personal armour made from large metal plates, worn on the chest and sometimes the entire body. ... Japanese Samurai Odoshi Armor. ...

Horses

This 15th century depiction of Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I shows a well-bred Medieval horse with arched neck, refined head and elegant gait. ... A destrier is an historical term for a knights war horse. ... This depiction of a knight on horseback might show a courser A courser is a swift and strong horse, frequently used during the Middle Ages as a warhorse. ... The Battle of Poitiers in 1356. ...

Artillery

A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. ...

Supplies and logistics

As Napoleon famously said, an army marches on its stomach, a weakness that has applied to all military campaigns in history. Medieval armies were supplied much as earlier armies had been. With the advent of castle-building and the extended siege, supply problems had to be solved on a scale seldom seen before, as armies had to stay in one spot for months, or even years. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


Plunder and foraging

The usual method for solving logistical problems for smaller armies was foraging or "living off the land". As medieval campaigns were often directed at well-populated settled areas, a travelling army would forcibly commandeer all available resources from the land they passed through, from food to raw materials to equipment. Living off the land is not very easy when there is no food ready to eat, so there was, in theory at least, a prescribed "campaign season" that aimed to conduct warfare at a predictable time, when there would be both food on the ground and relatively good weather. This season was usually from spring to autumn, as by early-spring all the crops would be planted, thus freeing the male population for warfare until they were needed for harvest time in late-autumn. As an example, in many European countries serfs and peasants were obliged to perform around 45 days of military service per year without pay, usually during this campaign season when they were not required for agriculture.


Plunder in itself was often the objective of a military campaign, to either pay mercenary forces, seize resources, reduce the fighting capacity of enemy forces, or as a calculated insult to the enemy ruler. Examples are the Viking attacks across Europe, or the highly destructive English chevauchées across northern France during the Hundred Years' War. A chevauchée (French for promenade or horse charge, depending on context) was a method in medieval warfare for weakening the enemy, focusing mainly on wreaking havoc, burning and pillaging enemy territory, in order to reduce the productivity of a region; as opposed to siege warfare or wars of conquest. ... Belligerents House of Valois Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany House of Plantagenet Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with...


Supply trains

Supply chains are more a feature of modern warfare than medieval warfare. Due to the impossibility of maintaining a real front in premodern warfare, the supplies had to be carried with the army and/or transported to it while under guard. However, a supply source moving with the army was necessary for any large-scale army to operate. Medieval supply trains are often found in illuminations and even poems of the period.


River and sea travel proved to be the easiest ways to transport supplies. During his invasion of the Levant, Richard I of England was forced to supply his army as it was marching through a barren desert. By marching his army along the shore, Richard was regularly resupplied by ships travelling along the coast. Likewise, as in Roman times, armies would frequently follow rivers while their supplies were being carried by barges. Supplying armies by mass land-transport would not become practical until the invention of rail transport and the internal combustion engine. The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... railroads redirects here. ... A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ...


The baggage train provided an alternative supply method that was not dependent on access to a water-way. However, it was often a tactical liability. Supply chains forced armies to travel more slowly than a light skirmishing force and were typically centrally placed in the army, protected by the infantry and outriders. Attacks on an enemy's baggage when it was unprotected — as for instance the French attack on the English train at Agincourt, highlighted in the play Henry V—could cripple an army's ability to continue a campaign. This was particularly true in the case of sieges, when large amounts of supplies had to be provided for the besieging army. To refill its supply train, an army would forage extensively as well as resupply itself in cities or supply points - border castles were frequently stocked with supplies for this purpose. Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Henry V, also known as The Cronicle History of Henry the fift, is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ...


Famine and disease

Main article: Medieval demography

A failure in logistics often resulted in famine and disease for a medieval army, with corresponding deaths and loss of morale. A besieging force could starve while waiting for the same to happen to the besieged, which meant the siege had to be lifted. With the advent of the great castles of high medieval Europe however, this problem was typically something commanders prepared for on both sides, so sieges could be long, drawn-out affairs. Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This article is about the medical term. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Epidemics of diseases such as smallpox, cholera, typhoid, and dysentery often swept through medieval armies, especially when poorly supplied or sedentary. In a famous example, in 1347 the bubonic plague erupted in the besieging Mongol army outside the walls of Caffa, Crimea where the disease then spread throughout Europe as the Black Death. This article is about the disease. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and blood in the feces and is typically the result of unsanitary water containing micro-organisms which damage the intestinal lining. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Theodosia (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Greek: Θεοδωσία; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ...


For the inhabitants of a contested area, famine often followed protracted periods of warfare, because foraging armies ate any food stores they could find, reducing or depleting reserve stores. In addition, the overland routes taken by armies on the move could easily destroy a carefully planted field, preventing a crop the following season. Moreover, the death toll in war hit the farming labour pool particularly hard, making it even more difficult to recoup losses.


Naval warfare

The Battle of Sluys, 1340, from Jean Froissart's Chronicles
The Battle of Sluys, 1340, from Jean Froissart's Chronicles
Main article: Naval warfare

In the Mediterranean, naval warfare in the medieval period resembled that of the ancient period: fleets of galleys, often rowed by slaves, would attempt to ram each other, or come alongside for marines to fight on deck. This mode of naval warfare continued even into the early modern period, as, for example, at the Battle of Lepanto. Famous admirals included Andrea Doria, Hayreddin Barbarossa, and Don John of Austria. Battle of Sluys Illustration from Chronicles, a 14th century manuscript by Jean Froissart This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Battle of Sluys Illustration from Chronicles, a 14th century manuscript by Jean Froissart This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Hugues Quiéret, Nicolas Béhuchet Strength 250 ships 190 ships Casualties Unknown 20 000 (Europe: A History by Norman Davies) Most ships captured The naval Battle of Sluys was fought on 24 June 1340 as one of... Jean Froissart (~1337 - ~1405) was one of the most important of the chroniclers of medieval France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Galley (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Marine is an elite warrior whose primary function is to serve aboard a ship and/or assault the land from the sea in amphibious warfare. ... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded... For other uses, see Andrea Doria (disambiguation). ... Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... The tomb of Don Juan de Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan de Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ...


However, galleys were fragile and difficult to use in the cold and turbulent North Sea and northern Atlantic, although they saw occasional use. Bulkier ships were developed which were primarily sail-driven, although the long lowboard Viking-style rowed longship saw use well into the fifteenth century. Ramming was unpractical with these sailing ships, but the main purpose of these warships remained the transportation of soldiers to fight on the decks of the opposing ship (as, for example, at the Battle of Svolder or the Battle of Sluys). The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... A gaff-rigged cutter flying a mainsail, staysail and genoa jib For other uses, see Sail (disambiguation). ... A longship tacking in the wind Longships Are Built in the Land of the Slavs by Nicholas Roerich (1903) Longships were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxon people to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European Middle Ages. ... The naval Battle of Svolder or Swold took place on 9 September 1000 in the western Baltic Sea, between Norway and the other Scandinavians. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Edward III of England Hugues Quiéret, Nicolas Béhuchet Strength 250 ships 190 ships Casualties Unknown 20 000 (Europe: A History by Norman Davies) Most ships captured The naval Battle of Sluys was fought on 24 June 1340 as one of...


Warships resembled floating fortresses, with towers in the bows and at the stern (respectively, the forecastle and aftcastle). The large superstructure made these warships quite unstable, but the decisive defeats the more mobile but considerably lower boarded longships suffered at the hands of high-boarded cogs in the fifteenth century ended the issue of which ship type would dominate northern European warfare. Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... A boat, like a ship, is a buoyant vessel designed for the purpose of transporting people and possibly goods across water. ... {{dablink|For other meanings, see Stern (disambiguation). ... forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Focsle of the Prince William, a modern square rigged ship, in the North Sea. ... Aftcastle ...


In the medieval period, it had proved difficult to mount cannons on board a warship, although some were placed in the fore- and aftcastles. Small hand-held anti-personnel cannons were used, but large cannons mounted on deck further compromised the stability of warships, and cannons at that time had a slow rate of fire and were inaccurate.


All this was about to change at the end of the medieval period. The insertion of an opening in the side of a ship, with a hinged cover, allowed the creation of a gundeck below the main deck. The weight of cannon distributed to lower decks of the ship increased its stability immensely, effectively providing ballast, and a row of cannon on a lower deck produced the broadside, where the weight of shot overcame the inherent inaccuracy of firing cannons from a ship at sea. An example is the Mary Rose, the flagship of King Henry VIII's fleet, which had around thirty cannon per side, all of which were capable of firing shot nine pounds or more. The Spanish took this concept and produced the galleon. Ballast is used in sailboats to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on the sail. ... USS Iowa Broadside (1984) A broadside is the side of a ship; the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their simultaneous (or near simultaneous) fire in naval warfare. ... Mary Rose depicted on the Anthony Roll, a survey of Henry VIIIs navy, completed in 1546 The Mary Rose was an English Tudor warship of the carrack type and one of the first to be able to fire a full broadside of cannons. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... A Spanish galleon. ...


Rise of infantry

In the Medieval period, the mounted cavalry long held sway on the battlefield. Heavily armoured, mounted knights represented a formidable foe for reluctant peasant draftees and lightly-armoured freemen. To defeat mounted cavalry, infantry used swarms of missiles or a tightly packed phalanx of men, techniques honed in Antiquity by the Romans. The ancient generals of Asia used regiments of archers to fend off mounted threats. Alexander the Great combined both methods in his clashes with swarming Asiatic horseman, screening the central infantry core with slingers, archers and javelin men, before unleashing his cavalry to see off attackers.


Swiss pikemen

The use of long pikes and densely-packed foot troops was not uncommon in Medieval times. The Flemish footmen at the Battle of the Golden Spurs met and overcame French knights in 1302, and the Scots held their own against heavily-armored English invaders. During St.Louis crusade, dismounted French knights formed a tight lance-and-shield phalanx to repel Egyptian cavalry. The Swiss used pike tactics in the late medieval period. While pikemen usually grouped together and awaited a mounted attack, the Swiss developed flexible formations and aggressive maneuvering, forcing their opponents to respond. The Swiss won at Morgarten, Laupen, Sempach, Grandson and Murten, and between 1450 and 1550 every leading prince in Europe hired Swiss pikemen, or emulated their tactics and weapons (e.g., the German Landsknechte). Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... Combatants Flanders France Commanders Willem van Gullik Pieter de Coninc Guy of Namur Robert II of Artois Strength 9,000 8,000 Casualties 100 est. ... Combatants Swiss Confederation: Uri Schwyz Unterwalden Austria Commanders Werner Stauffacher Duke Leopold I of Austria Strength 1,500 men 3,000 to 4,000 men On November 15, 1315, the Swiss Confederation thoroughly defeated the soldiers of Duke Leopold I of Austria in an ambush near the Morgarten pass. ... The Battle of Sempach was fought on July 9, 1386 between Duke Leopold III of Austria and the Swiss Confederation. ... The Battle of Grandson, took place on 2 March 1476, was part of the Burgundian Wars (Burgundy Wars), and resulted in a major defeat for Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. ... Combatants Duchy of Burgundy Swiss Confederation Commanders Duke Charles, René II, Duke of Lorraine, Jacques, Duke of Savoy Hans von Hallwyl, Hans Waldmann, Adrian von Bubenberg Strength c. ... Landsknecht. ...


English longbowmen

Main article: English longbow

The English longbowman used a single-piece longbow to deliver arrows that could penetrate contemporary plate armor and mail. The longbow was a difficult weapon to master, requiring long years of use and practice. A skilled longbowman could shoot over 20 arrows a minute, and 10 arrows a minute was used as the minimum standard. This rate of fire was far superior to competing weapons like the crossbow or early gunpowder weapons. The nearest competitor to the longbow was the much more expensive crossbow, used often by urban militias and mercenary forces. The crossbow had greater penetrating power, and did not require the extended years of training. However, it lacked the range of the longbow. Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


At the Crécy and Agincourt bowmen unleashed clouds of arrows into the ranks of knights. At Crécy, even 15,000 Genoese' crossbowmen could not dislodge them from their hill. At Agincourt, thousands of French knights were brought down by armour-piercing bodkin arrows and horse-maiming broadheads. The longbowmen decimated an entire generation of the French nobility. Crécy redirects here. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ...


Since the longbow was difficult to deploy in a thrusting mobile offensive, it was best used in a defensive configuration. Bowmen were extended in thin lines and protected and screened by pits (as at Bannockburn), staves or trenches. The terrain was usually chosen to put the archers at an advantage forcing their opponents into a bottleneck (at Agincourt) or a hard climb under fire (at Crécy). Sometimes the bowmen were deployed in a shallow "W", enabling them to trap and enfilade their foes.


The pike and the longbow put an end to the dominance of cavalry in European warfare, making the use of foot soldiers more important than they had been in recent years. Gunpowder eventually was to provoke even more significant changes. However, the heavy cavalry continued to be an important battlefield arm of European armies until the nineteenth century, when new and more accurate weapons made the mounted soldier too easy a target.


Significant medieval battles

For other uses, see Battle of Chalons (disambiguation). ... The second of three barbarian sacks of Rome, the sack of 455 was at the hands of the Vandals, then at war with the usurping Western Roman Emperor Petronius Maximus. ... Combatants Sui Chinese Goguryeo Commanders Yu Zhongwen Yuwen Shu Eulji Mundeok Strength 301,000+ ~200,000 Casualties 300,400+ Menial The Battle of Salsu was the huge battle that occurred in the year 612, during second Goguryeo-Sui War, between Korean kingdom Goguryeo and the Chinese Sui Dynasty. ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Amr ibn Hishām Strength 300-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 3,000 10,000 Casualties only few few hundreds or more The Battle of the Trench or Battle of the Ditch (Arabic غزوة الخندق), also known as or Battle of Confederates (Arabic غزوة الاحزاب) was an attack by the non-Muslim Ahzab... Combatants Muslim Arabs Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) Christian Arabs Commanders Zayd ibn Harithah†, Jafar ibn Abu Talib†, Abdullah ibn Rawahah†, Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius, Theodorus, Shurahbil ibn Amr al-Ghassani Strength 3,000 (Ibn Qayyim)[4][5] 3,000 (Ibn Hajar)[6][5] 200,000 according to Muslim... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 Unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD (10th day of Ramadan8 AH). ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Sassanid Persian Empire, Christian Arab allies Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Andarzaghar Strength 15,000[1] 30,000-50,000[1] Casualties ~1000+ [1] 20,000-30,000 [1][2] The Battle of Walaja was a battle fought in Mesopotamia (Iraq) in May 633 between the Muslim... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Combatants Muslims Christian Arabs. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Roman Empire Persian Empire Christian Arabs Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius Yazdgerd III Strength 15,000[1] 100,000[2] Casualties Low 50,000[2] The Battle of Firaz was the last battle of the Muslim Arab commander Khalid ibn al-Walid (The Sword of Allah... Combatants Muslim Arabs Roman Empire Ghassanids Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius Romanus Strength 4,000 infantry,[1] 1,500 cavalry[1] 12,000[1] Casualties 230[1] 8,000 Bosra was the first important town to be captured by the Muslims in Syria, as it was capital city of... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Rashidun Caliphate Commanders Vardan (Governor of Emesa) Unknown Cubicularius Theodorus Khalid ibn al-Walid Amr Ibn al-As Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Shurahbil Yazid Ibn Abu Sufyan Strength 80,000[2] - 90,000[3] 32,000 (Al-Waqidi)[4][3] Casualties 50,000 (Al-Waqidi... Combatants Muslim Arabs Roman Empire Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius Saqalar Strength 30,000 80,000 Casualties Unknown 10,000 The Battle of Fahl was a Byzantine-Arab battle fought between the Muslim Arabs under Khalid ibn al-Walid (The Sword of Allah) and the Roman Empire under Heraclius... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Sassanid Persian Empire Commanders Sa`d ibn AbÄ« Waqqās Rostam Farrokhzād â€  Strength 30,000[1] 120,000[1] Casualties 6,000 [2] 40,000 [3] The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (Arabic: ; transliteration, Marakat al-Qādisiyyah; Persian: ; alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was... Combatants Muslims Byzantine Empire Christian Arabs Commanders Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Khalid ibn al-Walid Unknown Strength 17,000 40,000-50,000 Casualties Unknown but few hundreds. ... Combatants Silla and Tang Dynasty China Baekje and Japan Commanders Unknown Boksin, Buyeo Pung, Abe no Hirafu Strength 130,000 warriors; at least 170 ships 29,000 warriors; at least 170 ships Casualties Unknown 400 ships; Unknown number of warriors lost The Battle of Baekgang, also known as Battle of... Combatants Visigoths Ummayads Commanders Roderic Tariq ibn Ziyad Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Guadalete took place July 19, 711, at the Guadalete River (or La Janda lake) in the southern extreme of the Iberian peninsula. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Byzantine Empire, First Bulgarian Empire Commanders Maslama, Admiral Suleiman Leo III, Kanasubigi Tervel Strength 200,000 men, 1,800 ships 30,000 Byzantines, 50,000 Bulgarians Casualties 130,000-170,000 men, 1,795 ships Unknown The Second Arab Siege of Constantinople (717-718), was a combined... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Possibly 20,000-30,000 Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[1] mention a figure of 80,000. ... The Battle of Rajasthan is the name chosen to describe the 8th Century battle (or series of battles) where the Hindu Rajput clans defeated the Muslim Arab invaders in the first half of the 8th Century CE. It should be noted that while all sources (Hindu and Muslim) agree on... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... Combatants Bulgarian Empire Byzantine Empire Commanders Krum Nicephorus I† Strength Unknown around 80,000 Casualties Light almost the whole army, including the emperor The Battle of Pliska (Battle of Vărbitsa pass) (Bulgarian: битката при Върбишкия проход) took place on July 26, 811, between the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria, resulting in one of the... One of many sacks of Rome, that of the year 846 was the only instance of Muslims sacking the capital of the Christian church. ... This article refers to the Battle of Anchialus fought in 917. ... The Battle of Brunanburh was a West Saxon victory in 937 by the army of king Athelstan and his brother Edmund over the combined armies of Olaf III Guthfrithson, Viking king of Dublin, Constantine, king of Scotland and King Owain of Strathclyde. ... Belligerents East Francia Magyars Commanders Otto the Great harka Bulcsú; chieftains Lél and Súr Strength 10,000 heavy cavalry 50,000 light cavalry Casualties and losses about 3,500 about 30,000 fell in the battle about 5,000 killed by local farmers maybe 5,000 fleeing Magyars... The Battle of Maldon took place in 991 near Maldon beside the River Blackwater in Essex, England, during the reign of Ethelred the Unready. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Basil II Nicephorus Xiphias Theophylactus Botaniates † Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria Strength Unknown 20 000 Casualties Unknown At least 14 000 The Battle of Kleidion (also Clidium and Klyuch, (the) key, or Belasitsa) took place on July 29, 1014 between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. ... Combatants Norwegians, Northumbrian rebels, Scots Anglo-Saxon England, the Þingalið Commanders Harald HardrÃ¥de(Harald Hadrada)† Tostig Godwinson† Harold Godwinson Strength Around 7,500 Around 7,000 Casualties Unknown, around 7,000 Unknown, around 2,000 The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England took place on September 25, 1066, shortly... Belligerents Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,400-8,400 (maximum 2,200 cavalry, 1,700 archers, 4,500 men-at-arms) 7,500 (2,000 housecarls, 5,500 fyrd) Casualties... Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... Combatants Byzantines, supported by Cumans, Vlachs, Bulgars and Frankish and Flemish mercenaries. ... Combatants Crusaders Fatimids Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Iftikhar ad-Dawla Strength 1,500 knights 12,000 infantry 1,000 garrison Casualties Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. ... Combatants Seljuk Turks coalition Georgia Commanders Ilghazi King David IV of Georgia Strength 120,000-150,000 [1] 56,000 Casualties Unknown, but exceedingly heavy Unknown The Battle of Didgori was fought between the Georgia and Seljuk armies at the place of Didgori sixteen kilometers northwest of Tbilisi, the capital... Combatants Portugal Crusaders Moors Commanders Afonso I of Portugal Arnold III of Aerschot Christian of Ghistelles Henry Glanville Simon of Dover Andrew of London Saher of Archelle Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25 of 1147, was the military action... Combatants Jurchen Jin Southern Song Commanders Hailingwang Unknown The naval Battle of Caishi took place in 1161 and was the result of an attempt by forces of the Jurchen Jin to cross the Yangtze River, thus beginning an invasion of Southern Song China. ... Combatants Jurchen Jin Southern Song Commanders Su Baoheng and Wanyan Zhengjianu Li Bao Strength 600 warships and 70,000 troops 120 warships and 3000 troops The naval Battle of Tangdao took place in 1161 between the Jurchen Jin and the Southern Song Dynasty of China on the East China Sea. ... Combatants Byzantines, supported by Cuman, Italian, Serbian and Wallachian[1] units. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rüm Commanders Manuel I Comnenus Baldwin of Antioch † John Cantacuzenus Andronicus Vatatzes † Kilij Arslan II Strength About 25,000 (possibly 50,000?) 70,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Myriokephalon, also known as the Myriocephalum, or Miryakefalon Savaşı in Turkish, was a battle... Belligerents Kingdom of Jerusalem Knights Templar Ayyubids Commanders Guy of Lusignan # Raymond III of Tripoli # Gerard de Rideford # Balian of Ibelin Saladin Strength Est. ... This Battle of Adrianople occurred on April 14, 1205 between Bulgarians under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, and Crusaders under Baldwin I. It was won by the Bulgarians after a skillful ambush. ... Combatants Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre Almohads Commanders Alfonso VIII of Castile Sancho VII of Navarre Peter II of Aragon Afonso II of Portugal Muhammad al-Nasir Strength ~50,000 reliable sources suggest it was between 125,000 - 150,000 ~125,000 - 400,000 Casualties ~2,000 dead or wounded ~100... The Battle of Bouvines, July 27, 1214, was the first great international conflict of alliances among national forces in Europe. ... Battle after: Battle of Indus The Battle of Parwan was fought between sultan Jelal ad-Din Mingburnu of the Khwarezmid Empire and the Mongols. ... Battle before: Battle of Parwan The Battle of Indus was fought at the river Indus in todays Pakistan in the year 1221 between Jelal ad-Din Mingburnu, the sultan of the Khwarezmid Empire and his only remaining forces of five thousand, and the Mongolian horde of Chinggis Khan. ... // Combatants Mongols Kievan Rus, Cumans Commanders Subutai Mstislav the Bold Strength 40,000 Over 80,000 Casualties MInimal Heavy Battle of the Kalka River (May 31, 1223) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the Rus warriors. ... Combatants Bulgarian Empire Despotate of Epirus Commanders Ivan Asen II Theodore Komnenos Doukas Strength 25,000 85,000 Casualties Light Almost the whole army was killed or captured The Battle of Klokotnitsa (Bulgarian: , Bitka pri Klokotnitsa) occurred on 9 March 1230 near the village of Klokotnitsa (today in Haskovo Province... Combatants Mongol Empire Alliance Polish states Teutonic Knights[3][4] Commanders Baidar, Kadan, Orda Khan Henry II the Pious † Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen) diversionary force [5] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-25,000[5] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier than expected... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Fishing town or Fishing City(Simplified Chinese: 钓鱼城; Traditional Chinese: 釣鱼城;Pingyin: diaoyucheng), be called “oriental Mecca” also be called “the Place Breaking off the Gods Whip”, is one of the three ancient battlefields in China. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Lü Wenhuan Li Tingzhi Liu Zheng, Ashu, Shi Tianzhe, Guo Kan Strength unknown 100,000+ Cavalry 5,000 ships 100+ trebuchet 20+ counterweight trebuchet Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Xiangyang (襄陽之戰) was a six-year battle between invading Mongol armies and Southern Song Chinese... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Zhang Shijie Zhang Hongfan Strength 200,000 1000+ warships 20,000 50+ warships Casualties unknown, though almost all perished unknown The Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役; or 崖山海戰, lit. ... Combatants Ilkhanate Mamluks of Egypt Commanders Abaqa Khan This battle was part of Abaqa Khans attempt at retaking Syria from the Mamluks. ... Combatants Flanders France Commanders Willem van Gullik Pieter de Coninc Guy of Namur Robert II of Artois Strength 9,000 8,000 Casualties 100 est. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Robert Bruce Edward II Strength about 6,500 20,000 Casualties unknown but light about 9,000 The Battle of Bannockburn (Blàr Allt a Bhonnaich in Gaelic) (June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Crécy redirects here. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Gascony France Commanders Edward, the Black Prince Captal de Buch John II of France Strength 9,000 12,000 Casualties Minimal 2,500 killed or wounded The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Kingdom of England and France on September 19, 1356, resulting in the... Combatants Han rebel navy Ming rebel navy Commanders Chen Youliang† Zhu Yuanzhang Strength 650,000 200,000 Casualties Chen Youliang and most of his army 1,346 dead 11,347 wounded The naval battle of Lake Poyang (鄱陽湖之戰) took place 30 August - 4 October 1363 and was one of the final... Winning the Battle of Adrianople (1365), Ottoman Turks capture Adrianople. ... The Battle of Maritsa was a battle that took place at the Maritsa River on September 26, 1371 between the forces of the Ottoman sultan Murad Is lieutenant LalaÅŸahin and a coalition of Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian forces numbering 70,000 men under the command of the Serbian... Combatants Combined Russian armies The Golden Horde Commanders Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow Mamai Strength between 60,000 and 80,000 between 75,000 and 125,000 Casualties up to 40,000 killed or wounded Almost entire army killed The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: ) was fought by the Tartaro-Mongols (the... This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles, see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation). ... // Belligerents Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary, Holy Roman Empire, France, Wallachia, Poland, England, Kingdom of Scotland, Old Swiss Confederacy, Republic of Venice, Republic of Genoa, Knights of St. ... // Combatants Timurid Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Timur Beyazid I Strength 140,000 men 85,000 men [1] Casualties 15,000-25,000 killed and wounded[] 15,000-40,000 killed and wounded[] The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on July 20, 1402, took place at the field... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great Ulrich von Jungingen† Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 14,000 captured The Battle of Grunwald... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... Combatants Kingdom of France Kingdom of England Commanders La Hire Poton de Xaintrailles Sir John Fastolf Strength 1,500 cavalry 5,000 Casualties About 100 2,500 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Patay (18 June 1429) was a major battle in the Hundred Years War between the French... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... The Battle of Towton in the Wars of the Roses was the bloodiest ever fought on British soil, with casualties believed to have been in excess of 20,000 (perhaps as many as 30,000) men. ... The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul ÃŽnalt) (January 10, 1475) was fought between the Moldavian (Romanian) Prince, Åžtefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great) and the Ottoman General Suleiman Pasha. ... Combatants Duchy of Burgundy Lorraine Commanders Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy René, Duke of Lorraine Strength 4,000-8,000 men 10,000-12,000 men 10,000 Swiss mercenaries Casualties Unknown Unknown For the World War II Battle of Nancy, see Battle of Nancy (1944) The Battle of... Rhodes is the easternmost island of Greece, located 11 miles west of Turkey. ... Combatants King Richard III of England, Yorkist Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Lancastrian Commanders Richard III of England† Earl of Richmond (nominally) Earl of Oxford (in practice) Strength 6,000 (king had 15,500 but Lord Stanley with 4,000 and his brother, Sir William Stanley with 2,500 betrayed...

Medieval wars

Major wars of the Middle Ages, arranged chronologically by year begun.

Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Combatants Byzantine Empire,[1] Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates) Syria was just the start of Arab expansion. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Age of the Caliphs The Muslim conquest of Syria occured in the first half of the 7th century. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Mohammed in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. ... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 Unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD (10th day of Ramadan8 AH). ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ... Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... // Islamic conquest The Age of the Caliphs In 637, five years after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, Arab Muslims shattered the might of the Iranian Sassanians at the Battles of al-Qādisiyyah and Nahavand. ... The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 11th to the 17th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... Combatants Khazar Khaganate Muslim Arabs (Umayyad Caliphates) The Khazar Arab Wars were a series of battle that took place during two campaigns in the First and Second Khazar-Arab War between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Umayyad Caliphate. ... The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Crusader States Seljuq Turks Strength Potential to raise 100,000 c. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Turks The Byzantine Ottoman wars was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Turks and the Byzantines that led to the final destruction of the Byzantine empire and the rise of the Ottoman empire. ... Combatants Bulgarian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Ivan Alexander Ivan Shishman Ivan Sratsimir Dobrotitsa Murad I Bayezid I Lala Shahin Pasha Strength Unknown Unknown but significantly larger Casualties Heavy Heavy The Bulgarian-Ottoman wars were fought between the disintegrating Bulgarian Empire and the new emerging Islamic power, the Ottoman Turks in... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911). ... The Saxon Wars were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Pelayo (690–737) was the first King of Asturias, ruling from 718 until his death. ... Flag Motto: Hoc Signo Tuetur Pius, Hoc Signo Vincitur Inimicus (English: With this sign thou shalt defend the pious, with this sign thou shalt defeat the enemy) Capital Cangas de Onis, San Martín, Pravia, Oviedo Language(s) Asturian, Latin Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 718-737 Pelayo of... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Belligerents Christendom: Holy Roman Empire Genoa Lower Lorraine Provence Kingdom of France Blois Boulogne Flanders Le Puy-en-Velay Vermandois Kingdom of England Normandy Duchy of Apulia Taranto Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Cilicia Saracen: Great Seljuq Empire Danishmends Fatimids Almoravids Abbasids Commanders Guglielmo Embriaco Godfrey of Bouillon Raymond IV Stephen... // The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassone in 1209. ... The Childrens Crusade is the name given to a variety of fictional and factual events in 1212 that combine some or all of these elements: visions by a French and/or German boy, an intention to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity, bands of children marching to Italy, and children... Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ... Belligerents Crusaders and Mongols Anjou Kingdom of Cyprus Jerusalem Principality of Antioch Tripoli Kingdom of England Ilkhanate Armenia Mamluks Bahris Commanders Charles I Hugh III of Cyprus Prince Edward Bohemond VI Abaqa Khan Leo II Baibars Strength 60,000[1] Unknown Casualties and losses Heavy Low The Ninth Crusade, which... The military history of China extends from about 1500 BCE to the present day. ... This article is about China. ... Combatants Goguryeo (Korea) Sui Dynasty (China) Commanders King Yeongyang Eulji Mundeok Gang I sik Go Geon Mu Sui Yangdi Yuwen Shu Yu Zhongwen Lai Huer Zhou Luohou Strength approximately 200,000 1,138,000 foot soldiers and total of more than 3,000,000 in invasion of 612 The... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... Tibetan plateau Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges of the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ... Yamato () was a province of Japan. ... The Anshi Rebellion (安史之亂 pinyin: an1 shi3 zhi1 luan4) occurred in China, during the Tang Dynasty, from 756 to 763. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... now. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... The Red Turban Rebellion (Chinese: ) was an uprising by the White Lotus Chinese that targeted the ruling Yuan Dynasty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Joseon or Chosun (Korean: ì¡°ì„ ; Hanja: 朝鮮; Revised: Joseon; McCune-Reischauer: Chosŏn; Chinese: CháoxiÇŽn; Japanese: Chōsen) is a name for Korea, as used in the following cases: As part of the name of several ancient kingdoms (including Gojoseon, Gija Joseon, and Wiman Joseon); During most of the Joseon... For other uses, see Ming. ... Hideyoshi redirects here. ... Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Khwarezmia Commanders Genghis Khan, Jochi, Chaghatai, Ögodei, Tolui, Subutai, Jebe, Jelme, Mukali, Khubilai, Kasar, Boorchu, Sorkin-shara Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal Al-Din, Inalchuq† (executed) Strength 100,000-200,000 mounted archers, with powerful siege engines 400,000 men, however not organized into armies, only city... The medieval kingdom of Georgia first clashed with the advancing Mongol armies in 1220. ... The Mongol invasions of Europe were centered in their destruction of the Ruthenian states, especially Kiev, under the leadership of Subutai. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... This is a list of the Mongol and Tatar military campaigns in Russia following the Mongol invasion of Rus: 1252: Horde of Nevruy devastated Pereslavl-Zalessky and Suzdal. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... The term Mongol invasions of Vietnam may refer to: Battle of Bach Dang (1288) Trần HÆ°ng Đạo, the Vietnamese general who repelled multiple Mongol invasions History of Vietnam#Mongol invasions Categories: | | | | | | | ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... // In 1253, the Mongols began their conquest of the remaining Muslim states. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Crusades First – Peoples – German – 1101 – Second – Third – Fourth – Albigensian – Childrens – Fifth – Sixth – Seventh – Shepherds – Eighth – Ninth – Aragonese – Alexandrian – Nicopolis – Northern – Hussite – Varna – Otranto Hussite Wars Nekmer - SudomÄ•Å™ – Vítkov – VyÅ¡ehrad – Nebovidy - NÄ›mecký Brod – HoÅ™ice – Ústí nad Labem – Tachov – Lipany – Grotniki The Hussite Wars, also called... Belligerents House of Valois Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany House of Plantagenet Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... For other uses, see Joan of Arc (disambiguation). ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ...

Medieval conquerors

The Arabs

Main articles: Rashidun army, Muslim conquests, and Arab Empire

The initial Arab Muslim conquests began in the seventh century after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and were marked by a century of rapid Arab expansion beyond the Arabian Peninsula under the Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates. Under the Rashidun, the Arabs conquered the Persian Empire, along with Roman Syria and Roman Egypt during the Byzantine-Arab Wars, all within just seven years from 633 to 640. Under the Umayyads, the Arabs annexed North Africa and southern Italy from the Romans and the Arab Empire soon stretched from parts of the Indian subcontinent, across Central Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and southern Italy, to the Iberian Peninsula and the Pyrenees. The Arab Empire became the largest empire the world had ever seen, up until the Mongol Empire five centuries later. The Rashidun Caliphate Army or Rashidun army was the primary military body of the Rashidun Caliphates armed forces of 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun caliphate Navy. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Arabia redirects here. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Flag Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent Capital Damascus Capital-in-exile Córdoba Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - Established 660  - Disestablished 750 Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Age of the Caliphs The Muslim conquest of Syria occured in the first half of the 7th century. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire,[1] Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates) Syria was just the start of Arab expansion. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Mohammed in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. ... The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 11th to the 17th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ...


The most famous early Arab military commander was Khalid ibn al-Walid, also known as the Sword of Allah. In having the distinction of being undefeated in over a hundred battles against the numerically superior forces of the Roman Empire, Persian Empire, and their allies, Khalid is regarded as one of the finest military commanders in history. His greatest strategic achievements were his swift conquest of the Persian Empire and conquest of Roman Syria all within just three years from 633 to 636, while his greatest tactical achievements were his double envelopment manoeuvre against the larger Persian forces at the Battle of Walaja, and his decisive victories against the larger combined forces of the Persians, Romans, Greeks and Arab Christians at the Battle of Firaz, and the larger combined forces of Romans, Greeks, Ghassanids, Russians, Slavs, Franks, Georgians and Armenians at the Battle of Yarmouk. Khālid ibn al-WalÄ«d (592-642) (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد) also known as Sayf-ullah al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God, Gods Withdrawn Sword, or simply Sword of Allah), was one of the two famous Arab generals of the Rashidun army during the Muslim conquests of the 7th Century. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Age of the Caliphs The Muslim conquest of Syria occured in the first half of the 7th century. ... A pincer movement whereby the red force envelops the advancing blue force. ... Relief of Ardashir I, in Naqsh-e Rustam The birth of the Sassanid army (Persian: ‎ Læškar-e SāsānÄ«yān) dates back to Ardashir I rise to the throne, when he planned a clear military aimed at the revival of the Persian Empire by forming a standing... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Sassanid Persian Empire, Christian Arab allies Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Andarzaghar Strength 15,000[1] 30,000-50,000[1] Casualties ~1000+ [1] 20,000-30,000 [1][2] The Battle of Walaja was a battle fought in Mesopotamia (Iraq) in May 633 between the Muslim... The Roman army was a set of military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... The majority of Arab Christians (Arabic,مسيحيون عرب) live in the Middle East where, although Islam is undoubtedly the preponderant religion, significant religious minorities exist in a number of countries. ... Combatants Muslim Arabs Roman Empire Persian Empire Christian Arabs Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius Yazdgerd III Strength 15,000[1] 100,000[2] Casualties Low 50,000[2] The Battle of Firaz was the last battle of the Muslim Arab commander Khalid ibn al-Walid (The Sword of Allah... language|Arabic]]:الغساسنة) were [[Arab Christian|Arab it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity from the native Aramaeans and Romans. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


Other famous Muslim military commanders included ‘Amr ibn al-‘As during the Muslim conquest of Egypt against the Roman Empire, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah against the Persian Empire, Tariq ibn-Ziyad during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania against the Visigoths, Ziyad ibn Salih at the Battle of Talas against the Chinese Tang Empire, and Saladin against the Crusaders. ˤAmr ibn al-ˤĀs (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (born c. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... Sa`ad ibn AbÄ« Waqqās (Arabic: ) was an early convert to Islam and important companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Sassanid Persian Empire Commanders Sa`d ibn AbÄ« Waqqās Rostam Farrokhzād â€  Strength 30,000[1] 120,000[1] Casualties 6,000 [2] 40,000 [3] The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (Arabic: ; transliteration, Marakat al-Qādisiyyah; Persian: ; alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was... Tariq ibn Ziyad or Taric ben Zeyad (d. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


The early Arab army mainly consisted of light infantry, with some light cavalry and a few camel cavalry. In contrast, the Roman army and Persian army at the time both had large numbers of heavy infantry (Roman legions and Persian daylami) and heavy cavalry (cataphracts and clibanarii) that were better equipped, heavily protected, and more experienced and disciplined. The Roman and Persian armies were also led by skilled generals such as Heraclius and Rostam Farrokhzād respectively. Despite being outnumbered by these superior Roman and Persian armies that were several times larger in almost every early battle, the Arabs were able to overcome the odds and defeat their enemies each time, mainly due to being led by tactical geniuses such as Khalid ibn al-Walid, ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, and Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, as well as the better mobility of light cavalry and light infantry units which allowed them to use better maneuvers, including various flanking maneuvers and pincer movements. Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... Camel cavalry is, most generally, armed forces using camels as a means of transportation. ... The Roman army was a set of military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Relief of Ardashir I, in Naqsh-e Rustam The birth of the Sassanid army (Persian: ‎ Læškar-e SāsānÄ«yān) dates back to Ardashir I rise to the throne, when he planned a clear military aimed at the revival of the Persian Empire by forming a standing... Heavy infantry refers to heavily armed and armoured ground troops, as opposed to medium or light infantry, in which the warriors are relatively lightly-armoured. ... Legion redirects here. ... Early 16th century French gendarmes, with complete plate armour and heavy lances. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... The Clibanarii (from the Latin, clibani, meaning campoven) were a late Roman and Byzantine military unit of heavy armored horsemen. ... For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, see Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. ... Rostam Farrokhzād (رستم فرّخزاد in Persian) was the commander of the Sāsānian Empires armed forced under the reign of Yazdgird III, r. ... Khālid ibn al-WalÄ«d (592-642) (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد) also known as Sayf-ullah al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God, Gods Withdrawn Sword, or simply Sword of Allah), was one of the two famous Arab generals of the Rashidun army during the Muslim conquests of the 7th Century. ... ˤAmr ibn al-ˤĀs (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (born c. ... Sa`ad ibn AbÄ« Waqqās (Arabic: ) was an early convert to Islam and important companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... This article is about the military tactic. ... A pincer movement whereby the red force envelops the advancing blue force. ...


In particular, the double envelopment manoeuvre, which Khalid ibn al-Walid successfully used against the larger Persian forces at the Battle of Walaja, is regarded as one of the greatest tactical manoeuvres in history, and was only successfully used once before by Hannibal at the Battle of Cannae. A pincer movement whereby the red force envelops the advancing blue force. ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Sassanid Persian Empire, Christian Arab allies Commanders Khalid ibn al-Walid Andarzaghar Strength 15,000[1] 30,000-50,000[1] Casualties ~1000+ [1] 20,000-30,000 [1][2] The Battle of Walaja was a battle fought in Mesopotamia (Iraq) in May 633 between the Muslim... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ...


According to Steven Muhlberger of the ORB Encyclopedia, the "...vigor and prowess of the Arab armies" was due "... to the willingness of the great mass of the conquered population to make a deal with the Arab armies" and the "confidence of the Muslims" due to their religion and "esprit de corps."[1]


The Vikings

Main article: Viking

The Vikings were a feared force in Europe because of their courage and strength. While seaborne raids are nothing new in history, the Vikings brought the practice to a high art, and unlike raiders elsewhere, were to eventually transform the face of Europe. During the Viking age their expeditions, who frequently combined raiding and trading, penetrated most of the old Frankish empire, the British Isles, The Baltic, Russia and Muslim and Christian Iberia. Many served as mercenaries, and the famed Varangian Guard, serving the Emperor of Constantinople, had a big complement of Scandinavian warriors. For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. ...


Viking longships were easily manoeuvred, could navigate deep seas or shallow waters, and could carry warriors that could be quickly dispersed onto land due to the ability possessed by the longships to come straight up onto shore. The Viking style of warfare was fast and mobile, relying heavily on the element of surprise, and they tended to capture horses for mobility rather than carry them on their ships. The usual method was to approach a target stealthily, strike with surprise, then disperse and retire swiftly. The tactics used were difficult to stop, for the Vikings, like guerrilla style raiders elsewhere, deployed at a time and place of their own choosing. The fully armoured Viking raider would wear an iron helmet and a maille hauberk, and fight with a combination of axe, sword, shield, spear or great "Danish" two-handed axe, although the typical raider would be unarmoured, carrying only a shield, an axe, and possibly a spear. For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... A longship tacking in the wind Longships Are Built in the Land of the Slavs by Nicholas Roerich (1903) Longships were ships primarily used by the Scandinavian Vikings and the Saxon people to raid coastal and inland settlements during the European Middle Ages. ... Warriors may refer to Warriors (book series) is a series of fantasy novels written by Kate Cary and Cherith Baldry, under the pen name Erin Hunter. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... -1... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ...


Opponents of the Vikings were ill prepared to fight a force that struck at will, with no warning, then would disappear to attack other locations or retreat to their bases in what is now Sweden, Denmark, Norway and their atlantic colonies. As time went on, Viking raids became more sophisticated, with coordinated strikes involving multiple forces and large armies, as the "Great Heathen Army" that ravaged Anglo-Saxon England in the ninth century. In time the Vikings began to hold on to the areas they raided, first wintering and then consolidating footholds for expansion that were to change Europe forever. The Great Heathen Army, also known as the Great Army, was a Viking army which pillaged and conquered much of England in the late 9th century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


With the growth of centralized authority in the Scandinavian region, Viking raids, always an expression of "private enterprise" ceased and the raids became pure voyages of conquest. In 1066, King Harald Hardråde of Norway invaded England, only to be defeated by Harold Godwinson, the son of one of Danish-Norwegian-English king Canute the Great's Earls, who in turn was defeated by William of Normandy, descendant of the Viking Rollo, who had accepted Normandy as a fief from the Frankish King. The three rulers all had their eyes on the English crown (Harald probably primarily on the overlord-ship of Northumbria), rather than being motivated by the lure of plunder. Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 - 1066), later surnamed Harald Hardraada (Norse: Harald Harðráði, roughly translated as Harald the ruthless) was the king of Norway from 1046 until 1066, and the half brother of Olaf II. He shared power with the son of Olaf II, Magnus I, until after King... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and Denmark, and Norway, and of... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... Rollo has multiple meanings. ...


At this point the Scandinavians had entered their medieval period, and the growth of centralized authority had formed the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, and later the kingdom of Sweden. The Scandinavians started adapting more continental European ways, although they, and particularly the Norwegians, always had their own distinctive style in warfare with an emphasis on naval power from an early date - the "Viking" clinker-built warship was used effectively in war until the fourteenth century at least, and the larger Scandinavian warships in this style are all from the medieval period. However, the close trading and diplomatic links between Scandinavia and nearby catholic states ensured that the Scandinavians kept up to date with continental developments in warfare.


Mongols

Main articles: Mongol invasions and Mongol Empire

The Mongolian nomads were one of the most feared forces ever to take the field of battle. Operating in massive cavalry sweeps consisting of light mobile cavalry and horse archers, together with smaller tactical units, extending over dozens of miles, the fierce horsemen combined a shock, mobility and firepower unmatched in land warfare until the advent of the gunpowder age. From about two centuries, beginning with the rise of Genghis Khan in the 1200s, the Mongol warriors defeated some of the world's most powerful, well established and sophisticated empires, and claiming over one-twelfth of the world's land surface at their height, seen by some as the largest contiguous empire in human history - stretching from across Asia to parts of Poland.Mongols deployed weapons, bows, scimitars and lances. The Mongol bow was a composite bow, made from glue, horn, sinew and wood or bamboo, with a range of over 200 yards. The Mongols were exceedingly tough warriors, used to privation and hardship. Hardy steppes ponies furnished the means of transport into battle. Warriors were tightly organized into units of ten, and into larger formations such as the Mongol tumen of 10,000 soldiers. Coordination was provided by designated unit leaders, with signalling provided by horns, smoke, and flags. Most columns or tumen were self-sufficient in the short run, living off the land. Their main tactics were speed, surprise and mobility; as well, the Mongols were not rigid in their thinking, and nor did they adhere to Medieval European notions of chivalry. Mongols used siege engineers to overcome fortifications, and Mongol terror was used as a psychological warfare tactic. Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ... This article is about the person. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s - 1200s - 1210s 1220s 1230s 1240s 1250s Years: 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 Events and Trends 1200 University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France 1202-1204 Fourth Crusade - diverted to... The Mongol bow is a recurved composite bow used by the Mongols and renowned for its power, accuracy and range. ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... Tumen was the part of decimal system used by Turkic, Proto-Turkic (such as the Huns) and by Mongol peoples for their army. ... This is a list of wars and man-made disasters by death toll by strange diseases. ...


Mongols in the West

Main article: Tatar invasions

By 1241, having conquered large parts of Russia, the Mongols continued the invasion of Europe with a massive three-pronged advance, following the fleeing Cumans, who had established an uncertain alliance with King Bela IV of Hungary. They first invaded Poland, then Transylvania, and finally Hungary, culminating in the crushing defeat of the Hungarians in the Battle of Mohi. The Mongol aim seems to have consistently been to defeat the Hungarian-Cuman alliance. The Mongols raided across the borders to Austria and Bohemia in the summer when the Great Khan died, and the Mongol princes returned home to elect a new Great Khan. Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Mongol Empire Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subutai Strength 15,000-30,000+ Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000-30,000+ unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and...


The Golden Horde would frequently clash with Hungarians, Lithuanians and Poles in the thirteenth century, with two large raids in the 1260s and 1280s respectively. In 1284 the Hungarians repelled the last major raid into Hungary, and in 1287 the Poles repelled a raid against them. The instability in the Golden Horde seems to have quieted the western front of the Horde. The Hungarians and Poles had responded to the mobile threat by extensive fortification-building, army reform in the form of better armoured cavalry, and refusing battle unless they could control the site of the battlefield to deny the Mongols local superiority. The Lithuanians relied on the their forested homelands for defense, and used their cavalry for raiding into Mongol-dominated Russia. The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ...


Turks

Main articles: Turkic peoples and Ottoman Empire

Trade between China, the Middle East, and Europe along the Silk Road extended throughout the period of the Middle Ages. The Turkic peoples were exposed to military technology from the days of the Roman Empire onwards, as well as financial wealth as a result of their position midway on the route. An early Turkic group, the Seljuks, were known for their cavalry archers. These fierce nomads were often raiding empires, such as the Byzantine Empire, and they scored several victories using mobility and timing to defeat the heavy cataphracts of the Byzantines. This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Byzantine redirects here. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ...


One notable victory was at Manzikert, where a conflict among the generals of the Byzantines gave the Turks the perfect opportunity to strike. They hit the cataphracts with arrows, and outmaneuvered them, then rode down their less mobile infantry with light cavalry that used scimitars. When gunpowder was introduced, the Ottoman Turks of the Ottoman Empire hired the mercenaries that used the gunpowder weapons and obtained their instruction for the Janissaries. Out of these Ottoman soldiers rose the Janissaries (yeni ceri; "new soldier"), from which they also recruited many of their unsung heroes, the heavy infantry. Along with the use of cavalry and early grenades, the Ottomans mounted an offensive in the early Renaissance period and attacked Europe, taking Constantinople with the help of their huge cannons that were bigger than their opponent's, notably Basilica, the giant that pounded the walls of Constantinople. Basilica was itself designed and cast for the Grand Turk by a Christian Hungarian named Urban. Despite its size, however, it was not very successful as an artillery piece due to its multiple-hour load rate. Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... Talwar, 17th Century, from India. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Grand Turk can mean : (historically) an informal western name for the Great Sultan of the Turkish Ottoman dynasty (Geography) see : Grand Turk Island Tall ships : see Grand Turk (frigate) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Like many other nomadic peoples, the Turks featured a core of heavy cavalry from the upper classes. These evolved into the Sipahis (feudal landholders similar to western knights and Byzantine pronoiai) and Qapukulu (door slaves, taken from youth like Janissaries and trained to be royal servants and elite soldiers, mainly cataphracts).


See also

A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Steven Muhlberger. Section 4: The Impact of the Arabs, Overview of Late Antiquity , ORB Encyclopedia.

References

  • Contamine, Philippe. War in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984.
  • Creveld, Martin Van. Technology and War: From 2000 BC to present, 1989.
  • Keegan, John. The face of battle: a study of Agincourt, Waterloo, and the Somme. London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1988.
  • Keen, Maurice. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • McNeill, William Hardy. The pursuit of power: technology, armed force, and society since A.D. 1000. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
  • Nicholson, Helen. Medieval Warfare. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004,
  • Oman, Charles William Chadwick. A history of the art of war in the Middle Ages. London: Greenhill Books; Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1998.
  • De Re Militari: The Society for Medieval Military History
  • Kosztolnyik, Z.J. Hungary in the thirteenth century. New York: Columbia University Press: Stackpole Books, 1996. (Parts of which are available online)
  • Parker, Geoffrey. The Military Revolution: Military innovation and the Rise of The West, 1988.
Martin van Creveld (1946- ) is an Israeli military historian and theorist. ... Maurice Keen (b. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are a crowning glory of Medieval Art. ... Peasants threshing siligo, a type of wheat. ... Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. ... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... Because most of what we have was written down by clerics, much of extant medieval poetry is religious, helping to preserve it. ... Astrology played an important part in Medieval medicine; most educated physicians were trained in at least the basics of astrology to use in their practice. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... Science, and particularly geometry and astronomy, was linked directly to the divine for most medieval scholars. ... Medieval treadwheel crane Reading Saint Peter with eyeglasses (1466) During the 12th and 13th centuries, medieval Europe saw a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Medieval Warfare (3917 words)
The form of warfare in Medieval Europe was that which developed out of the military traditions and practices of the German tribes that overran the Roman empire in the 4th, 5th, and 6th centuries.
But in Medieval warfare it was generally all or nothing.
Medieval warfare was also very dependant on the quality of leadership.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m